Marriage

married couplesopposite-sex married couplesmarried
The Protestant Reformationists denied the Roman Catholic sacramental model. Martin Luther saw marriage as a social "estate of the earthly kingdom ... subject to the prince, not the Pope.". John Calvin taught that marriage was a covenant of grace that required the coercive power of the state to preserve its integrity. Anglicans regarded marriage as a domestic commonwealth within England and the Church. By the 17th century, Anglican theologians had begun to develop a theology of marriage as opposed to the Roman Catholic model of marriage. These "regarded the interlocking commonwealths of state, church, and family as something of an earthly form of heavenly government".

United Kingdom

British🇬🇧UK
Among Christians, adherents to the Church of England constituted 15%, Roman Catholic Church – 9%, other Christians (including Presbyterians, Methodists, other Protestants, as well as Eastern Orthodox) – 17%. 71% of young people aged 18–24 said they had no religion. The Church of England is the established church in England. It retains a representation in the UK Parliament and the British monarch is its Supreme Governor. In Scotland, the Church of Scotland is recognised as the national church.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
While numerous tribes used captive enemies as servants and slaves, they also often adopted younger captives into their tribes to replace members who had died. In the Southeast, a few Native American tribes began to adopt a slavery system similar to that of the American colonists, buying African American slaves, especially the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek. Though less than 3% of Native Americans owned slaves, divisions grew among the Native Americans over slavery. Among the Cherokee, records show that slave holders in the tribe were largely the children of European men that had shown their children the economics of slavery.

Cook County, Illinois

Cook CountyCookCook counties
Western Springs. Wheeling. Willow Springs. Wilmette. Winnetka. Worth. Central Stickney. Hines. La Grange Highlands. Nottingham Park. Sag Bridge. Sutton. Thornton Township – 169,326. Wheeling Township – 153,630. Worth Township – 152,633. Proviso Township – 151,704. Maine Township – 135,772. Schaumburg Township – 131,288. Palatine Township – 112,994. Lyons Township – 111,688. Bremen Township – 110,118. Niles Township – 105,882. Hanover Township – 99,538. Orland Township – 97,558. Elk Grove Township – 92,905. Leyden Township – 92,890. Bloom Township – 90,922. Northfield Township – 85,102. Cicero Township – 83,891. Rich Township – 76,727. Berwyn Township – 56,657. New Trier Township – 55,424.

In vitro fertilisation

in vitro fertilizationIVFin-vitro fertilization
Pope Benedict XVI had publicly re-emphasised the Catholic Church's opposition to in vitro fertilisation, saying that it replaces love between a husband and wife. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, in accordance with the Catholic understanding of natural law, teaches that reproduction has an "inseparable connection" to the sexual union of married couples. In addition, the church opposes IVF because it might result in the disposal of embryos; in Catholicism, an embryo is viewed as an individual with a soul that must be treated as a person.

List of municipalities in Illinois

VillageCityTown
Illinois is a state located in the Midwestern United States. According to the 2010 United States Census, Illinois is the 5th most populous state with inhabitants but the 24th largest by land area spanning 55518.93 sqmi of land. Illinois is divided into 102 counties and contains 1,299 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities, towns, and villages.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval period
The formal break, known as the East–West Schism, came in 1054, when the papacy and the patriarchy of Constantinople clashed over papal supremacy and excommunicated each other, which led to the division of Christianity into two Churches—the Western branch became the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern branch the Eastern Orthodox Church. The ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Empire survived the movements and invasions in the west mostly intact, but the papacy was little regarded, and few of the Western bishops looked to the bishop of Rome for religious or political leadership.

Sexual revolution

sexual liberationsexually liberatedsexual
The Roman Catholic Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum carried great weight among Catholics and amounted to an effective and instant boycott of any book appearing on it. Boston's Watch and Ward Society, a largely Protestant creation inspired by Anthony Comstock, made "banned in Boston" a national by-word. In 1959 Grove Press published an unexpurgated version of Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence. The U.S. Post Office confiscated copies sent through the mail. Lawyer Charles Rembar sued the New York City Postmaster, and won in New York and then on federal appeal.

