cowpox virusCow Poxcow-pox
The cowpox vaccination saved the British Army thousands of soldiers, by making them immune to the effects of smallpox in upcoming wars. The cowpox also saved the United Kingdom thousands of pounds. Kinepox is an alternative term for the smallpox vaccine used in early 19th-century America. Popularized by Jenner in the late 1790s, kinepox was a far safer method for inoculating people against smallpox than the previous method, variolation, which had a 3% fatality rate.

Royal Society

FRSFellow of the Royal SocietyRoyal Society of London
Although the overall fellowship contained few noted scientists, most of the council were highly regarded, and included at various times John Hadley, William Jones and Hans Sloane. Because of the laxness of fellows in paying their subscriptions, the society ran into financial difficulty during this time; by 1740, the society had a deficit of £240. This continued into 1741, at which point the treasurer began dealing harshly with fellows who had not paid.

Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull

Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Marquess of DorchesterThe Duke of KingstonThe Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull
Lady Mary Pierrepoint (d.1762), who married the diplomat Edward Wortley-Montagu. Lady Caroline Pierrepont (d.1753) who married Thomas Brand (1717–1770), MP. Lady Frances Pierrepont (d.1761), who married John Erskine, Earl of Mar. Lady Evelyn Pierrepont (d.1727) who married John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower and was mother of Gertrude, Duchess of Bedford. William, Earl of Kingston, who died of smallpox, aged 20, in July 1713. He married and had a daughter Frances (d.1795) and a son Evelyn.

Letters from Turkey

Turkish Embassy Letters
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762) was the wife of Edward Wortley Montagu, the British ambassador to Ottoman Empire between 1716-1718. The letters about her travels and observations about Ottoman life was published under the title Turkish Embassy Letters. One of her important observations was the primitive form of smallpox vaccination. Kelemen Mikes (1690–1761) was a Hungarian essayist, noted for his rebellious activities against the Habsburg Monarchy. Although backed by Ottoman Empire, Hungarian rebels were defeated and had to choose a life in exile. After 1715, Mikes spent the rest of his life in Tekirdağ, a city near to İstanbul (also known as Constantinople).

Clopton Havers

Havers, Clopton
In February 1700, Havers reported to the Royal Society on a Chinese practice of smallpox inoculation, which involved inhaling dried matter from a smallpox pustule. Havers married Dorcas Fuller, daughter of Thomas Fuller, the Rector of Willingale. He died in Willingale, Essex, in 1702 and was buried at Willingale Doe, Essex. His funeral sermon, dedicated to his widow, was preached by Lilly Butler, minister of St Mary Aldermanbury, and was later printed in quarto.


Lat.Latin languagelat
Canada's motto A mari usque ad mare ("from sea to sea") and most provincial mottos are also in Latin. The Canadian Victoria Cross is modelled after the British Victoria Cross which has the inscription "For Valour". Because Canada is officially bilingual, the Canadian medal has replaced the English inscription with the Latin Pro Valore.


During the Late Middle Ages and early modern era, French cuisine played a role in Scottish cookery due to cultural exchanges brought about by the "Auld Alliance", especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, on her return to Scotland, brought an entourage of French staff who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and for some of Scotland's unique food terminology. National newspapers such as the Daily Record, The Herald, The Scotsman and The National are all produced in Scotland. Important regional dailies include the Evening News in Edinburgh, The Courier in Dundee in the east, and The Press and Journal serving Aberdeen and the north.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen AnneAnnePrincess Anne
Mary visited her, but instead of offering comfort took the opportunity to berate Anne once again for her friendship with Sarah. The sisters never saw each other again. Later that year, Anne moved to Berkeley House in Piccadilly, London, where she had a stillborn daughter in March 1693. When Mary died of smallpox in 1694, William continued to reign alone. Anne became his heir apparent, since any children he might have by another wife were assigned to a lower place in the line of succession, and the two reconciled publicly.

Martin Lister

Dr. Martin ListerLister
Martin Lister FRS (12 April 1639 – 2 February 1712) was an English naturalist and physician. His daughters Anne Lister and Susannah Lister were two of his illustrators and engravers.

Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

Sarah ChurchillDuchess of MarlboroughSarah, Duchess of Marlborough
Following the death of Mary II from smallpox in 1694, William III restored Anne’s honours, as she was now next in line to the throne, and provided her with apartments at St. James's Palace. He also restored the Earl of Marlborough to all his offices and honours, and exonerated him from any past accusations. However, fearing Sarah’s powerful influence, William kept Anne out of government affairs, and he did not make her regent in his absences though she was now his heir apparent. In 1702, King William III died, and Anne became queen. Anne immediately offered John Churchill a dukedom, which Sarah initially refused.

John Arbuthnot

ArbuthnotDr John ArbuthnotArbuthnot, John
The pamphlet suggested that the funeral directors of London might wish to sue the Royal College of Physicians as well to ensure that drug safety remained poor. In 1727, he was made an elect of the Royal College of Physicians. In 1726 and 1727, Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope reunited at Arbuthnot's house during visits, and Swift showed Arbuthnot the manuscript of Gulliver's Travels ahead of time. The detailed parody of on-going Royal Society projects in book III of Gulliver's Travels likely came from "hints" from Arbuthnot. The visit also bore fruit in Pope's The Dunciad of 1729 (the second edition), where Arbuthnot probably wrote the "Virgilius restauratus" satirizing Richard Bentley.

Timeline of immunology

Timeline of immunology: 1549 – The earliest account of inoculation of smallpox (variolation) occurs in Wan Quan's (1499–1582) Douzhen Xinfa . 1718 – Smallpox inoculation in Ottoman Empire realized by West.

Women in science

women scientistsfemale scientistsscience
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu defied convention by introducing smallpox inoculation through variolation to Western medicine after witnessing it during her travels in the Ottoman Empire. In 1718 Wortley Montague had her son inoculated and when in 1721 a smallpox epidemic struck England, she had her daughter inoculated. This was the first such operation done in Britain. She persuaded Caroline of Ansbach to test the treatment on prisoners. Princess Caroline subsequently inoculated her two daughters in 1722. Under a pseudonym, Wortley Montague published an article describing and advocating in favor of inoculation in September 1722.

1721 in Great Britain

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduces smallpox inoculation to Britain: the Princess of Wales is persuaded to test the treatment and the procedure becomes fashionable. Thomas Guy founds Guy's Hospital in London. Nathan Bailey publishes An Universal Etymological English Dictionary.

1721 in science

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduces the Ottoman Turkish method of inoculation against smallpox – variolation – to London. Thomas Guy founds Guy's Hospital in London to treat "incurables" discharged from St Thomas'.

Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
For instance, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who campaigned for the introduction of inoculation (then called variolation) to prevent smallpox, arranged for seven prisoners who had been sentenced to death to undergo variolation in exchange for their life. Although they survived and did not contract smallpox, there was no control group to assess whether this result was due to the inoculation or some other factor. Similar experiments performed by Edward Jenner over his smallpox vaccine were equally conceptually flawed. The first proper clinical trial was conducted by the physician James Lind.

Pierce Dod

Pierce Dod FRS, FRCP (1683–1754) was a British physician and opponent of smallpox inoculation. He graduated from Brasenose College, Oxford in 1701, received his MA in 1705, MD in 1714 and was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1720. He was made a physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital from 1725 until his death, and he joined the Royal Society in 1730. His entry into the smallpox controversy occurred in 1746. He wrote ''Several cases in physick, and one in particular, giving an account of a person who was inoculated for the small-pox. . . and yet had it again.'' The pamphlet discussed nine cases that were to prove that inoculation was not effective.

