In the new government, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonial Office, a position that he had requested. He worked beneath the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, and took Edward Marsh as his secretary; the latter remained Churchill's secretary for 25 years. In this junior ministerial position, Churchill was first tasked with helping to draft a constitution for the Transvaal. In 1906, he helped oversee the granting of a government to the Orange Free State. In dealing with southern Africa, he sought to ensure equality between the British and Boer.
Sir Winston ChurchillChurchillChurchill, Winston
National IV4th National Min.National Government
William Ormsby-Gore – Secretary of State for the Colonies. Malcolm MacDonald – Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs. Leslie Hore-Belisha – Secretary of State for War. Lord Zetland – Secretary of State for India and Burma. Lord Swinton – Secretary of State for Air. Walter Elliot – Secretary of State for Scotland. Duff Cooper – First Lord of the Admiralty. Oliver Stanley – President of the Board of Trade. Lord Stanhope – President of the Board of Education. William Shepherd Morrison – Minister of Agriculture. Ernest Brown – Minister of Labour. Sir Kingsley Wood – Minister of Health. Leslie Burgin – Minister of Transport. Sir Thomas Inskip – Minister for Coordination of Defence.
Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
Alexander resumed the role he had held in the previous Labour Government as First Lord of the Admiralty. At the end of the war in Europe, in May 1945, Labour resolved not to repeat the Liberals' error of 1918, and promptly withdrew from government, on trade union insistence, to contest the 1945 general election in opposition to Churchill's Conservatives. Surprising many observers, Labour won a landslide victory, winning just under 50% of the vote with a majority of 159 seats.
National LiberalLiberal NationalNational Liberal Party
The National Liberal Party, known until 1948 as the Liberal National Party, was a liberal political party in the United Kingdom from 1931 to 1968. It broke away from the Liberal Party, and later co-operated and merged with the Conservative Party.
ChamberlainNevilleArthur Neville Chamberlain
He restored Churchill to the Cabinet as First Lord of the Admiralty, with a seat in the War Cabinet. Chamberlain also gave Eden a government post (Dominions Secretary) but not a seat in the small War Cabinet. The new First Lord proved to be a difficult Cabinet colleague, deluging the Prime Minister with a sea of lengthy memos. Chamberlain castigated Churchill for sending so many memos, as the two met in War Cabinet every day. Chamberlain suspected, correctly as it proved after the war, that "these letters are for the purpose of quotation in the Book that he will write hereafter."
National GovernmentNational III3rd National Min.
As a National Government it contained members of the Conservative Party, Liberal Nationals and National Labour, as well as a number of individuals who belonged to no political party. The Government oversaw the Edward VIII abdication crisis and three monarchs in 1936. In May 1937, Baldwin resigned and was replaced as Prime Minister by Neville Chamberlain. *Anthony Eden served as Minister without Portfolio, with specific responsibility for League of Nations Affairs (and was often referred to as "Minister for League of Nations Affairs) for approximately six months; during this time, he enjoyed equal status with the Foreign Secretary (Sir Samuel Hoare) and sat in the cabinet.
Liam Fox and Philip Hammond, who had both previously served as Secretary of State for Defence (Fox from 2010 to 2011 and Hammond from 2011 to 2014), were appointed to the newly created office of International Trade Secretary and as Chancellor of the Exchequer respectively. Replacing Michael Gove, Elizabeth Truss was made Justice Secretary, the "first female Lord Chancellor in the thousand-year history of the role". Andrea Leadsom, who was energy minister and May's primary competitor for party leader, was made the new environment secretary.
War CabinetCoalition Governmentwar-time coalition government
Chamberlain issued the declaration of war against Germany on 3 September 1939 and formed a war cabinet which included Winston Churchill (out of office since June 1929) as First Lord of the Admiralty. Dissatisfaction with Chamberlain's leadership became widespread in the spring of 1940 after Germany successfully invaded Norway. In response, the House of Commons held the Norway Debate from 7 to 9 May. At the end of the second day, the Labour opposition forced a division which was in effect a motion of no confidence in Chamberlain. The government's majority of 213 was reduced to 81, still a victory but nevertheless a shattering blow for Chamberlain.
