Elizabeth Grenville

Wyndham suffered from smallpox when she was young, which left scarring on her face. Wyndham kept a book of newspaper cuttings, mostly relating to political subjects, and kept a diary of her husband's political career. She was also an amateur artist and produced several pastel works, including a self-portrait that was sold as part of the Stowe House sale of 1848. On 16 May 1749, Wyndham married George Grenville, then a Lord of the Treasury and an MP for Buckingham. Her grandfather, the Duke of Somerset, did not approve of the marriage and left Wyndham only a small amount of money in his will.


bronchopneumoniabronchial pneumoniapneumonic
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.

Henry VIII of England

Henry VIIIKing Henry VIIIKing Henry VIII of England
During his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Henry conducted an affair with Mary Boleyn, Catherine's lady-in-waiting. There has been speculation that Mary's two children, Henry and Catherine Carey, were fathered by Henry, but this has never been proved, and the King never acknowledged them as he did Henry FitzRoy. In 1525, as Henry grew more impatient with Catherine's inability to produce the male heir he desired, he became enamoured of Mary Boleyn's sister, Anne, then a charismatic young woman of 25 in the Queen's entourage. Anne, however, resisted his attempts to seduce her, and refused to become his mistress as her sister Mary Boleyn had.

John Gay

GayGay, JohnMr Gay
John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club. He is best remembered for The Beggar's Opera (1728), a ballad opera. The characters, including Captain Macheath and Polly Peachum, became household names.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
In 1947 the WHO established an epidemiological information service via telex, and by 1950 a mass tuberculosis inoculation drive using the BCG vaccine was under way. In 1955, the malaria eradication programme was launched, although it was later altered in objective. 1965 saw the first report on diabetes mellitus and the creation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 1958, Viktor Zhdanov, Deputy Minister of Health for the USSR, called on the World Health Assembly to undertake a global initiative to eradicate smallpox, resulting in Resolution WHA11.54. At this point, 2 million people were dying from smallpox every year.

Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VIArchduke CharlesEmperor Charles VI
Instead, he died of smallpox in 1723, which upset Maria Theresa. Léopold Clément's younger brother, Francis Stephen, then came to Vienna to replace him. Charles considered other possibilities (such as Don Carlos) before announcing the engagement to Francis. At the end of the War of the Polish Succession, France demanded that Francis surrender the Duchy of Lorraine (his hereditary domain), to Stanisław Leszczyński, the deposed King of Poland, who would bequeath it to France at his death. Charles compelled Francis to renounce his rights to Lorraine and told him: "No renunciation, no archduchess."

Clopton Havers

Havers, Clopton
In February 1700, Havers reported to the Royal Society on a Chinese practice of smallpox inoculation, which involved inhaling dried matter from a smallpox pustule. Havers married Dorcas Fuller, daughter of Thomas Fuller, the Rector of Willingale. He died in Willingale, Essex, in 1702 and was buried at Willingale Doe, Essex. His funeral sermon, dedicated to his widow, was preached by Lilly Butler, minister of St Mary Aldermanbury, and was later printed in quarto.

Martin Lister

Dr. Martin ListerLister
Martin Lister FRS (12 April 1639 – 2 February 1712) was an English naturalist and physician. His daughters Anne Lister and Susannah Lister were two of his illustrators and engravers.

Elizabethan era

ElizabethanElizabethan EnglandElizabethan times
Mary had tried her hand at an aggressive anti-Protestant Inquisition and was hated for it; it was not to be repeated. Elizabeth managed to moderate and quell the intense religious passions of the time. This was in significant contrast to previous and succeeding eras of marked religious violence. Elizabeth said "I have no desire to make windows into mens' souls". Her desire to moderate the religious persecutions of previous Tudor reigns — the persecution of Catholics under Edward VI, and of Protestants under Mary I — appears to have had a moderating effect on English society.

Thomas Sydenham

SydenhamLord Thomas SydenhamSydenham, Thomas
In 1655 he resigned his fellowship at All Souls and married Mary Gee in his home town of Wynford Eagle. They had two sons, William (c.1660–1738) and Henry (1668?–1741); another son, James, apparently died young. In 1663 he passed the examinations of the College of Physicians for their licence to practice in Westminster and 6 miles round; but it is probable that he had been settled in London for some time before that. This minimum qualification to practice was the single bond between Sydenham and the College of Physicians throughout the whole of his career. He seems to have been distrusted by some members of the faculty because he was an innovator and something of a plain-dealer.

John George IV, Elector of Saxony

John George IVJohann Georg IVJohann Georg IV, Elector of Saxony
But the happiness ended soon: Magdalene Sybille contracted smallpox and died on 4 April 1694, in the arms of the Elector, who was also infected with the disease. John George died twenty-three days later, on 27 April. He was buried in the Freiberg Cathedral. Because he died without legitimate issue—Electress Eleonore suffered two miscarriages during their marriage, in August 1692 and February 1693—he was succeeded as Elector by his brother Frederick Augustus I (king of Poland as Augustus II of Poland). The new Elector took the guardianship of the little orphan Wilhelmina Maria, who was raised in the court.

