Variolation

inoculatedvaccineinoculation against smallpox
Although the article did not gain widespread notoriety, it caught the attention of two important figures in the variolation movement, Bostonian preacher Cotton Mather and the wife of the British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. No stranger to smallpox, Lady Mary had lost her brother to the devastating disease. Soon afterwards she also contracted smallpox. Although she survived she was left with severe facial scarring. While in Turkey she came across the process of variolation as it was practiced amongst the people of Constantinople.

Vaccine controversies

anti-vaccinationanti-vaccination movementanti-vaccine
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduced variolation to England. She had seen it used in Turkey and, in 1718, had her son successfully variolated in Constantinople under the supervision of Dr. Charles Maitland. When she returned to England in 1721, she had her daughter variolated by Maitland. This aroused considerable interest, and Sir Hans Sloane organized the variolation of some inmates in Newgate Prison. These were successful, and after a further short trial in 1722, two daughters of Caroline of Ansbach Princess of Wales were variolated without mishap. With this royal approval, the procedure became common when smallpox epidemics threatened.

Princess Amelia of Great Britain

Princess AmeliaAmelia Amelia
Though comparatively healthy as an adult, Amelia was a sickly child and her mother employed Johann Georg Steigerthal and Hans Sloane to treat her as well as secretly asking advice from physician John Freind. In 1722, her mother, who had progressive ideas, had Amelia and her sister Caroline inoculated against smallpox by an early type of immunisation known as variolation, which had been brought to England from Constantinople by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Charles Maitland. On 11 June 1727, George I died and her father succeeded him as George II. She lived with her father until his death in 1760.

Edward Wortley Montagu (diplomat)

Edward Wortley MontaguEdward Wortley-MontaguEdward Wortley
On his death he left the hall and a large fortune to his daughter Mary, having in 1755 cut off his son Edward with only a small allowance. Mary married the future Prime Minister, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. * The Life of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu - Robert Halsband - Clarendon Press - 1956

Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculation
Charles Maitland successfully inoculated the five-year-old son of the British ambassador to the Turkish court under orders from the ambassador's wife Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who four years later introduced the practice to England. An account from letter by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu to Sarah Chiswell, dated 1 April 1717, from the Turkish Embassy describes this treatment: The small-pox so fatal and so general amongst us is here entirely harmless by the invention of ingrafting (which is the term they give it). There is a set of old women who make it their business to perform the operation.

George II of Great Britain

George IIKing George IIPrince of Wales
In June 1705, under the false name of "Monsieur de Busch", George visited the Ansbach court at their summer residence in Triesdorf to investigate incognito a marriage prospect: Caroline of Ansbach, the former ward of his aunt Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia. The English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley, reported that George was so taken by "the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else". A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July. On 22 August / 2 September 1705 Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, which was held the same evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen.

Voltaire

VoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)Voltairianism
Voltaire circulated throughout English high society, meeting Alexander Pope, John Gay, Jonathan Swift, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, and many other members of the nobility and royalty. Voltaire's exile in Great Britain greatly influenced his thinking. He was intrigued by Britain's constitutional monarchy in contrast to French absolutism, and by the country's greater support of the freedoms of speech and religion. He was influenced by the writers of the age, and developed an interest in earlier English literature, especially the works of Shakespeare, still relatively unknown in continental Europe.

George I of Great Britain

George IKing George IKing George
It was widely assumed, even by Walpole for a time, that George II planned to remove Walpole from office but was prevented from doing so by his wife, Caroline of Ansbach. However, Walpole commanded a substantial majority in Parliament and George II had little choice but to retain him or risk ministerial instability. In subsequent reigns the power of the prime minister increased further at the expense of the power of the sovereign. George was ridiculed by his British subjects; some of his contemporaries, such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, thought him unintelligent on the grounds that he was wooden in public.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The Ottoman Empire (, ', literally "The Exalted Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey''', was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire.

