East India Company

British East India CompanyBritishHonourable East India Company
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or simply The Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with Mughal India and the East Indies (Maritime Southeast Asia), and later with Qing China. The company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, and colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China.

Henry VIII of England

Henry VIIIKing Henry VIIIKing Henry VIII of England
During his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Henry conducted an affair with Mary Boleyn, Catherine's lady-in-waiting. There has been speculation that Mary's two children, Henry and Catherine Carey, were fathered by Henry, but this has never been proved, and the King never acknowledged them as he did Henry FitzRoy. In 1525, as Henry grew more impatient with Catherine's inability to produce the male heir he desired, he became enamoured of Mary Boleyn's sister, Anne, then a charismatic young woman of 25 in the Queen's entourage. Anne, however, resisted his attempts to seduce her, and refused to become his mistress as her sister Mary Boleyn had.


CircassianCircassiansCircassian history
Circassia (Черке́сия; ჩერქეზეთი; شيركاسيا; Çerkesya) is a region in the North Caucasus and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea. It is the ancestral homeland of the Circassian people.

Wan Quan

Wan Quan (1495–1585), also known as Wan Mizhai, was a Ming dynasty pediatrician. He was the third in his family to practice medicine. He advocated that children be frequently exposed to sunlight and fresh air and trained to resist cold. He also believed that frightening a child was harmful to him or her, as was overfeeding or overmedicating.


Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory.

John Gay

GayGay, JohnMr Gay
John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club. He is best remembered for The Beggar's Opera (1728), a ballad opera. The characters, including Captain Macheath and Polly Peachum, became household names.

Newgate Prison

NewgateNewgate GaolPrison of Newgate
Mary Wade – youngest female convict transported to Australia. Edward Gibbon Wakefield – British politician, the driving force behind much of the early colonization of South Australia, and later New Zealand. Joseph Wall, a colonial administrator who was hanged for having a British soldier flogged to death. John Walter Sr. – founder of The Times, for libel on the Duke of York. Catherine Wilson – nurse and suspected serial killer: last woman hanged publicly in London. A record of executions conducted at the prison, together with commentary, was published as The Newgate Calendar, which inspired a genre of Victorian literature known as the Newgate novel.


İstanbulConstantinopleIstanbul, Turkey
Istanbul (, or or ; İstanbul ), known between c. 660 BCE and 330 CE as Byzantium, and between 330 and 1930 CE as Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and Europe (including the Asian side within the city borders). It is the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
William and Mary Quarterly (1978): 691–732. in JSTOR. O'Gorman, Frank. "The recent historiography of the Hanoverian regime." Historical Journal 29#4 (1986): 1005–1020. online. Schlatter, Richard, ed. Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing Since 1966 (1984) pp 167–254. Simms, Brendan, and Torsten Riotte, eds. The Hanoverian Dimension in British History, 1714–1837 (2007) excerpt. The Treaty of Union, Scottish Parliament. Text of Union with England Act. Text of Union with Scotland Act.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
In 1947 the WHO established an epidemiological information service via telex, and by 1950 a mass tuberculosis inoculation drive using the BCG vaccine was under way. In 1955, the malaria eradication programme was launched, although it was later altered in objective. 1965 saw the first report on diabetes mellitus and the creation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 1958, Viktor Zhdanov, Deputy Minister of Health for the USSR, called on the World Health Assembly to undertake a global initiative to eradicate smallpox, resulting in Resolution WHA11.54. At this point, 2 million people were dying from smallpox every year.


syphilitictertiary syphilissyphilology
Its infectivity is exemplified by the fact that an individual inoculated with only 57 organisms has a 50% chance of being infected. Most (60%) of new cases in the United States occur in men who have sex with men; and in this population 20% of syphilis were due to oral sex alone. Syphilis can be transmitted by blood products, but the risk is low due to screening of donated blood in many countries. The risk of transmission from sharing needles appears limited. It is not generally possible to contract syphilis through toilet seats, daily activities, hot tubs, or sharing eating utensils or clothing.

Louis Pasteur

PasteurPasteur, LouisPasteurian
The notion of a weak form of a disease causing immunity to the virulent version was not new; this had been known for a long time for smallpox. Inoculation with smallpox (variolation) was known to result in a much less severe disease, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison with the naturally acquired disease. Edward Jenner had also studied vaccination using cowpox (vaccinia) to give cross-immunity to smallpox in the late 1790s, and by the early 1800s vaccination had spread to most of Europe.

Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VIArchduke CharlesEmperor Charles VI
Instead, he died of smallpox in 1723, which upset Maria Theresa. Léopold Clément's younger brother, Francis Stephen, then came to Vienna to replace him. Charles considered other possibilities (such as Don Carlos) before announcing the engagement to Francis. At the end of the War of the Polish Succession, France demanded that Francis surrender the Duchy of Lorraine (his hereditary domain), to Stanisław Leszczyński, the deposed King of Poland, who would bequeath it to France at his death. Charles compelled Francis to renounce his rights to Lorraine and told him: "No renunciation, no archduchess."


viraemiaamount of virus in their bloodhematogenous dissemination
Examples include direct inoculation from mosquitoes, through physical breaches or via blood transfusions. * Septicemia

Elizabethan era

ElizabethanElizabethan EnglandElizabethan times
Mary had tried her hand at an aggressive anti-Protestant Inquisition and was hated for it; it was not to be repeated. Elizabeth managed to moderate and quell the intense religious passions of the time. This was in significant contrast to previous and succeeding eras of marked religious violence. Elizabeth said "I have no desire to make windows into mens' souls". Her desire to moderate the religious persecutions of previous Tudor reigns — the persecution of Catholics under Edward VI, and of Protestants under Mary I — appears to have had a moderating effect on English society.