Leicester Square

Leicester HouseLeicester FieldsLeicester
In 1726, anatomist Nathaniel St André claimed to have delivered rabbits from Mary Toft, a woman who lived at No. 27 Leicester Square. The event was widely reported around London, attracting interest from King George I and Royal Society president Hans Sloane. Shortly afterwards, the woman was caught trying to buy a rabbit in secret, and the incident was uncovered as a hoax. Leicester Square is commemorated in the lyrics of the music hall song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" along with nearby Piccadilly, which became popular with soldiers during World War I. During the war, British inmates of Ruhleben Prisoner of War camp mentioned the square in a song: "Shout this chorus all you can.


allergiesallergicallergic reaction
A 2003 Royal College of Physicians report presented a case for improvement of what were felt to be inadequate allergy services in the UK. In 2006, the House of Lords convened a subcommittee. It concluded likewise in 2007 that allergy services were insufficient to deal with what the Lords referred to as an "allergy epidemic" and its social cost; it made several recommendations. Low-allergen foods are being developed, as are improvements in skin prick test predictions; evaluation of the atopy patch test; in wasp sting outcomes predictions and a rapidly disintegrating epinephrine tablet, and anti-IL-5 for eosinophilic diseases.

Timeline of immunology

Timeline of immunology: 1549 – The earliest account of inoculation of smallpox (variolation) occurs in Wan Quan's (1499–1582) Douzhen Xinfa . 1718 – Smallpox inoculation in Ottoman Empire realized by West.

Earl of Wharncliffe

Countess of WharncliffeEarldom of WharncliffeEarls of Wharncliffe
He was a descendant of Edward Wortley Montagu (grandson of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich,) and his wife, the author Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Their daughter, Mary, married the future Prime Minister John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (see the Marquess of Bute for earlier history of the Stuart family). Their second son, the Hon. James, succeeded to the Wortley estates in Yorkshire and Cornwall through his mother and assumed the additional surname of Wortley. In 1803 he also inherited the Scottish estates of his uncle James Stuart-Mackenzie, and assumed the additional surname of Mackenzie. His second son James was a soldier and prominent Tory politician.

List of physicians

List of Presidents of the Royal College of Physicians. List of Iraqi physicians. List of Russian physicians and psychologists. List of Slovenian physicians. List of Turkish physicians.

Timeline of London

LondontimelineTimeline of 16th century London
Garden Museum established at former church of St Mary-at-Lambeth. J.

Social history of viruses

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689–1762) was an aristocrat, a writer and the wife of a Member of Parliament. In 1716, her husband, Edward Wortley Montagu, was appointed British Ambassador in Istanbul. She followed him there and two weeks after her arrival discovered the local practice of protection against smallpox by variolation – the injection of pus from smallpox victims into the skin. Her younger brother had died of smallpox, and she too had had the disease. Determined to spare her five-year-old son Edward from similar suffering, she ordered the embassy surgeon Charles Maitland to variolate him.

James Stuart-Wortley, 1st Baron Wharncliffe

Hon. James Stuart-WortleyThe Lord WharncliffeJames Stuart-Wortley
In 1837 Lord Wharncliffe brought out an edition of the writings of his ancestress, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Lord Wharncliffe married Lady Elizabeth Caroline Mary Crichton (1779–1856), daughter of John Crichton, 1st Earl Erne and his second wife Lady Mary Hervey on 30 March 1799. They had four children: Lord Wharncliffe died in December 1845, aged 69, and was succeeded in the barony by his eldest son, John, whose son Edward, 3rd Baron was created Earl of Wharncliffe in 1876. Lady Wharncliffe died in April 1856.

Thomas Henry Flewett

Tom Flewett
Thomas Henry Flewett, MD, FRCPath, FRCP (29 June 1922 – 12 December 2006) was a founder member (and subsequently Fellow) of the Royal College of Pathologists and was elected (by distinction) a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London in 1978. He was chairman of the World Health Organization (WHO) Steering Committee on Viral Diarrhoeal Diseases, 1990–3, and a member until 1996. His laboratory in Birmingham was a World Health Organization Reference and Research Centre for Rotavirus Infections from 1980 until his retirement in 1987. He was an external examiner, visiting lecturer, and scientific journal editor.

Marquess of Bute

Marquesses of ButeButeEarl of Bute
Lord Bute married Mary, daughter of Edward Wortley Montagu and his wife, the writer Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. In 1761 Mary was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain in her own right as Baroness Mount Stuart, of Wortley in the County of York, with remainder to the heirs male of her body by her then husband Lord Bute. They were both succeeded by their eldest son, the fourth Earl. In 1766, he married the Hon. Charlotte Jane, daughter and heiress of Herbert Windsor, 2nd Viscount Windsor, son of Thomas Windsor, 1st Viscount Windsor (see Viscount Windsor) and his wife Lady Charlotte, daughter of Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke.

John and Richard Marriot

Richard MarriotJohn MarriotJohn Marriott
In 1618 Marriot became the publisher of the Royal College of Physicians, and published their Pharmacopoeia (1618, 1619) — though his relationship with the College would prove difficult and contentious. He published Barnabe Rich's The Irish Hubbub, or the English Hue and Cry in 1617, and John Murrell's A New Book of Cookery in 1631. Yet the elder Marriot is most strongly associated with the publication of poetry and literary prose. He produced the first (defective) edition of the collected Poems of John Donne in 1633, plus subsequent (improved) editions in 1635, 1639, and down to 1650; he also issued volumes of Donne's sermons and other prose works.