Marriage

married couplesopposite-sex married couplesmarried
However, this was not the case in the Roman Catholic Church before the 1184 Council of Verona officially recognized it as such. Before then, no specific ritual was prescribed for celebrating a marriage: "Marriage vows did not have to be exchanged in a church, nor was a priest's presence required. A couple could exchange consent anywhere, anytime." The Church only formally recognized the union and it was finalized with the couple together partaking Holy Communion. Decrees on marriage of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent (twenty-fourth session of 1563) made the validity of marriage dependent on the wedding occurring in the presence of a priest and two witnesses.

Sexual revolution

sexual liberationsexually liberatedsexual
The Roman Catholic Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum carried great weight among Catholics and amounted to an effective and instant boycott of any book appearing on it. Boston's Watch and Ward Society, a largely Protestant creation inspired by Anthony Comstock, made "banned in Boston" a national by-word. In 1959 Grove Press published an unexpurgated version of Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence. The U.S. Post Office confiscated copies sent through the mail. Lawyer Charles Rembar sued the New York City Postmaster, and won in New York and then on federal appeal.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
According to a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians; Protestants accounted for 46.5%, while Roman Catholics, at 20.8%, formed the largest single denomination. In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. adult population claimed a non-Christian religion. These include Judaism (1.9%), Islam (0.9%), Hinduism (0.7%), and Buddhism (0.7%). The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no religion—up from 8.2% in 1990.

Illinois

ILState of IllinoisIll.
Roman Catholics constitute the single largest religious denomination in Illinois; they are heavily concentrated in and around Chicago, and account for nearly 30% of the state's population. However, taken together as a group, the various Protestant denominations comprise a greater percentage of the state's population than do Catholics. In 2010 Catholics in Illinois numbered 3,648,907. The largest Protestant denominations were the United Methodist Church with 314,461, and the Southern Baptist Convention, with 283,519 members. Illinois has one of the largest concentrations of Missouri Synod Lutherans in the United States.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
Among Christians, adherents to the Church of England constituted 15 per cent, Roman Catholic Church 9 per cent, and other Christians (including Presbyterians, Methodists, other Protestants, as well as Eastern Orthodox), 17 per cent. 71 per cent of young people aged 18––24 said they had no religion. The Church of England is the established church in England. It retains a representation in the UK Parliament and the British monarch is its Supreme Governor. In Scotland, the Church of Scotland is recognised as the national church.

Divorce

divorceddivorceedivorcée
Since the mid-1990s, the divorce rate has increased to over 50% among baby boomers. More and more seniors are staying single; an analysis of census data conducted at Bowling Green State University predicted that divorce numbers will continue to rise. Baby boomers that remain unmarried are five times more likely to live in poverty compared to those who are married. They are also three times as likely to receive food stamps, public assistance or disability payments. Sociologists believe that the rise in the number of older Americans who are not married is a result of factors such as longevity and economics.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
While numerous tribes used captive enemies as servants and slaves, they also often adopted younger captives into their tribes to replace members who had died. In the Southeast, a few Native American tribes began to adopt a slavery system similar to that of the American colonists, buying African American slaves, especially the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek. Though less than 3% of Native Americans owned slaves, divisions grew among the Native Americans over slavery. Among the Cherokee, records show that slave holders in the tribe were largely the children of European men who had shown their children the economics of slavery.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
Throughout the decade of the 2000s, 60% or more of Hispanic Roman Catholics who were registered to vote identified as either Democratic or leaning towards the Party. Unaffiliated Hispanic advocacy groups that often support progressive candidates and causes include the National Council of La Raza and the League of United Latin American Citizens. In the House of Representatives, the Democratic caucus of Hispanic Americans is the Congressional Hispanic Caucus. The Democratic Party also has strong support among the Native American population, particularly in Arizona, New Mexico, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Alaska, Idaho, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and North Carolina.

Mother

maternitymotherhoodmaternal
This is commonly either an adoptive mother or a stepmother (the biologically unrelated partner of a child's father). The term "othermother" or "other mother" is also used in some contexts for women who provide care for a child not biologically their own in addition to the child's primary mother. Adoption, in various forms, has been practiced throughout history, even predating human civilization. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations. In recent decades, international adoptions have become more and more common.

