Lady Louisa Stuart

Louisa
At Gloucester-pl., aged 94, Lady Louisa Stuart, youngest daughter of John Earl of Bute K.G., the prime minister, and the grand-daughter of Lady Mary Wortley Montague. To this lady we owe the charming Introductory Anecdotes prefixed to the late Lord Wharncliffe's edition of Lady Mary's Works. Lady Louisa remembered to have seen her grandmother, Lady Mary, when at old Wortley's death that celebrated woman returned to London after her long and still unexplained exile from England.

Robert Walpole

Sir Robert WalpoleWalpoleMr. Walpool
Walpole's fellow members, appointed by the Prince of Wales, included William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath – Secretary at War, General Lumley, General Erle and Sir Philip Meadowes – Controller of the Army and Knight Marshal of the King's Palace, whose daughter, Mary Meadows, was Maid-of-honour to Walpole's friend, Queen Caroline. A keen huntsman, Walpole built for himself Great Lodge (Old Lodge) in Richmond Park. Philip Medows, the deputy ranger of the park and son of Walpole's political ally, Sir Philip Meadowes, lived at Great Lodge after Walpole had vacated it.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical TransactionsPhil. Trans.Transactions
By the mid-eighteenth century, the most notable editors, besides Oldenburg, were Hans Sloane, James Jurin and Cromwell Mortimer. In virtually all cases the journal was edited by the serving secretary of the society (and occasionally by both secretaries working in tandem). These editor-secretaries carried the financial burden of publishing the Philosophical Transactions. By the early 1750s, the Philosophical Transactions came under attack, most prominently by John Hill, an actor, apothecary, and naturalist. Hill published three works in two years, ridiculing the Royal Society and the Philosophical Transactions.

William III of England

William IIIWilliam of OrangeKing William III
Baptised William Henry (Willem Hendrik), he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and sister of King Charles II and King James II and VII. Eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox; thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William II's mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth
On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir. On 17 November 1558, Mary died and Elizabeth succeeded to the throne. Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance.

Qing dynasty

QingChinaQing China
Diseases such as smallpox, which had been quite widespread in the seventeenth century, that had formerly terrorized the population were brought under control due to a new increase in vaccines. In addition, infant deaths were also greatly decreased due to improvements in birthing techniques and childcare performed by doctors and midwives and through an increase in medical books available to the public. There was also a great decrease in the practice of infanticide, which had previously been more prevalent towards but not limited to girls.

Artificial induction of immunity

induced immunityinducing immunitydeliberate actions
Variolation had the disadvantage that the inoculating agent used was still an active form of smallpox and, although less potent, could still kill the inoculee or spread in its full form to others nearby. However, as the risk of death from inoculation with Variola Minor was just 1% to 2%, as compared to the 20% risk of death from the natural form of smallpox, the risks of inoculation were generally considered acceptable. In 1796, Edward Jenner, a doctor and scientist who had practiced variolation, performed an experiment based on the folk-knowledge that infection with cowpox, a disease with minor symptoms which was never fatal, also conferred immunity to smallpox.

John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute

Lord ButeEarl of ButeThe Earl of Bute
On 24 August 1736, he married Mary Wortley Montagu (daughter of Sir Edward and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu), bringing the large Wortley estates to his family. In 1737, due to the influence of his uncles, he was elected a Scottish representative peer, but he was not very active in the Lords and was not reelected in 1741. For the next several years he retired to his estates in Scotland to manage his affairs and indulge his interest in botany. During the Jacobite rising of 1745, Bute moved to Westminster, London, and two years later met Prince Frederick, the Prince of Wales there, soon becoming a close associate of the Prince.

