The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal (as opposed to the Great Seal of the Realm, which is in the care of the Lord Chancellor) until the use of such a seal became obsolete. The office is currently one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Keeper of the Privy SealLord Keeper of the Privy SealPrivy Seal
King George VIGeorge VI of the United KingdomDuke of York
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was king of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He became known as a symbol of British determination to win the Second World War against Germany.
James Thomas The Right Honourable James Thomas 1st '''Viscount Cilcennin''' PC James Thomas, 1st Viscount Cilcennin PC
When Churchill returned as Prime Minister in 1951, Thomas was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. He left the House of Commons in 1955 and was raised to the peerage as Viscount Cilcennin, of Hereford in the County of Hereford, in early 1956 (the title was pronounced "Kilkennin"). He continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until September 1956, when he resigned. In 1957 he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Herefordshire, a post he held until his early death three years later. Lord Cilcennin never married. He died in July 1960, aged 56, when the title became extinct. * Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives: THOMAS, James Purdon Lewes.
James RamsdenRt Hon James Ramsden
He served under Harold Macmillan as Under-Secretary of State and Financial Secretary for War from 1960 to 1963 and under Sir Alec Douglas-Home as Secretary of State for War from 1963 to 1964. At the April 1964 reshuffle, the former cabinet positions of First Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary of State for Air, along with Ramsden's post, were incorporated into an expanded Ministry of Defence, under the leadership of the new position of Secretary of State for Defence. Ramsden was appointed Minister of State for the Army at the Ministry of Defence, a post he held until the Home government fell in October 1964. He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1963.
Lord PalmerstonPalmerstonThe Viscount Palmerston
Sidney Herbert – Secretary of State for the Colonies. Lord Panmure – Secretary of State for War. Sir James Graham – First Lord of the Admiralty. William Ewart Gladstone – Chancellor of the Exchequer. Sir Charles Wood – President of the Board of Control. Lord Stanley of Alderley – President of the Board of Trade. Lord Harrowby – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Sir William Molesworth, 8th Baronet – First Commissioner of Works. Lord Canning – Postmaster-General. Lord Lansdowne – Minister without Portfolio. Later in February 1855 – Sir George Cornewall Lewis succeeds Gladstone as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Lord John Russell succeeds Herbert as Colonial Secretary.
The forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence and controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarch, to whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The Armed Forces are charged with protecting the UK and its overseas territories, promoting the UK's global security interests and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular participants in NATO, including the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, as well as the Five Power Defence Arrangements, RIMPAC and other worldwide coalition operations.
British Air MinistryAir BoardAir Council
This led the Prime Minister, Lloyd George, to create a Secretary of State for Air, but not as a Cabinet position, and on 9 January 1919 offered Winston Churchill the two posts of Secretary of State for War, which was a Cabinet position, and Secretary of State for Air both of which he accepted. This combination under one person by was criticised in both the press and Parliament. However, Churchill re-iterated that the continued "integrity, the unity, the independence of the Royal Air Force will be sedulously and carefully maintained".
King Edward VIIIPrince of WalesEdward, Prince of Wales
He had joined the Grenadier Guards in June 1914, and although Edward was willing to serve on the front lines, Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener refused to allow it, citing the immense harm that would occur if the heir to the throne were captured by the enemy. Despite this, Edward witnessed trench warfare first-hand and visited the front line as often as he could, for which he was awarded the Military Cross in 1916. His role in the war, although limited, made him popular among veterans of the conflict. He undertook his first military flight in 1918, and later gained a pilot's licence.
King Edward VIIPrince of WalesEdward VII of the United Kingdom
Edward was so dispirited at the tone of class warfare—although Asquith told him that party rancour had been just as bad over the First Home Rule Bill in 1886—that he introduced his son to Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane as "the last King of England". After the King's horse Minoru won the Derby on 26 July 1909, he returned to the racetrack the following day, and laughed when a man shouted: "Now, King. You've won the Derby. Go back home and dissolve this bloody Parliament!"
Sir Alec Douglas-HomeLord HomeThe Earl of Home
Duncan Sandys: Secretary of State for the Colonies and Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations. Edward Heath: Secretary of State for Industry, Trade, and Regional Development and President of the Board of Trade. Peter Thorneycroft: Minister of Defence. Selwyn Lloyd: Lord Privy Seal. Lord Blakenham: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Christopher Soames: Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Ernest Marples: Minister of Transport. John Boyd-Carpenter: Chief Secretary to the Treasury and Paymaster-General. Michael Noble: Secretary of State for Scotland. Sir Edward Boyle: Minister of Education. Joseph Godber: Minister of Labour.
