1721 in science

1721
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduces the Ottoman Turkish method of inoculation against smallpox – variolation – to London. Thomas Guy founds Guy's Hospital in London to treat "incurables" discharged from St Thomas'.

Elizabeth Hervey, Countess of Bristol

ElizabethLady Elizabeth Howardone daughter and heir, Elizabeth
The children of the marriage were: The countess was described by her friend, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, as "young, blooming, coquette and gallant", and said that "resolved to make up for time misspent, she has two lovers at a time". She became a Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales and future queen, Caroline of Ansbach, in 1714, retaining the position until Caroline's death in 1737. The countess died four years after the queen and was buried at St Mary's Church, Ickworth, a traditional resting place for the Hervey family. A portrait of the countess, by John Simon after Michael Dahl, is held by the National Portrait Gallery. She was also painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

White Lodge, Richmond Park

White LodgeWhite Lodge Museum and Ballet Resource Centre
Queen Caroline, consort of George II, stayed at the new lodge frequently and, on her death in 1737, White Lodge passed to her friend Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister. After his death, it passed to Queen Caroline's daughter, Princess Amelia, in 1751. The Princess, who also became the ranger of Richmond Park, closed the entire park to the public, except to distinguished friends and those with permits, sparking public outrage. In 1758, a court case made by a local brewer against a park gatekeeper eventually overturned the Princess's order, and the park was once again opened to the public.

Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Duke of GloucesterPrince William Henrythe Duke of Gloucester
Princess Caroline of Gloucester (Caroline Augusta Maria; 24 June 1774 – 14 March 1775) followed just over a year later and was christened privately on 22 July 1774 – her godparents were the Duchess of Gloucester (her mother), the Hereditary Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg (her paternal aunt) and the Hereditary Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (her uncle by marriage). However, Princess Caroline died aged just nine months following a smallpox inoculation, intended to protect her from the disease. The Duke and Maria had a third and final child in 1776, Prince William Frederick (15 January 1776 – 30 November 1834).

Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
For instance, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who campaigned for the introduction of inoculation (then called variolation) to prevent smallpox, arranged for seven prisoners who had been sentenced to death to undergo variolation in exchange for their life. Although they survived and did not contract smallpox, there was no control group to assess whether this result was due to the inoculation or some other factor. Similar experiments performed by Edward Jenner over his smallpox vaccine were equally conceptually flawed. The first proper clinical trial was conducted by the physician James Lind.

Sir Edward Wilmot, 1st Baronet

He was admitted a candidate or member of the Royal College of Physicians on 30 September 1725, and was elected a fellow on 30 September 1726. In 1729 and 1741 he was a censor, and a Harveian orator in 1735. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on 29 January 1730. From 1725 he practised as a physician in London, and was elected physician to St. Thomas's Hospital, and in 1740 appointed physician-general to the army. In April 1731 he was appointed physician-extraordinary to Queen Caroline of Ansbach; and soon became physician in ordinary, and physician to Frederick, Prince of Wales.

Stanley George Browne

He became a member of the Royal College of Physicians in 1934 and the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1935. Browne met his wife Marion (Mali) Williamson on holiday in England in 1939. She was born in China as the daughter of two Baptist missionaries and her father was the General Foreign Secretary of the Baptist Mission House. She graduated from Oxford University and worked as teacher. They became engaged after their third meeting. The onset of World War II required Browne to return to the Congo shortly after the two had met.

George Buchanan (physician)

Sir George BuchananGeorge Buchanan George Buchanan
Buchanan was the elder son of George Adam Buchanan, general medical practitioner, and Sarah Mary. He received his medical degrees from the University College London and the University of London, graduating in 1854. Between 1855 and 1860 he worked as an assistant physician at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for sick children. In 1858 he also became a member of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and opened his own practice at Gower Street. Between 1861 and 1968 he worked as physician at the London Fever Hospital. In 1866 Buchanan was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London, where he served as censor (1892–1894) and Lettsomian lecturer (1867).

William Henry Hosking

William Hosking
He achieved several qualifications that included LSA Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries, London 1863; LRCPI Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians in Ireland, 1873; LRCP Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, London; MRCS Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, England 1873; LM Doctor of Laws, University of Liverpool 1874. He registered under the Medical Practitioners Ordinance of the Province of New Munster in Campbelltown on 19 Sept 1863. Hosking registered on 23 Sept 1869 under the Medical Practitioners Act of 1867 at Ross and Masterton.

Sandleford

Sandleford Priory
Burgess who died in 1550, had an AM Oxon (1530–1), MB (1533–4), MD, and was admitted a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (FRCP) in 1536, was elected Censor and Elect, 1543; Consiliarius, 1544, 1545, 1546; and President, 1547. William Munk says that 'Dr. Burgess was dead on 30 March 1550, when his place of Elect was filled by the appointment of Dr. Caius' . A lease dated 11 October 1560 of the site of Sandleford Priory was named: Lease to Thomas Hide of Hurst, in the County of Barks, gentleman, for 6 years for £15, all the scite of the pryarye of Sandylforde [Sandleford] near unto Newberye [Newbury], in the County of Barks., signed Thomas Hyde.