Rinderpest

cattle plaguerinderpest virusRinderpest morbillivirus
The first written report of rinderpest inoculation was published in a letter signed 'T.S.' in the November 1754 issue of The Gentleman's Magazine, a widely read journal which also supported the progress of smallpox inoculation. This letter reported that a Mr Dobsen had inoculated his cattle and had thus preserved 9 out of 10 of them, although this was retracted in the next issue, as it was apparently a Sir William St. Quintin who had done the inoculating (this was done by placing bits of material previously dipped in morbid discharge into an incision made in the dewlap of the animal). These letters encouraged further application of inoculation in the fight against diseases.

Chelsea, London

ChelseaChelsea FieldChelsea in London
These include Lord and Lady Dacre (1594/1595); Lady Jane Cheyne (1698); Francis Thomas, "director of the china porcelain manufactory"; Sir Hans Sloane (1753); Thomas Shadwell, Poet Laureate (1692). The intended tomb Sir Thomas More erected for himself and his wives can also be found there, though More is not in fact buried here. In 1718, the Raw Silk Company was established in Chelsea Park, with mulberry trees and a hothouse for raising silkworms. At its height in 1723, it supplied silk to Caroline of Ansbach, then Princess of Wales.

Hot chocolate

cocoahot cocoadrinking chocolate
In the late 17th century, Hans Sloane, president of the Royal College of Physicians, visited Jamaica. There, he tried chocolate and considered it "nauseous", but found it became more palatable when mixed with milk. When he returned to England, he brought the recipe with him, introducing milk chocolate to England. The aristocratic nature of the drink led to chocolate being referred to as "the drink of the gods" in 1797. The Spanish began to use jicaras made of porcelain in place of the hollowed gourds used by the natives. They then further tinkered with the recipes by using spices such as cinnamon, black pepper, anise, and sesame.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfectious
The introduction of smallpox, measles, and typhus to the areas of Central and South America by European explorers during the 15th and 16th centuries caused pandemics among the native inhabitants. Between 1518 and 1568 disease pandemics are said to have caused the population of Mexico to fall from 20 million to 3 million. The first European influenza epidemic occurred between 1556 and 1560, with an estimated mortality rate of 20%. Smallpox killed an estimated 60 million Europeans during the 18th century (approximately 400,000 per year). Up to 30% of those infected, including 80% of the children under 5 years of age, died from the disease, and one-third of the survivors went blind.

Balmis Expedition

an 1803 expedition to Spanish AmericaAng Espedisyong Balmisexpedition
Francisco Javier de Balmis with the aim of vaccinating millions against smallpox. Vaccination, a much safer way to prevent smallpox than older methods such as inoculation, had been introduced by the English physician Edward Jenner in 1798. The Balmis expedition, officially called Real Expedición Filantrópica de la Vacuna (Royal Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition), set off from A Coruña on 30 November 1803. It may be considered the first international healthcare expedition in history. Jenner himself wrote, "I don't imagine the annals of history furnish an example of philanthropy so noble, so extensive as this."

Eradication of infectious diseases

eradicationeradicatedisease eradication programme
Smallpox was the first disease, and so far the only infectious disease of humans, to be eradicated by deliberate intervention. It became the first disease for which there was an effective vaccine in 1798 when Edward Jenner showed the protective effect of inoculation (vaccination) of humans with material from cowpox lesions. Smallpox (variola) occurred in two clinical varieties: variola major, with a mortality rate of up to 40 percent, and variola minor, also known as alastrim, with a mortality rate less than one percent. The last naturally occurring case of Variola major was diagnosed in October 1975 in Bangladesh.

Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach

Eleonore Erdmuthe LuiseEleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-EisenachEleanor Erdmuthe Louise
George II and Queen Caroline. Stroud, Gloucestershire: The History Press, 2013. 240 p. ISBN: 0750954485, ISBN: 9780750954488. google.books.com. Weir, Alison. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. Random House, 2011 pp. 277–278. 400 p. ISBN: 1446449114, ISBN: 9781446449110. google.books.com.