Cook County, Illinois

Cook CountyCookCook counties
Western Springs. Wheeling. Willow Springs. Wilmette. Winnetka. Worth. Central Stickney. Hines. La Grange Highlands. Nottingham Park. Sag Bridge. Sutton. Thornton Township – 169,326. Wheeling Township – 153,630. Worth Township – 152,633. Proviso Township – 151,704. Maine Township – 135,772. Schaumburg Township – 131,288. Palatine Township – 112,994. Lyons Township – 111,688. Bremen Township – 110,118. Niles Township – 105,882. Hanover Township – 99,538. Orland Township – 97,558. Elk Grove Township – 92,905. Leyden Township – 92,890. Bloom Township – 90,922. Northfield Township – 85,102. Cicero Township – 83,891. Rich Township – 76,727. Berwyn Township – 56,657. New Trier Township – 55,424.

In vitro fertilisation

IVFin vitro fertilizationin-vitro fertilization
Pope Benedict XVI had publicly re-emphasised the Catholic Church's opposition to in vitro fertilisation, saying that it replaces love between a husband and wife. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, in accordance with the Catholic understanding of natural law, teaches that reproduction has an "inseparable connection" to the sexual union of married couples. In addition, the church opposes IVF because it might result in the disposal of embryos; in Catholicism, an embryo is viewed as an individual with a soul that must be treated as a person.

List of municipalities in Illinois

VillageCityTown
Illinois is a state located in the Midwestern United States. According to the 2010 United States Census, Illinois is the 6th most populous state with inhabitants but the 24th largest by land area spanning 55518.93 sqmi of land. Illinois is divided into 102 counties and contains 1,299 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities, towns, and villages.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
The formal break, known as the East–West Schism, came in 1054, when the papacy and the patriarchy of Constantinople clashed over papal supremacy and excommunicated each other, which led to the division of Christianity into two Churches—the Western branch became the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern branch the Eastern Orthodox Church. The ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Empire survived the movements and invasions in the west mostly intact, but the papacy was little regarded, and few of the Western bishops looked to the bishop of Rome for religious or political leadership.

Inheritance

heirinheritedheirs
Some researchers have attributed this rise to the baby boomer generation. Historically, the baby boomers were the largest influx of children conceived after WW2. For this reason, Thomas Shapiro suggests that this generation "is in the midst of benefiting from the greatest inheritance of wealth in history". Inherited wealth may help explain why many Americans who have become rich may have had a "substantial head start". In September 2012, according to the Institute for Policy Studies, "over 60 percent" of the Forbes richest 400 Americans "grew up in substantial privilege", and often (but not always) received substantial inheritances.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
The Popes' status as elective monarchs turned the conclaves and consistories of the Renaissance into political battles between the courts of Italy for primacy in the peninsula and access to the immense resources of the Catholic Church. In 1439, Pope Eugenius IV and the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos signed a reconciliation agreement between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church at the Council of Florence hosted by Cosimo the old de Medici.

Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives. Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. St.

Birth control

contraceptioncontraceptivecontraceptives
The Roman Catholic Church officially only accepts natural family planning, although large numbers of Catholics in developed countries accept and use modern methods of birth control. Among Protestants, there is a wide range of views from supporting none, such as in the Quiverfull movement, to allowing all methods of birth control. Views in Judaism range from the stricter Orthodox sect, which prohibits all methods of birth control, to the more relaxed Reform sect, which allows most. Hindus may use both natural and modern contraceptives. A common Buddhist view is that preventing conception is acceptable, while intervening after conception has occurred is not.

Combined oral contraceptive pill

birth control pillthe pillbirth control pills
The Roman Catholic Church in particular, after studying the phenomenon of oral contraceptives, re-emphasized the stated teaching on birth control in the 1968 papal encyclical Humanae vitae. The encyclical reiterated the established Catholic teaching that artificial contraception distorts the nature and purpose of sex. On the other side Anglican and other Protestant churches, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) accepted the combined oral contraceptive pill. The United States Senate began hearings on the pill in 1970 and there were different viewpoints heard from medical professionals. Dr.