Winston Churchillenforced exile from political positionWinston Churchill in politics: 1900-1939
His political ascent was rapid; he became, successively, Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty, all before he was 40 years old. His career suffered a severe check in 1915, after his support for the failed Dardanelles Campaign during World War I, and the subsequent formation of the first Coalition. Temporarily leaving politics, he served on the Western Front before rejoining the Government after David Lloyd George had replaced H. H. Asquith as prime minister.
Old HarrovianOld Harrovians
Henry Holland, 1st Viscount Knutsford, Secretary of State for the Colonies. George William Hope (1808–1863), Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies (1841–1846). Phillip Oppenheim (1956–), Exchequer Secretary to the Treasury (1996–1997). Henry Howard, 18th Earl of Suffolk (1833–1898), Liberal MP for Malmesbury (1859–1868). Stafford Howard (1851–1916), Under-Secretary of State for India (1886). Sir James Hutchison, 1st Baronet (1893–1979), Under-Secretary of State for War (1951–1954).
ministerial by-electionBirmingham WestBristol West
First Lord of the Admiralty. City of London. 3 March 1855. Lord John Russell. Secretary of State for the Colonies. South Wiltshire. 15 February 1855. Sidney Herbert. Secretary of State for the Colonies. Tiverton. 12 February 1855. Henry John Temple. Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury. Sunderland. 2 January 1855. William Digby Seymour. Recorder of Newcastle. Marylebone. 16 August 1854. Sir Benjamin Hall. President of the Board of Health. Morpeth. 17 June 1854. Sir George Grey. Secretary of State for the Colonies. City of London. 14 June 1854. Lord John Russell. Lord President of the Council. Southampton. 12 April 1854. Alexander Cockburn. Recorder of Bristol.
List of British politicians who have crossed the floorList of British Members of Parliament who crossed the floordefected
Resigned as First Lord of the Admiralty. Lord Stanley. Resigned as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. Lord George Bentinck. Bingham Baring. Bingham Baring. rowspan="6" |1846. William Ewart Gladstone. rowspan="6" |1846. William Ewart Gladstone. Resigned as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. Henry Goulburn. Resigned as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Sir James Graham, 2nd Baronet. Resigned as Home Secretary. Sidney Herbert. Resigned as Secretary at War. John Young. Resigned as Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury. Edward Cardwell. Resigned as Financial Secretary to the Treasury. colspan=7|. rowspan="3" |1847. Sir John Young, 2nd Baronet. Lord Ernest Bruce.
First Lord of the Admiralty. Woodstock. 3 July 1885. Lord Randolph Churchill. Secretary of State for India. North Leicestershire. 2 July 1885. Lord John Manners. Postmaster General. North Lancashire. 2 July 1885. Frederick Stanley. Secretary of State for the Colonies. Mid Kent. 2 July 1885. Sir William Hart Dyke. Chief Secretary for Ireland. North Devon. 2 July 1885. Sir Stafford Northcote. First Lord of the Treasury and elevation to a peerage. Wilton. 2 July 1885. Sidney Herbert. Lord Commissioner of the Treasury. - style="background:lightblue;". Wakefield. 2 July 1885. Robert Bownas Mackie. Death. rowspan=2|Dublin University. rowspan=2|1 July 1885. David Plunket.
St John Brodrick, 1st Earl of Midleton (1856–1942), Secretary of State for War, 1900–1903, and Secretary of State for India, 1903–1905. Herbert Edward Ryle (1856–1925), Old Testament scholar and Dean of Westminster. Alfred Lyttelton (1857–1913), Colonial Secretary, 1903–1905, and England footballer. Field Marshal Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer (1857–1932), quartermaster general, 1904–1905, General Officer Commanding Northern Command, 1911–1914, II Corps, 1914–1915, Second Army, 1915–1917, 1918, Italian Expeditionary Force, 1917–1918, and British Army of the Rhine, 1918–1919, Governor of Malta, 1919–1924, and High Commissioner for Palestine, 1925–1928.
1933King's Birthday Honours 1933King's Birthday Honours of June 1933
Sir Herbert James Creedy, Permanent Under-Secretary of State for War. Colonel the Right Honourable Sir Clive Wigram, Private Secretary to His Majesty The King. Military Division. Royal Navy. Vice-Admiral Alfred Dudley Pickman Rogers Pound,. Vice-Admiral Hugh Justin Tweedie,. Surgeon Vice-Admiral Reginald St. George Smallridge Bond,. Army. Lieutenant-General George Sidney Clive, (late Grenadier Guards) Military Secretary to the Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of the Selection Board. Major-General John Francis Stanhope Duke Coleridge, Indian Army, Commander, Peshawar District, India. Royal Air Force. Air Marshal Hugh Caswall Tremenheere Dowding,. Civil Division.