George Edwards (naturalist)

George EdwardsEdwardsG. Edwards
In 1733, on the recommendation of Hans Sloane, he was appointed librarian to the Royal College of Physicians in London. Sir Hans Sloane, founder of the British Museum, had employed George Edwards as a natural history painter for many years, and Edwards drew miniature figures of animals for him. Edwards visited Sloane once a week to share news and a coffee. Sloane kept track of Edwards's expenses and reimbursed him annually. Edwards served as College librarian for thirty-six years. He was chosen Fellow of the Royal Society and of the London Society of Antiquaries and was rewarded with the Copley Medal.

Medicine

medicalmedical sciencemedicinal
In the UK, this was traditionally evidenced by passing the examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (MRCP) or the equivalent college in Scotland or Ireland. "Surgery" refers to the practice of operative medicine, and most subspecialties in this area require preliminary training in General Surgery, which in the UK leads to membership of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (MRCS). At present, some specialties of medicine do not fit easily into either of these categories, such as radiology, pathology, or anesthesia.

Cabinet of curiosities

cabinets of curiositiescabinetwunderkammer
Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1753) was an English physician, a member of the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians, and the founder of the British Museum in London. He began sporadically collecting plants in England and France while studying medicine. In 1687, the Duke of Albemarle offered Sloane a position as personal physician to the West Indies fleet at Jamaica. He accepted and spent fifteen months collecting and cataloguing the native plants, animals, and artificial curiosities (e.g. cultural artifacts of native and African populations) of Jamaica. This became the basis for his two volume work, Natural History of Jamaica, published in 1707 and 1725.

Giacomo Pylarini

. * Rotting face : smallpox and the American Indian, By R. G. Robertson (An account of the variolation. - pages 47 – 48)

Zabdiel Boylston

Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, FRS
After his initial inoculations of his son and two slaves, he was arrested for a short period of time for it (he was later released with the promise not to inoculate without government permission). In 1724, with a letter of introduction to Dr. James Jurin by Cotton Mather, Boylston traveled to London, where he published his results as Historical Account of the Small-Pox Inoculated in New England, and became a fellow of the Royal Society two years later. Afterward, he returned to Boston. *Dr. Zabdiel Boylston Adams Jr. (b. Oct. 25, 1829 - d. May 1, 1902) * Thacher, James, "American medical biography: or, Memoirs of eminent physicians", Volume 1, 1828.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
As was typical in wars of the era, diseases such as smallpox claimed more lives than battle. Between 1775 and 1782, a smallpox epidemic broke out throughout North America, killing 40 people in Boston alone. Historian Joseph Ellis suggests that Washington's decision to have his troops inoculated against the disease was one of his most important decisions. Between 25,000 and 70,000 American Patriots died during active military service. Of these, approximately 6,800 were killed in battle, while at least 17,000 died from disease. The majority of the latter died while prisoners of war of the British, mostly in the prison ships in New York Harbor.

Elizabeth Grenville

Elizabeth
Wyndham suffered from smallpox when she was young, which left scarring on her face. Wyndham kept a book of newspaper cuttings, mostly relating to political subjects, and kept a diary of her husband's political career. She was also an amateur artist and produced several pastel works, including a self-portrait that was sold as part of the Stowe House sale of 1848. On 16 May 1749, Wyndham married George Grenville, then a Lord of the Treasury and an MP for Buckingham. Her grandfather, the Duke of Somerset, did not approve of the marriage and left Wyndham only a small amount of money in his will.

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly, analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision.

Pneumonia

bronchopneumoniabronchial pneumoniapneumonic
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.

Ming dynasty

MingMing ChinaMing Empire
Inoculation, although it can be traced to earlier Chinese folk medicine, was detailed in Chinese texts by the sixteenth century. Throughout the Ming dynasty, around fifty texts were published on the treatment of smallpox. In regards to oral hygiene, the ancient Egyptians had a primitive toothbrush of a twig frayed at the end, but the Chinese were the first to invent the modern bristle toothbrush in 1498, although it used stiff pig hair. Sinologist historians debate the population figures for each era in the Ming dynasty.