Spain

🇪🇸SpanishESP
In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives. Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. St.

Birth control

contraceptioncontraceptivecontraceptives
The Roman Catholic Church officially only accepts natural family planning, although large numbers of Catholics in developed countries accept and use modern methods of birth control. Among Protestants, there is a wide range of views from supporting none, such as in the Quiverfull movement, to allowing all methods of birth control. Views in Judaism range from the stricter Orthodox sect, which prohibits all methods of birth control, to the more relaxed Reform sect, which allows most. Hindus may use both natural and modern contraceptives. A common Buddhist view is that preventing conception is acceptable, while intervening after conception has occurred is not.

Combined oral contraceptive pill

birth control pillthe pillbirth control pills
The Roman Catholic Church in particular, after studying the phenomenon of oral contraceptives, re-emphasized the stated teaching on birth control in the 1968 papal encyclical Humanae vitae. The encyclical reiterated the established Catholic teaching that artificial contraception distorts the nature and purpose of sex. On the other side Anglican and other Protestant churches, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) accepted the combined oral contraceptive pill. The United States Senate began hearings on the pill in 1970 and there were different viewpoints heard from medical professionals. Dr.

Francisco Franco

FrancoGeneral FrancoFrancoist
On the other hand, the Catholic Church was upheld as the established church of the Spanish State, and it regained many of the traditional privileges it had lost under the Republic. Civil servants had to be Catholic, and some official jobs even required a "good behavior" statement by a priest. Civil marriages which had taken place in Republican Spain were declared null and void unless they had been confirmed by the Catholic Church. Divorce was forbidden, along with contraceptives and abortion. Most country towns and rural areas were patrolled by pairs of Guardia Civil, a military police for civilians, which functioned as Franco's chief means of social control.

DuPage County, Illinois

DuPage CountyDuPage DuPage County, Illinois
Driscoll Catholic High School (closed 2009). Immaculate Conception High School. Islamic Foundation School. Montini Catholic High School. St. Francis High School. Timothy Christian School. Wheaton Academy. Aurora (mostly). Batavia (part). Chicago (part). Darien. Elmhurst (mostly). Naperville (mostly). Oakbrook Terrace. St. Charles (part). Warrenville. West Chicago. Wheaton. Wood Dale. Addison. Bartlett (mostly). Bensenville (mostly). Bloomingdale. Bolingbrook (part). Burr Ridge (part). Carol Stream. Clarendon Hills. Downers Grove. Elk Grove Village (part). Glendale Heights. Glen Ellyn. Hanover Park (Part). Hinsdale (mostly). Itasca. Lemont (part). Lisle. Lombard. Oak Brook (mostly).

Baptism

baptizedbaptisedbaptize
For Roman Catholics, baptism by water is a sacrament of initiation into the life of the children of God (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1212–13). It configures the person to Christ (CCC 1272), and obliges the Christian to share in the Church's apostolic and missionary activity (CCC 1270). The Catholic holds that there are three types of baptism by which one can be saved: sacramental baptism (with water), baptism of desire (explicit or implicit desire to be part of the Church founded by Jesus Christ), and baptism of blood (martyrdom).

Lawyer

attorneylawyersattorneys
As James Brundage has explained: "[by 1140], no one in Western Europe could properly be described as a professional lawyer or a professional canonist in anything like the modern sense of the term 'professional.' " However, from 1150 onward, a small but increasing number of men became experts in canon law but only in furtherance of other occupational goals, such as serving the Roman Catholic Church as priests. From 1190 to 1230, however, there was a crucial shift in which some men began to practice canon law as a lifelong profession in itself. The legal profession's return was marked by the renewed efforts of church and state to regulate it.

