rubeolameasles virusAcute Measles encephalitis
Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR): Measles, World Health Organization (WHO). Measles FAQ from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Case of an adult male with measles (facial photo). Pictures of measles. Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Paramyxoviridae.


infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfectious
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA). Infectious Disease Index of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). Vaccine Research Center Information concerning vaccine research clinical trials for Emerging and re-Emerging Infectious Diseases. Infection Information Resource. Microbes & Infection (journal). Knowledge source for Health Care Professionals involved in Wound management Table: Global deaths from communicable diseases, 2010 – Canadian Broadcasting Corp.

West African Ebola virus epidemic

Ebola outbreak2014 Ebola outbreak2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a five-person team to assist in the response to the outbreak. Thinking that spread of the virus had been contained, MSF closed its treatment centers in May, leaving only a skeleton staff to handle the Macenta region. However, in late August, large numbers of new cases reappeared in the region. In February 2015, Guinea recorded a rise in cases for the second week in a row. Health authorities stated that this was related to the fact that they "were only now gaining access to faraway villages", where violence had previously prevented them from entering.


cerebral malariamalarial fevermalarial
Additionally, initiatives have been founded such as Malaria Control in War Areas (MCWA), established in 1942, and its successor, the Communicable Disease Center (now known as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC) established in 1946. According to the CDC, MCWA "was established to control malaria around military training bases in the southern United States and its territories, where malaria was still problematic". Several notable attempts are being made to eliminate the parasite from sections of the world, or to eradicate it worldwide.


Contagion (2011), American thriller centering on the threat posed by a deadly disease and an international team of doctors contracted by the CDC to deal with the outbreak. Halo: Pandemic (2009-2012), a popular Machinima web-series. World War Z (2013), apocalyptic zombie film based on the 2006 novel of the same name by Max Brooks. Dawn of the Planet of the Apes (2014), in which a virus makes apes smarter but also wipes out over 90% of the human population at the prologue of the movie. Helix (2014-2015), a television series that depicts a team of scientists from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who are tasked to prevent pandemics from occurring.


Further concern was raised by the successful recreation of the infamous 1918 influenza virus in a laboratory. Smallpox virus devastated numerous societies throughout history before its eradication. There are only two centres in the world that are authorised by the WHO to keep stocks of smallpox virus: the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Russia and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Fears that it may be used as a weapon may not be totally unfounded. As the vaccine for smallpox sometimes had severe side-effects, it is no longer used routinely in any country.

Ebola virus

Because of its high mortality rate (up to 83-90%), EBOV is also listed as a select agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), a U.S. National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, U.S. CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group. EBOV carries a negative-sense RNA genome in virions that are cylindrical/tubular, and contain viral envelope, matrix, and nucleocapsid components.

Swine influenza

swine fluH1N1 (Swine flu)swine
Official swine flu advice and latest information from the UK National Health Service. 8 minute video answering common questions about the subject on Swine flu charts and maps Numeric analysis and approximation of current active cases. "Swine Influenza" disease card on World Organisation for Animal Health. Worried about swine flu? Then you should be terrified about the regular flu. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – Swine Flu. Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy – Novel H1N1 influenza resource list. Pandemic Flu US Government Site. World Health Organization (WHO): Swine influenza. Medical Encyclopedia Medline Plus: Swine Flu.

Avian influenza

bird fluavian fluavian
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US) recommendation is that if a worker develops symptoms within 10 days of working with infected poultry or potentially contaminated materials, they should seek care and notify their employer, who should notify public health officials. For future avian influenza threats, the WHO suggests a 3 phase, 5 part plan. Vaccines for poultry have been formulated against several of the avian H5N1 influenza varieties. Control measures for HPAI encourage mass vaccinations of poultry though The World Health Organization has compiled a list of known clinical trials of pandemic influenza prototype vaccines, including those against H5N1.


Others work for non-profit organizations, universities, hospitals and larger government entities such as state and local health departments, various Ministries of Health, Doctors without Borders, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Health Protection Agency, the World Health Organization (WHO), or the Public Health Agency of Canada.

National Intelligence Assessments on Infectious Diseases

Outside China, the first clue of the outbreak appears to be November 27, 2002 when Canada's Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), an electronic warning system that is part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network (GOARN), picked up reports of a "flu outbreak" in China through internet media monitoring and analysis and sent them to the WHO. Subsequently, the WHO requested information from Chinese authorities on December 5 and 11.

Timeline of global health

Following the end of World War II, the first batch of big organizations, both international and national (with international cooperation), including the United Nations and World Health Organization (WHO), form. Beginning with the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration for relief of victims of war in 1943, there is a big push to begin creating large scale health initiatives, non-governmental organizations, and worldwide global health programs by the United Nations to improve quality of life around the world. UNICEF, the World Health Organization, as well as the UNRRA are all part of United Nations efforts to benefit global health beginning with developing countries.