Immunization

immunisationimmunizationsimmunize
According to Voltaire (1742), the Turks derived their use of inoculation from neighbouring Circassia. Voltaire does not speculate on where the Circassians derived their technique from, though he reports that the Chinese have practiced it "these hundred years". It was introduced into England from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in 1721 and used by Zabdiel Boylston in Boston the same year. In 1798 Edward Jenner introduced inoculation with cowpox (smallpox vaccine), a much safer procedure. This procedure, referred to as vaccination, gradually replaced smallpox inoculation, now called variolation to distinguish it from vaccination.

Edward Wortley Montagu (traveller)

Edward Wortley MontaguEdwardEdward Wortley Montagu the younger
He was the son of Edward Wortley Montagu, MP and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, whose talent and eccentricity he seems to have inherited. In 1716 he was taken by his parents to Constantinople, and at Pera in March 1716-17 was inoculated for smallpox, being the first native of the United Kingdom to undergo the operation. On the return of his parents to England in 1718 he was placed at Westminster School, from which he ran away more than once. On the first occasion in July 1726, he was traced to Oxford, and was with difficulty 'reduced to the humble condition of a school-boy.' He decamped again in August 1727, and was not recovered for some months.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanIstanbulcapital
Alice-Mary Talbot cites an estimated population for Constantinople of 400,000 inhabitants; after the destruction wrought by the Crusaders on the city, about one third were homeless, and numerous courtiers, nobility, and higher clergy, followed various leading personages into exile. "As a result Constantinople became seriously depopulated," Talbot concludes. The Latins took over at least 20 churches and 13 monasteries, most prominently the Hagia Sophia, which became the cathedral of the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. It is to these that E.H.

London

London, EnglandLondon, UKLondon, United Kingdom
London's skyscrapers, such as 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower and One Canada Square, are mostly in the two financial districts, the City of London and Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St Paul's Cathedral and other historic buildings. Nevertheless, there are a number of tall skyscrapers in central London (see Tall buildings in London), including the 95-storey Shard London Bridge, the tallest building in the European Union.

Princess Caroline of Great Britain

CarolinePrincess CarolineCaroline Elizabeth
In 1714, Queen Anne died, and Caroline's grandfather became George I and her father Prince of Wales. At the age of one year, Caroline accompanied her mother and elder sisters, the Princesses Anne and Amelia, to Great Britain, and the family resided at St James's Palace, London. She was then styled as a Princess of Great Britain. A newly attributed list from January–February 1728 documents her personal expenses, including charitable contributions to several Protestant groups in London. In 1722, at the direction of her mother, she was inoculated against smallpox by variolation, an early type of immunisation popularised by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Charles Maitland.

Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange

AnneAnne, Princess RoyalAnne, Princess of Orange
Anne contracted and survived smallpox in 1720, and two years later her mother helped to popularise the practice of variolation (an early type of immunisation against smallpox), which had been witnessed by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Charles Maitland in Constantinople. At the direction of Caroline, six prisoners condemned to death were offered the chance to undergo variolation instead of execution: they all survived, as did six orphan children given the same treatment as a further test. Convinced of its medical value, the Queen had her two younger daughters, Amelia and Caroline, inoculated successfully.

Claudius Amyand (surgeon)

Claudius Amyand
In 1722, he inoculated three of the children of the Prince and Princess of Wales against smallpox, following the introduction of the process into the country from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. At St George's Hospital, on 6 December 1735, he performed the first recorded successful appendicectomy (which is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix). The patient was an 11-year boy named Hanvil Anderson who had an inguinal hernia combined with an acutely inflamed appendix. This situation, where the appendix is included in the hernial sac, is known as an Amyand's hernia. Amyand described the operation himself in a paper for the Royal Society.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
History of Vaccines Medical education site from the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, the oldest medical professional society in the US. Images of vaccine-preventable diseases. Immunisation, BBC Radio 4 discussion with Nadja Durbach, Chris Dye & Sanjoy Bhattacharya (In Our Time, Apr. 20, 2006).