Francisco Franco

FrancoGeneral FrancoFrancoist
On the other hand, the Catholic Church was upheld as the established church of the Spanish State, and it regained many of the traditional privileges which it had lost under the Republic. Civil servants had to be Catholic, and some official jobs even required a "good behavior" statement by a priest. Civil marriages which had taken place in Republican Spain were declared null and void unless they had been confirmed by the Catholic Church. Divorce was forbidden, along with contraceptives and abortion. Most country towns and rural areas were patrolled by pairs of Guardia Civil, a military police force for civilians, which functioned as Franco's chief means of social control.

Baptism

baptizedbaptisedbaptize
For Roman Catholics, baptism by water is a sacrament of initiation into the life of the children of God (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1212–13). It configures the person to Christ (CCC 1272), and obliges the Christian to share in the Church's apostolic and missionary activity (CCC 1270). The Catholic holds that there are three types of baptism by which one can be saved: sacramental baptism (with water), baptism of desire (explicit or implicit desire to be part of the Church founded by Jesus Christ), and baptism of blood (martyrdom).

DuPage County, Illinois

DuPage CountyDuPageDu Page County
Driscoll Catholic High School (closed 2009). Immaculate Conception High School. Islamic Foundation School. Montini Catholic High School. St. Francis High School. Timothy Christian School. Wheaton Academy. Aurora (mostly). Batavia (part). Chicago (part). Darien. Elmhurst (mostly). Naperville (mostly). Oakbrook Terrace. St. Charles (part). Warrenville. West Chicago. Wheaton. Wood Dale. Addison. Bartlett (mostly). Bensenville (mostly). Bloomingdale. Bolingbrook (part). Burr Ridge (part). Carol Stream. Clarendon Hills. Downers Grove. Elk Grove Village (part). Glendale Heights. Glen Ellyn. Hanover Park (Part). Hinsdale (mostly). Itasca. Lemont (part). Lisle. Lombard. Oak Brook (mostly).

Lawyer

attorneylawyersattorneys
As James Brundage has explained: "[by 1140], no one in Western Europe could properly be described as a professional lawyer or a professional canonist in anything like the modern sense of the term 'professional.' " However, from 1150 onward, a small but increasing number of men became experts in canon law but only in furtherance of other occupational goals, such as serving the Catholic Church as priests. From 1190 to 1230, however, there was a crucial shift in which some men began to practice canon law as a lifelong profession in itself. The legal profession's return was marked by the renewed efforts of church and state to regulate it.

Alton, Illinois

AltonAlton, ILUpper Alton, Illinois
Peter and Paul Roman Catholic Church; more than 150 years old, it served as the Cathedral of the Diocese of Alton under three bishops (1857 to 1923). In 1923 the cathedral seat of the diocese was moved from Alton to Springfield. First Unitarian Church located at 110 E. Third Street, was built upon the foundation of St. Matthew's Catholic Church which had previously burned in the 1850s, is one of Alton's most popular ghost hunting sites in the city. The church is supposedly haunted by former pastor Philip Mercer who committed suicide on November 20, 1934 within the church. It was also a popular stop on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War.

Family planning

family-planningeducation and accessfamily planning clinic
Adoption is another option used to build a family. There are seven steps that one must make towards adoption. You must decide to pursue an adoption, apply to adopt, complete an adoption home study, get approved to adopt, be matched with a child, receive an adoptive placement, and then legalize the adoption. A number of contraceptive methods are available to prevent unwanted pregnancy. There are natural methods and various chemical-based methods, each with particular advantages and disadvantages. Behavioral methods to avoid pregnancy that involve vaginal intercourse include the withdrawal and calendar-based methods, which have little upfront cost and are readily available.

Foundling hospital

New York Foundling HospitalDublin Foundling Hospitalfoundling asylum
The antecedents of such institutions was the practice of the Catholic Church providing a rough system of relief, children being left (jactati) in marble shells at the church doors, and tended first by the matricularii or male nurses, and then by the nutricarii or foster parents. But it was in the 7th and 8th centuries that definite institutions for foundlings were established in such towns as Trèves, Milan and Montpellier. Historically, care for foundlings tended to develop more slowly or with greater variation from country to country than, for example, care for orphans.