Labour governmentpost-war Labour governmentAttlee government
October 1946 – The three service ministers (Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, and First Lord of the Admiralty) cease to be cabinet positions. A. V. Alexander remains in the cabinet as Minister without Portfolio. George Hall replaces A. V. Alexander as First Lord of the Admiralty, outside the cabinet. Arthur Creech Jones succeeds Hall as Secretary of State for the Colonies. December 1946 – A. V. Alexander succeeds Attlee as Minister of Defence. February 1947 – George Tomlinson succeeds Ellen Wilkinson as Minister of Education upon her death. March 1947 – Arthur Greenwood ceases to be Paymaster General, remaining Lord Privy Seal.
BaldwinStanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of BewdleySir Stanley Baldwin
The Duke of Devonshire – Secretary of State for the Colonies. Lord Derby – Secretary of State for War. Lord Peel – Secretary of State for India. Sir Samuel Hoare – Secretary of State for Air. Lord Novar – Secretary for Scotland. Leo Amery – First Lord of the Admiralty. Sir Philip Lloyd-Greame – President of the Board of Trade. Sir Robert Sanders – Minister of Agriculture. Edward Frederick Lindley Wood – President of the Board of Education. Sir Anderson Montague-Barlow – Minister of Labour. Neville Chamberlain – Minister of Health. Sir William Joynson-Hicks – Financial Secretary to the Treasury. Sir Laming Worthington-Evans – Postmaster-General.
President of the Air CouncilAirPresident of the Air Board
In 1946, the three posts of Secretary of State for War, First Lord of the Admiralty, and Secretary of State for Air became formally subordinated to that of Minister of Defence, which had itself been created in 1940 for the co-ordination of defence and security issues. On 1 April 1964, the Air Ministry was incorporated into the newly-created united Ministry of Defence, and the position of Secretary of State for Air was abolished. * Hansard – Secretary of State for Air
Macmillan (I & II)Conservative GovernmentConservative administrations
Lord Kilmuir and Alan Lennox-Boyd retained their offices of Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for the Colonies respectively, while Lord Hailsham became a member of the cabinet for the first time as Minister of Education. Future Chancellor Iain Macleod was appointed Minister of Labour and National Service and succeeded Lennox-Boyd as Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1961. The Conservatives comfortably won the 1959 general election, increasing their majority in the House of Commons, following a campaign slogan "Life's better with the Conservatives".
National GovernmentNational II2nd National Min.
Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister – Colonial Secretary. J. H. Thomas – Dominions Secretary. The Viscount Hailsham – Secretary of State for War and Leader of the House of Lords. Sir Samuel Hoare – Secretary of State for India. The Marquess of Londonderry – Secretary for Air. Sir Archibald Sinclair – Secretary of State for Scotland. Sir Bolton Eyres-Monsell – First Lord of the Admiralty. Walter Runciman – President of the Board of Trade. Sir John Gilmour – Minister of Agriculture. Sir Donald Maclean – President of the Board of Education. Henry Betterton – Minister of Labour. Hilton Young – Minister of Health. William Ormsby-Gore – First Commissioner of Works.
National GovernmentNational I1st
Thomas – Dominions Secretary and Colonial Secretary. Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister – President of the Board of Trade. Neville Chamberlain – Minister of Health. = Member of National Labour. = Member of the Conservative Party. = Member of the Liberal Party. National Labour. Conservative Party. Liberal Party. Bassett, Reginald. 1931 Political Crisis (2nd ed., Aldershot: Macmillan 1986) ISBN: 0-566-05138-9. Howell, David. MacDonald's Party: Labour Identities and Crisis, 1922-1931 (Oxford U.P. 2002). ISBN: 0-19-820304-7. Hyde, H. Montgomery. Baldwin: The Unexpected Prime Minister (1973). Jenkins, Roy. Baldwin (1987) excerpt and text search. Mowat, Charles Loch.
Churchill Caretakercaretaker governmentCaretaker Min.
In 1945, the Churchill caretaker ministry was a short-term United Kingdom (UK) government during the latter stages of the Second World War from 23 May to 26 July. The Prime Minister was Winston Churchill, leader of the Conservative Party. The caretaker ministry succeeded the national coalition which Churchill had formed after he was first appointed Prime Minister on 10 May 1940. On 23 May 1945, the Labour and Liberal members of the coalition resigned in order to prepare for the forthcoming general election, the first held in the UK since 1935.