Edward Jenner

JennerJenner, EdwardDr. Edward Jenner
Inoculation was already a standard practice but involved serious risks, one of which was the fear that those inoculated would then transfer the disease to those around them due to their becoming carriers of the disease. In 1721, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu had imported variolation to Britain after having observed it in Constantinople. Voltaire wrote that at this time 60% of the population caught smallpox and 20% of the population died of it. Voltaire also states that the Circassians used the inoculation from times immemorial, and the custom may have been borrowed by the Turks from the Circassians.

1721 in literature

1721
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduces the Ottoman Turkish method of inoculation against smallpox – variolation – to London; the Princess of Wales is persuaded to test the treatment and the procedure becomes fashionable. Thomas Parnell's A Night-Piece on Death is published, inaugurating the "Graveyard poets" movement. Joseph Addison – The Works of Joseph Addison. Penelope Aubin. The Strange Adventures of the Count de Vinevil and His Family. The Life of Madam de Beaumont. Nathan Bailey – An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. George Berkeley – An Essay Towards Preventing the Ruine of Great Britain. Richard Blackmore – A New Version of the Psalms of David.

Timeline of medicine and medical technology

medical author in antiquity
But it was Paré's writings which were the most influential. 1518 – College of Physicians founded now known as Royal College of Physicians of London is a British professional body of doctors of general medicine and its subspecialties.

Andrew Cantwell

Cantwell had translated a paper from 1740 by Stephen Hales in this area into French; and went on to translate work of Hans Sloane on the eyes. Cantwell became a persistent opponent of inoculation against small-pox, and made an extended stay in England to study the practice and its results. He took issue with the favourable views of James Jurin and Charles Marie de La Condamine. He wrote a Dissertation on Inoculation (Paris, 1755), an Account of Small-pox (Paris, 1758), and Latin dissertations on medicine.

Matthew Maty

Dr Matthew Maty
He was in the same year admitted a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians. In 1772, on the death of Gowin Knight, Maty was nominated his successor as principal librarian of the British Museum. In his capacity as chief librarian he placed, like his predecessor, difficulties in the way of visitors. He bought a number of valuable books for the Museum at Anthony Askew's sale in 1775. Maty died on 2 July 1776. His books were sold in 1777 by Benjamin White. Maty's chief works are: His contributions to the Philosophical Transactions are enumerated in Robert Watt's Biblioteca Britannica.

History of smallpox

smallpoxsmallpox epidemicsmallpox epidemics
In 1713, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's brother died of smallpox; she too contracted the virus two years later at the age of twenty-six, leaving her badly scarred. When her husband was made ambassador to Ottoman Empire, she accompanied him to Constantinople. It was here that Lady Mary first came upon variolation. Two Greek women made it their business to engraft people with pox that left them un-scarred and unable to catch the pox again. In a letter, she wrote that she intended to have her own son undergo the process and would try to bring variolation into fashion in England. Her son underwent the procedure, which was performed by Charles Maitland, and survived with no ill effects.

Frederick, Prince of Wales

FrederickPrince of WalesPrince Frederick
In the year of Anne's death and the coronation of George I, Frederick's parents, George, Prince of Wales (later George II), and Caroline of Ansbach, were called upon to leave Hanover for Great Britain when their eldest son was only seven years old. He was left in the care of his grand-uncle Ernest Augustus, Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück, and did not see his parents again for 14 years. In 1722, the 15-year-old Frederick was inoculated against smallpox by Charles Maitland on the instructions of his mother Caroline.

Immunity (medical)

immunityimmuneimmune response
In Europe, the induction of active immunity emerged in an attempt to contain smallpox. Immunization, however, had existed in various forms for at least a thousand years. The earliest use of immunization is unknown, however, around 1000 A.D. the Chinese began practicing a form of immunization by drying and inhaling powders derived from the crusts of smallpox lesions. Around the fifteenth century in India, the Ottoman Empire, and east Africa, the practice of inoculation (poking the skin with powdered material derived from smallpox crusts) became quite common. This practice was first introduced into the west in 1721 by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.