Brooklyn Heights

Brooklyn Heights, New YorkColumbia HeightsBreuckelen
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689–1762), a cousin of the Pierrepont family, best remembered for bringing the concept of inoculation against smallpox to the attention of the British public, Montague Street was named after her. Mary Tyler Moore (1936–2017), actress. Errol Morris (born 1948), film director. Gary Leonard Oldman (born 1958), English actor and filmmaker. Mary-Louise Parker (born 1964), actress and writer. Sarah Jessica Parker (born 1965), actress. Joseph Pennell (1857–1926), painter. Hezekiah Pierrepont (1768-1838) merchant, farmer, landowner and land developer in Brooklyn and New York state. John Podhoretz (born 1961), commentator. Ernest Poole (1880–1950), novelist.

Alexander Stuart (scientist)

Alexander Stuart
In 1728 he became a physician-in-ordinary for Caroline of Ansbach and was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians the same year. He retired in 1736. In 1738 he gave the first Croonian Lecture of the Royal Society, and in 1740 he was awarded the Copley Medal by the same institution. He delivered the Croonian Lecture again in 1740. Despite the money he was earning as physician-in-ordinary he was heavily in debt when he died on 15 September 1742.

Dan Beach Bradley

BradleyDr. Dan Beach Bradley
Bradley's greatest medical challenge while in Siam was attempting to produce a vaccination for the smallpox virus, which devastated the country and killed Bradley's eight-month-old daughter, Harriet. Bradley received trial vaccines from Boston, none of which were successful. Bradley solved this problem by using the inoculation technique. (The inoculation technique was documented as having a mortality rate of only one in a thousand. Two years after Dr Peter Kennedy's description appeared, March 1718, Dr. Charles Maitland successfully inoculated the five-year-old son of the British ambassador to the Turkish court under orders from the ambassador's wife Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.

Henrietta Louisa Fermor

Henrietta Louisa JeffreysHenrietta Louisa, Countess of PomfretHenrietta Jeffreys
., and in September 1727 was appointed master of the horse to Queen Caroline, to whom also Lady Pomfret was one of the ladies of the bedchamber. On the death of the queen in November 1737 Lady Pomfret, with her friend Frances, countess of Hertford, retired from court. In September 1738 she and her husband made a three years' tour in France and Italy. At Florence, where they arrived on 20 December 1739, they were visited by Horace Walpole and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. They soon afterwards returned to England by way of Bologna, Venice, Augsburg, Frankfort and Brussels, reaching home in October 1741.

Frances Vane, Viscountess Vane

Lady VaneFrancesViscountess Vane
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's reaction to the memoirs was more careful and restrained. In a 1752 letter to her daughter, the Countess of Bute, she wrote: "[Lady Vane's] History, rightly considered, would be more instructive to young Women than any Sermon I know. They may see there the mortifications and variety of misery are the unavoidable consequences of Galantrys." After the publication of her memoirs, Lady Vane spent most of her time in Bath, Somerset. Her erratic lifestyle soon ruined her husband's finances. Struck by an illness, she was bedridden for the last 20 years of her life. During that time, she contemplated converting to Roman Catholicism.


The History of Vaccines, from the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. This website was highlighted by Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News in its "Best of the Web" section in January 2015. See:. University of Oxford Vaccinology Programme: a series of short courses in vaccinology.

John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey

Lord HerveyJohn, Lord HerveyJohn Hervey
Caroline Hervey (1736–1819), unmarried Hervey was bisexual. He had an affair with Anne Vane, and possibly with Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Princess Caroline. He lived with Stephen Fox often during the decade after he followed him to Italy in 1728. He wrote passionate love letters to Francesco Algarotti, whom he first met in 1736. He may have had a sexual affair with Prince Frederick before their friendship dissolved.

Cotton Mather

CottonMathergiving a speech on horseback
Public discourse ranged in tone from organized arguments by John Williams from Boston, who posted that "several arguments proving that inoculating the smallpox is not contained in the law of Physick, either natural or divine, and therefore unlawful", to those put forth in a pamphlet by Dr. William Douglass of Boston, entitled The Abuses and Scandals of Some Late Pamphlets in Favour of Inoculation of the Small Pox (1721), on the qualifications of inoculation's proponents. (Douglass was exceptional at the time for holding a medical degree from Europe.) At the extreme, in November 1721, someone hurled a lighted grenade into Mather's home.