Thomas Sydenham

SydenhamLord Thomas SydenhamSydenham, Thomas
In 1655 he resigned his fellowship at All Souls and married Mary Gee in his home town of Wynford Eagle. They had two sons, William (c.1660–1738) and Henry (1668?–1741); another son, James, apparently died young. In 1663 he passed the examinations of the College of Physicians for their licence to practice in Westminster and 6 miles round; but it is probable that he had been settled in London for some time before that. This minimum qualification to practice was the single bond between Sydenham and the College of Physicians throughout the whole of his career. He seems to have been distrusted by some members of the faculty because he was an innovator and something of a plain-dealer.

John George IV, Elector of Saxony

John George IVJohann Georg IVJohann Georg IV, Elector of Saxony
But the happiness ended soon: Magdalene Sybille contracted smallpox and died on 4 April 1694, in the arms of the Elector, who was also infected with the disease. John George died twenty-three days later, on 27 April. He was buried in the Freiberg Cathedral. Because he died without legitimate issue—Electress Eleonore suffered two miscarriages during their marriage, in August 1692 and February 1693—he was succeeded as Elector by his brother Frederick Augustus I (king of Poland as Augustus II of Poland). The new Elector took the guardianship of the little orphan Wilhelmina Maria, who was raised in the court.

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
His half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt, served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her "very loving Uncle", according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton died in his sleep in London on 20 March 1727 (OS 20 March 1726; NS 31 March 1727). His body was buried in Westminster Abbey. Voltaire may have been present at his funeral. A bachelor, he had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. His papers went to John Conduitt and Catherine Barton. After his death, Newton's hair was examined and found to contain mercury, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits.

Leicester Square

Leicester HouseLeicester FieldsLeicester
In 1726, anatomist Nathaniel St André claimed to have delivered rabbits from Mary Toft, a woman who lived at No. 27 Leicester Square. The event was widely reported around London, attracting interest from King George I and Royal Society president Hans Sloane. Shortly afterwards, the woman was caught trying to buy a rabbit in secret, and the incident was uncovered as a hoax. Leicester Square is commemorated in the lyrics of the music hall song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" along with nearby Piccadilly, which became popular with soldiers during World War I. During the war, British inmates of Ruhleben Prisoner of War camp mentioned the square in a song: "Shout this chorus all you can.


allergiesallergicallergic reaction
A 2003 Royal College of Physicians report presented a case for improvement of what were felt to be inadequate allergy services in the UK. In 2006, the House of Lords convened a subcommittee. It concluded likewise in 2007 that allergy services were insufficient to deal with what the Lords referred to as an "allergy epidemic" and its social cost; it made several recommendations. Low-allergen foods are being developed, as are improvements in skin prick test predictions; evaluation of the atopy patch test; in wasp sting outcomes predictions and a rapidly disintegrating epinephrine tablet, and anti-IL-5 for eosinophilic diseases.

Vaccination and religion

religiousReligious arguments against inoculationreligious exemption
The influential Massachusetts preacher Cotton Mather was the first known person to attempt smallpox inoculation on a large scale, inoculating himself and over 200 members of his congregation with the help of a local doctor. While his view became standard, he also caused the first reaction against the practice. Rowland Hill (1744–1833) was a popular English preacher acquainted with Edward Jenner, the pioneer of smallpox vaccination, and he encouraged the vaccination of the congregations he visited or preached to. He published a tract on the subject in 1806, at a time when many medical men refused to sanction it.

Morristown, New Jersey

MorristownMorristown, NJMorristown Town
The churches were used for inoculations for smallpox. That first headquarters, Arnold's Tavern, was eventually moved .5 mi south of the green onto Mount Kemble Avenue to become All Souls Hospital in the late 19th century. It suffered a fire in 1918, and the original structure was demolished, but new buildings for the hospital were built directly across the street. From December 1779 to June 1780 the Continental Army's second encampment at Morristown was at Jockey Hollow. Then, Washington's headquarters in Morristown was located at the Ford Mansion, a large mansion near what was then the 'edge of town.'

History of smallpox in Mexico

The isolation of sick people in hospitals or charities at the outsides of the cities was another important measure to stop the smallpox infection. These institutions took care of patients and provided them food and medicine. During the 1797 and 1798 outbreak, they also provided inoculation and were called inoculation houses. Although inoculation was practiced, the miasma theory of disease was still believed. In 1796, Gaceta de México published an article in which the use of inoculation was promoted, giving examples of kings and important persons who underwent the procedure. In January 1798, the eradication of the 1790s epidemic was declared.

Prince Octavius of Great Britain

OctaviusPrince Octavius
Six months after Alfred's death, Octavius and Sophia were taken to Kew Palace in London to be inoculated with the smallpox virus. While Sophia recovered without incident, Octavius became ill and died several days later, around 8 o'clock PM, on 3 May 1783, at Kew Palace. He was four years old. As was traditional, the household did not go into mourning for the deaths of royal children under the age of fourteen. Octavius has the distinction of being the last member of the British royal family to suffer from smallpox. On 10 May, he was buried alongside his brother Alfred at Westminster Abbey. Their eldest brother, now King George IV, ordered their remains transferred to St.

Mozart and smallpox

smallpoxchildhood case of smallpoxcontracting the disease
Around the second decade of the 18th century the method of inoculation, which had originated in Asia, reached European countries. Inoculation was not the same as the vaccination which later succeeded in eradicating the disease; rather, an inoculated person was treated with live smallpox virus, taken from pustules of the mildest variety of smallpox that could be found. Inoculation offered immunity to smallpox, but the procedure carried a definite risk that the inoculated person could die from smallpox as a result.