Churchill IIIConservative governmentConservative administration
Alan Lennox-Boyd – Secretary of State for the Colonies. The Viscount Swinton – Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations. Harold Macmillan – Minister of Defence. Sir David Eccles – Minister of Education. Duncan Sandys – Minister of Housing and Local Government. Sir Walter Monckton – Minister of Labour and National Service. The Earl of Woolton – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Minister of Materials. Osbert Peake – Minister of Pensions. James Stuart – Secretary of State for Scotland. Peter Thorneycroft – President of the Board of Trade. Norman Brook – Cabinet Secretary.
Eden1955–57 governmentConservative government
Sir Walter Monckton succeeded Lloyd as Minister of Defence. Iain Macleod succeeded Monckton as Minister of Labour and National Service. Lord Selkirk succeeds Lord Woolton as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. The Minister of Public Works, Patrick Buchan-Hepburn, entered the cabinet. Osbert Peake retired and his successor as Minister of Pensions and National Insurance was not in the cabinet. In October 1956, Sir Walter Monckton became Paymaster-General, a post which had been vacant since Lord Selkirk's promotion to Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Antony Henry Head succeeded Monckton as Minister of Defence.
Prime MinisterBritish Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Great Britain
Although the Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces is legally the sovereign, under constitutional practice the prime minister can declare war, and through the Secretary of State for Defence (a position which the prime minister may appoint, dismiss or even appoint themselves to), as chair of the Defence Council, exert power over the deployment and disposition of the UK's forces. The prime minister makes all the most senior Crown appointments, and most others are made by ministers over whom the prime minister has the power of appointment and dismissal.
Sir Anthony EdenEdenAnthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon
Eden suffered another fever at Chequers over Christmas, but was still talking of going on an official trip to the USSR in April 1957, wanting a full inquiry into the Crabb affair and badgering Lord Hailsham (First Lord of the Admiralty) about the £6m being spent on oil storage at Malta. Eden resigned on 9 January 1957, after his doctors warned him his life was at stake if he continued in office. John Charmley writes "Ill-health ... provide(d) a dignified reason for an action (i.e.. resignation) which would, in any event, have been necessary."
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade-supporting Peelites and the reformist Radicals in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and then won a landslide victory in the following year's general election.
8a famous debateBritish discontent over the Norwegian campaign
The First Lord of the Admiralty has great abilities, but it is not fair to him that he should be put into an impossible position like that." Attlee struck a theme here that would recur throughout the debate – that the government was incompetent but not Churchill himself, even though he was part of it, as he had suffered from what Jenkins calls a misdirection of his talents. Jenkins remarks that Churchill's potential had not been fully utilised and, most importantly, he was clean of the stain of appeasement.
AttleeEarl AttleeAttlee government
The Gallipoli Campaign had been engineered by the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. Although it was unsuccessful, Attlee believed that it was a bold strategy, which could have been a success if it had been better implemented on the ground. This gave him an admiration for Churchill as a military strategist, which would make their working relationship in later years productive. He later served in the Mesopotamian Campaign in what is now Iraq, where in April 1916 he was badly wounded, being hit in the leg by shrapnel while storming an enemy trench during the Battle of Hanna. He was sent firstly to India, and then back to the UK to recover.
Ministry of DefenceMoDUK Ministry of Defence
Winston Churchill, on forming his government in 1940, created the office of Minister of Defence to exercise ministerial control over the Chiefs of Staff Committee and to co-ordinate defence matters. The post was held by the Prime Minister of the day until Clement Attlee's government introduced the Ministry of Defence Act of 1946 (see Ministry of Defence (1947–64)). From 1946, the three posts of Secretary of State for War, First Lord of the Admiralty, and Secretary of State for Air were formally subordinated to the new Minister of Defence, who possessed a seat in the Cabinet.
Minister for Coordination of Defence
When the Second World War broke out, the new Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain formed a small War Cabinet, and it was expected that Chatfield would serve as a spokesperson for the three service ministers, the Secretary of State for War, the First Lord of the Admiralty and the Secretary of State for Air; however political considerations resulted in all three posts being included in the Cabinet, and Chatfield's role proved increasingly redundant. In April 1940 the position was formally wound up and the functions transferred to other Ministers.
The Duke of Newcastle stays on as Secretary of State for War, while Sir George Grey becomes Secretary of State for the Colonies.