Influenza A virus subtype H5N1

bird fluH5N1avian flu
UK Influenza Pandemic Contingency Plan by the National Health Service - a government entity. PDF hosted by BBC. UK Department of Health. United States. Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease - An overview of Avian Influenza. PandemicFlu.Gov U.S. Government's avian flu information site. USAID U.S. Agency for International Development - Avian Influenza Response. CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - responsible agency for avian influenza in humans in US - Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus.

Influenza pandemic

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Ongoing detailed mutually coordinated onsite surveillance and analysis of human and animal H5N1 avian flu outbreaks are being conducted and reported by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, the CDC, the ECDC, the World Health Organization, the European Commission, the National Influenza Centers, and others. In September 2005, David Nabarro, a lead UN health official warned that a bird flu outbreak could happen anytime and had the potential to kill 5–150 million people.

Influenza A virus subtype H1N1

H1N1H1N1 virusH1N1 influenza
Health-EU Portal EU work to prepare a global response to influenza A(H1N1). Influenza Research Database Database of influenza genomic sequences and related information. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu). Consultant Magazine H1N1 (Swine Flu) Center. Pandemic Influenza: A Guide to Recent Institute of Medicine Studies and Workshops A collection of research papers and summaries of workshops by the Institute of Medicine on major policy issues related to pandemic influenza and other infectious disease threats.

Influenza A virus

influenza Ainfluenzavirus Abird flu
H7N9 is responsible for an ongoing epidemic in China and considered to have the greatest pandemic threat of the Influenza A viruses. H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential. H1N2 is currently endemic in humans and pigs. H9N2, H7N2, H7N3, H5N2, and H10N7. FI6 (antibody). Influenza vaccine. Veterinary virology. Avian influenza and Influenza Pandemics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Avian influenza FAQ from the World Health Organization. Avian influenza information from the Food and Agriculture Organization. U.S. Government's avian influenza information website. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) Stockholm, Sweden.


bioterroristbiological terrorismbioterror
United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NOVA: Bioterror. Pandemics and Bioterrorism: From Realistic Threats to Effective Policies. Bioterrorism: Could Ebola be a Possible New Biological Weapon?. Recommended Policy Guidance for Departmental Development of Review Mechanisms for Potential Pandemic Pathogen Care and Oversight (P3CO). Obama Administration. January 9, 2017.


Asiatic choleracholera epidemicA cholera epidemic breaks out
Prevention and control of cholera outbreaks: WHO policy and recommendations. Cholera—World Health Organization. Cholera – Vibrio cholerae infection—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


small poxsmall-poxvariola
All known stocks of smallpox were subsequently destroyed or transferred to two WHO-designated reference laboratories with BSL-4 facilities – the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Russia's State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR. WHO first recommended destruction of the virus in 1986 and later set the date of destruction to be 30 December 1993. This was postponed to 30 June 1999. Due to resistance from the U.S. and Russia, in 2002 the World Health Assembly agreed to permit the temporary retention of the virus stocks for specific research purposes.


. ; Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV): On November 24, 2007, the Uganda Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola in the Bundibugyo District. After confirmation of samples tested by the United States National Reference Laboratories and the CDC, the World Health Organization confirmed the presence of the new species. On 20 February 2008, the Uganda Ministry officially announced the end of the epidemic in Bundibugyo, with the last infected person discharged on 8 January 2008.


AIDSHIVacquired immune deficiency syndrome
The initial cases were a cluster of injecting drug users and homosexual men with no known cause of impaired immunity who showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection that was known to occur in people with very compromised immune systems. Soon thereafter, an unexpected number of homosexual men developed a previously rare skin cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Many more cases of PCP and KS emerged, alerting U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a CDC task force was formed to monitor the outbreak.

Marburg virus disease

Marburgdiseasegreen monkey disease
Centers for Disease Control, Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers In the African Health Care Setting. Center for Disease Control, Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever. Center for Disease Control, Known Cases and Outbreaks of Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever. World Health Organization, Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever. Red Cross PDF. Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Filoviridae.


This task force aims to actively address antimicrobial resistance, and is coordinated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), as well as other US agencies. An NGO campaign group is Keep Antibiotics Working. In France, an "Antibiotics are not automatic" government campaign started in 2002 and led to a marked reduction of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions, especially in children. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has prompted restrictions on their use in the UK in 1970 (Swann report 1969), and the EU has banned the use of antibiotics as growth-promotional agents since 2003.

Hand washing

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Centers for Disease Control on hand hygiene in healthcare settings. Global Public-Private Partnership for Hand washing. Photos of low-cost hand washing installations in developing countries (collected by Sustainable Sanitation Alliance).


diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
This supports the World Health Organization guidelines for zinc, but not in the very young. Probiotics reduce the duration of symptoms by one day and reduced the chances of symptoms lasting longer than four days by 60%. The probiotic lactobacillus can help prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults but possibly not children. For those with lactose intolerance, taking digestive enzymes containing lactase when consuming dairy products often improves symptoms. [[File:Diarrhoeal diseases world map - DALY - WHO2004.svg|thumb|upright=1.3|Disability-adjusted life year for diarrhea per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.