Colonial Conference1887 Colonial Conference1887
The conference was hosted by Queen Victoria, Empress of India and her Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, with Sir Henry Thurston Holland (Secretary of State for the Colonies) acting as chair and the Premiers and other representatives of various colonies as delegates. The colonies invited to send delegates were Newfoundland Colony, Canada, Colony of New South Wales, Colony of Tasmania, Cape of Good Hope, South Australia, the Colony of New Zealand, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and Natal Colony. Various other colonies were invited to send representatives to the opening ceremonies but not participate as delegates. William A.
List of United Kingdom by-elections
Secretary of State for the Colonies. Huntingdon. 4 March 1858. Jonathan Peel. Secretary of State for War and Secretary at War. Cambridge University. 4 March 1858. Spencer Horatio Walpole. Home Secretary. Wenlock. 3 March 1858. George Weld-Forester. Comptroller of the Household. Stamford. 3 March 1858. Sir Frederic Thesiger. Lord Chancellor and elevation to the peerage. Droitwich. 3 March 1858. Sir John Pakington. First Lord of the Admiralty. Cockermouth. 3 March 1858. Lord Naas. Chief Secretary for Ireland. Bridgnorth. 3 March 1858. Henry Whitmore. Junior Lord of the Treasury. Wicklow. 25 February 1858. Viscount Milton. Succession to a peerage. -bgcolor=lightblue.
19071907 Colonial ConferenceColonial Conference of 1907
The Imperial Conference of 1907 was convened in London on 15 April 1907 as the Colonial Conference of 1907 and concluded on 14 May 1907. During the sessions a resolution was passed renaming this and future meetings Imperial Conferences. The chairman of the conference was British prime minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman.
1945 King's Birthday Honours14 June 1945King's Birthday Honours
Clifford George Jarrett, lately Principal Private Secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty. William Clarence Johnson, OBE, Chief Constable of Birmingham. Reginald Monk Jones, Assistant Secretary, Air Ministry. Brevet Colonel Thomas Otto Jones, MBE, TD, DL, Secretary, Territorial Army and Air Force Association in the County of Glamorgan. Brigadier-General Cecil Courtney Lucas, MC, Assistant Secretary, Ministry of Home Security. James Lythgoe, City Treasurer, Manchester. James Wallace McDavid, DSc, FRIC, MIChemE, Managing Delegate Director, Explosives Division, Imperial Chemical Industries (Explosives) Ltd. James Reid McGregor, MC, Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for War.
List of United Kingdom by-electionsList of United Kingdom by-elections (1885-1900)Dover by-election
First Lord of the Admiralty 2. Horncastle. 12 August 1886 1. Edward Stanhope. Secretary of State for the Colonies 2. Isle of Wight. 12 August 1886 1. Sir Richard Webster. Attorney General for England and Wales 2. Tiverton. 12 August 1886 1. William Walrond. Lord Commissioner of the Treasury 2. St George's, Tower Hamlets. 12 August 1886. Charles Thomson Ritchie. President of the Local Government Board 2. Sheffield Ecclesall. 11 August 1886 1. Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett. Civil Lord of the Admiralty 2. Plymouth. 11 August 1886 1. Edward George Clarke. Solicitor General for England and Wales 2. Manchester East. 11 August 1886 1. Arthur James Balfour. Secretary for Scotland 2.
Apollo University Lodge No 357Apollo University Lodge No. 357
Alan Lennox-Boyd, 1st Viscount Boyd of Merton, Conservative politician and Secretary of State for the Colonies. Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, Liberal politician and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Richard Lewis, Bishop of Llandaff. John Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin, Conservative politician, President of the Board of Trade, and Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Walter Long, 1st Viscount Long, Irish Unionist politician, Secretary of State for the Colonies, and First Lord of the Admiralty. Robert Lowe, Liberal politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Home Secretary.
Ashmead-BartlettAshmead-Bartlett''', EllisEllis Ashmead Bartlett
During his time in London, he met with most of the senior political figures including Bonar Law (the Colonial Secretary), Winston Churchill (by that time displaced as First Lord of the Admiralty), Arthur Balfour (Churchill's replacement at the Admiralty), and H. H. Asquith (the Prime Minister). He was also questioned by Lord Kitchener (the Secretary of State for War). When he returned to Gallipoli, Ashmead-Bartlett established himself on the island of Imbros, which was also the site of Hamilton's headquarters. Here Ashmead-Bartlett lived in relative safety and comfort, and even brought his own cook from Paris.
Lord LoreburnRobert ReidSir Robert Reid
Reginald McKenna had recently been deprived of his position as First Lord of the Admiralty for refusing to provide military aid to the French, and he led the majority (whose members included Loreburn, McKenna, Colonial Secretary Lewis Vernon Harcourt, and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Jack Pease) in "a strong line about Cabinet supremacy over all other bodies in the matter of sea and land defence". Lord Esher wrote, "There has been a serious crisis. Fifteen members of the Cabinet against five. The Entente is decidedly imperilled." He was created Earl Loreburn on 4 July 1911.