Family planning

family-planningeducation and accessfamily planning clinic
Adoption is another option used to build a family. There are seven steps that one must make towards adoption. You must decide to pursue an adoption, apply to adopt, complete an adoption home study, get approved to adopt, be matched with a child, receive an adoptive placement, and then legalize the adoption. A number of contraceptive methods are available to prevent unwanted pregnancy. There are natural methods and various chemical-based methods, each with particular advantages and disadvantages. Behavioral methods to avoid pregnancy that involve vaginal intercourse include the withdrawal and calendar-based methods, which have little upfront cost and are readily available.

Foundling hospital

New York Foundling HospitalDublin Foundling Hospitalfoundling asylum
The antecedents of such institutions was the practice of the Catholic Church providing a rough system of relief, children being left (jactati) in marble shells at the church doors, and tended first by the matricularii or male nurses, and then by the nutricarii or foster parents. But it was in the 7th and 8th centuries that definite institutions for foundlings were established in such towns as Trèves, Milan and Montpellier. Historically, care for foundlings tended to develop more slowly or with greater variation from country to country than, for example, care for orphans.

Robert Barron (bishop)

Robert BarronBishop Robert BarronBishop Robert E. Barron
Catholic Church hierarchy. Catholic Church in the United States. Historical list of the Catholic bishops of the United States. List of Catholic bishops of the United States. Lists of patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops.

Same-sex marriage

gay marriagemarriage equalitysame sex marriage
Opponents of same-sex marriage, who want marriage to be restricted to heterosexuals, such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Catholic Church, and the Southern Baptist Convention, use the term traditional marriage to mean opposite-sex marriage.

Billy Graham

Billy Graham CrusadesBilly Graham CrusadeThe Reverend Billy Graham
From 1943 to 1944, Graham briefly served as pastor of the First Baptist Church in Western Springs, Illinois, which was not far from Wheaton. While there, his friend Torrey Johnson, pastor of the Midwest Bible Church in Chicago, told Graham that his radio program, Songs in the Night, was about to be canceled due to lack of funding. Consulting with the members of his church in Western Springs, Graham decided to take over Johnson's program with financial support from his congregation. Launching the new radio program on January 2, 1944, still called Songs in the Night, Graham recruited the bass-baritone George Beverly Shea as his director of radio ministry.

Legitimacy (family law)

illegitimatebastardillegitimacy
It is argued that in some places where the control of the church (especially the Roman Catholic Church) was traditionally very strong, the social changes of the 1960s and 1970s have led to a negative reaction of the population against the lifestyles promoted by the church.

La Grange, Illinois

La GrangeLaGrangeVillage of LaGrange
Francis Xavier serve as the two Roman Catholic schools in La Grange. St. John's Lutheran is the one Lutheran elementary school within the village limits. Lyons Township High School in La Grange, founded in 1888, now has two campuses. North Campus, located in La Grange, is used by Juniors and Seniors and was the original high school. Freshmen and Sophomores go to South Campus, founded in 1956, located in neighboring Western Springs. The Campus was split due to lack of available land for expansion around the original building.

Marriage in the Catholic Church

marriageMatrimonysacrament of marriage
While marriage between a Catholic and any non-Catholic is commonly spoken of as a mixed marriage, in the strict sense a mixed marriage is one between a Catholic (baptized in the Catholic Church or received into it) and a non-Catholic Christian.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western countries). In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the U.S. accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide. Same-sex marriage is legal nationwide, owing to the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U.S. The United States had a life expectancy of 78.6 years at birth in 2017, which was the third year of declines in life expectancy following decades of continuous increase. The recent decline is largely due to sharp increases in the drug overdose and suicide rates.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Commonalities in syntax and vocabulary facilitated the adoption of Latin. After the decentralization of political power in late antiquity, Latin developed locally into branches that became the Romance languages, such as Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and Romanian, and a large number of minor languages and dialects. Today, more than 900 million people are native speakers worldwide. As an international language of learning and literature, Latin itself continued as an active medium of expression for diplomacy and for intellectual developments identified with Renaissance humanism up to the 17th century, and for law and the Roman Catholic Church to the present.