Wilhelmina Maria Frederica of Rochlitz

Frederica of RochlitzWilhelmina MariaWilhelmina Maria Frederica
She was born in Frankfurt am Main and orphaned at less than a year old by both her parents' deaths from smallpox. For the first year of her life (until her father's death) she was in a way a stepsister of Caroline of Ansbach, future queen consort of Great Britain, being the daughter of Caroline's then-stepfather. Her first two names, Wilhelmina Maria, were given in honour of the King and Queen of England, William and Mary; however, contrary to popular assumption, the English monarchs were not her godparents. Sir William Dutton Colt, the English envoy to Dresden since 1689, was her actual godfather. The name Frederica was given to please the Danish royal family.

Isaac de Sequeira Samuda

In March 1722, Samuda was admitted as a licentiate by the Royal College of Physicians. In February 1723, he translated a Portuguese report of a whale stranded in the Tagus, for the Royal Society, and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 27 June 1723, proposed by its secretary, James Jurin, and supported by Sir Hans Sloane. In April 1724, he delivered a paper to the society giving a detailed description by a Lisbon physician of the yellow fever epidemic in Portugal the previous year.

Samuel Garth

Dr Sir Samuel GarthGarthSir Samuel Garth
He took his M.D. and became a member of the College of Physicians in 1691. He settled as a physician in London and soon acquired a large practice. He was a zealous Whig, the friend of Addison and, though of different political views, of Pope. He ended his career as physician to George I, who knighted him in 1714. The politician John Garth was a nephew of Samuel Garth. In 1699 Samuel Garth was called to give evidence in what became known as the Sarah Stout Affair. Spencer Cowper, a lawyer and member of a prominent Hertfordshire family, was accused with some friends of the murder of a Quaker woman called Sarah Stout.

Mary Hervey

Mary LepellLady HerveyMary
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu records, in a letter written to the Countess of Mar, in July 1721, "the ardent affection" shown to her by Mrs Hervey and "her dear spouse". They had eight children: In spite of her husband's infidelity she lived with him on very amicable terms, and was an admirable mother to a large family of troublesome children, who inherited those peculiar qualities which gave rise to the well-known saying, ascribed to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu among others, "that this world consisted of men, women, and Herveys". She appears to have been always a warm partisan of the Stuarts.

Brooklyn Heights

Brooklyn Heights, New YorkColumbia HeightsBreuckelen
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689–1762), a cousin of the Pierrepont family, best remembered for bringing the concept of inoculation against smallpox to the attention of the British public, Montague Street was named after her. Mary Tyler Moore (1936–2017), actress. Errol Morris (born 1948), film director. Gary Leonard Oldman (born 1958), English actor and filmmaker. Mary-Louise Parker (born 1964), actress and writer. Sarah Jessica Parker (born 1965), actress. Joseph Pennell (1857–1926), painter. Hezekiah Pierrepont (1768-1838) merchant, farmer, landowner and land developer in Brooklyn and New York state. John Podhoretz (born 1961), commentator. Ernest Poole (1880–1950), novelist.

Fitzpatrick Lecture

The Fitzpatrick Lecture is given annually at the Royal College of Physicians on a subject related to history of medicine. The lecturer, who must be a fellow of the College, is selected by the president and may be chosen to speak for two years successively. The lectures are supported by funds from the Fitzpatrick Trust which was established in 1901 by Agnes Letitia Fitzpatrick with a £2,000 donation in memory of her physician husband Thomas Fitzpatrick. Agnes was influenced by her husband’s close friend, Sir Norman Moore, who persuaded her to choose ‘’history of medicine’’ as a subject. Subsequently, Moore was credited with its idea and implementation.

Virology

virologistvirologistsviral ecology
It involved the application of materials from smallpox sufferers in order to immunize others. In 1717 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu observed the practice in Istanbul and attempted to popularize it in Britain, but encountered considerable resistance. In 1796 Edward Jenner developed a much safer method, using cowpox to successfully immunize a young boy against smallpox, and this practice was widely adopted. Vaccinations against other viral diseases followed, including the successful rabies vaccination by Louis Pasteur in 1886. The nature of viruses however was not clear to these researchers.

Sophia Dorothea of Hanover

Sophia DorotheaQueen of PrussiaPrincess Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
Queen Sophia Dorothea was admired for her gracious manners and nicknamed "Olympia" for her regal bearing, but scarred by smallpox and overweight with time, she was not called a beauty. She was known as extremely haughty, proud, and ambitious, but Frederick William greatly disliked her interference in politics, as it was his belief that women should be kept only for breeding, and kept submissive as they would otherwise dominate their husbands. The king was known for his parsimony and dislike of idleness to such a degree that he would beat people in the street as well as in the palace if he viewed them as lazy.

Thomas Greenhill (surgeon)

Thomas GreenhillElizabeth and William GreenhillElizabeth Greenhill
The argument is based upon appeals to Antiquary, Greek and Roman Classics and Scripture and takes the form of three letters: the first to Charles Bernard, Serjeant Surgeon to Queen Anne, the second, John Lawson, the former president of the Royal College of Physicians and the third to Hans Sloane, secretary to the Royal Society. Its dedication is to Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke, the same person who was the dedicatee of John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. It was funded by subscription including Thomas Tenison the then Archbishop of Canterbury. The book had little effect and was dismissed by William Hunter in his The art of embalming dead bodies.