Earl of Wharncliffe

Countess of WharncliffeEarldom of WharncliffeEarls of Wharncliffe
He was a descendant of Edward Wortley Montagu (grandson of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich,) and his wife, the author Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Their daughter, Mary, married the future Prime Minister John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (see the Marquess of Bute for earlier history of the Stuart family). Their second son, the Hon. James, succeeded to the Wortley estates in Yorkshire and Cornwall through his mother and assumed the additional surname of Wortley. In 1803 he also inherited the Scottish estates of his uncle James Stuart-Mackenzie, and assumed the additional surname of Mackenzie. His second son James was a soldier and prominent Tory politician.

List of physicians

List of Presidents of the Royal College of Physicians. List of Iraqi physicians. List of Russian physicians and psychologists. List of Slovenian physicians. List of Turkish physicians.

Essex Hospital

established a hospital
The Essex Hospital was a privately built smallpox inoculation hospital on Cat Island (now Children's Island) where many people were effectively inoculated against smallpox in 1773–1774. About a year after it opened, it was burned to the ground by paranoid and angry townspeople of Marblehead, Massachusetts. In June, 1773, Marblehead was stricken by an epidemic of smallpox. The typical response to an outbreak was undertaken by town officials, including daily surveillance of the inhabitants by a Committee of Inspection, fencing off of infected areas, moving infected people to pesthouses, inspecting cargo arriving into the town, and limiting out of town visitors.

Timeline of London

LondontimelineTimeline of 16th century London
Garden Museum established at former church of St Mary-at-Lambeth. J.

Prince Alfred of Great Britain

Prince AlfredAlfred
Six months after Alfred's death, his elder brother Octavius succumbed to the smallpox virus, further devastating the king. During one of his bouts of madness in 1812, George would have imaginary conversations with his two youngest sons. His youngest sister Princess Amelia was conceived in the months after Alfred's death, born almost exactly a year after he died. The first of George III and Queen Charlotte's children to die, Alfred died nearly seventy five years before his older sister Mary, who was the last survivor of George III and Queen Charlotte's fifteen children.

Children's Island

Cat IslandCat Island (Salem City)
On the N.W. end is the place of the Smoak house [smokehouse], when this Island was used for a hospital for inoculation of the Small Pox about 19 years since. The hospital is towards the other end just before you arrive at the rocky & lofty Head. The cellar is yet whole upon which the hospital was built. The cellar was only under the N. end. This building fell a sacrifice to the popular fury soon after it was erected. It was burnt by the people of Marblehead upon some supposed indiscretions. There is a well open of considerable depth, but there was no water. There is a spring for the cattle at this part & about 10 head now upon it.

Social history of viruses

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689–1762) was an aristocrat, a writer and the wife of a Member of Parliament. In 1716, her husband, Edward Wortley Montagu, was appointed British Ambassador in Istanbul. She followed him there and two weeks after her arrival discovered the local practice of protection against smallpox by variolation – the injection of pus from smallpox victims into the skin. Her younger brother had died of smallpox, and she too had had the disease. Determined to spare her five-year-old son Edward from similar suffering, she ordered the embassy surgeon Charles Maitland to variolate him.

Robert Houlton

Robert Houlton the elder was put on a salary to promote the Suttonian method of variolation (inoculation against smallpox), by Daniel Sutton, son of the method's inventor Robert Sutton. He was employed to preach to patients in a chapel Sutton had built in 1766 at Ingatestone in Essex, where he had moved from Suffolk after breaking with his father. In 1767 Houlton published a sermon on The Practice of Inoculation justified. Robert Houlton the younger, admitted to the method's secrets, then went to Ireland to practice inoculation. In his pamphlet of 1768 he lists over 60 "partners" in the method, typically for an assigned area.

Edward Whitaker Gray

While attending the College of Physicians Gray performed the duties of librarian. He became a licentiate in 1773. He graduated M.D., and ultimately was assigned as keeper of the departments of Natural history and antiquities in the British Museum, which consisted of the collection purchased from Sir Hans Sloane on his passing in 1753. This role he held from 1778 until his death. During his tenure, he reorganized the natural history collections employing the Linnæan system. George Shaw assumed his duties as keeper in 1807 having assisted since 1791. Within zoology, Gray's Catalogue of Shells for the British Museum (1791) best reflect his work as a malacologist.

Eli Todd

The King of Terrors: Smallpox and the Todd-Wadsworth Smallpox Inoculation Hospital Rock in Farmington, Connecticut 1792-1794. Southington, Connecticut: Plainville Historical Society, 2004.

Ethan Allen

ALLEN, Colonel EthanAllen, EthanEthan Allen, spy
He was also called to court in Salisbury for inoculating himself against smallpox, a procedure that at the time required the sanction of the town selectmen. When he moved to Salisbury, Allen met Thomas Young, a doctor living and practicing just across the provincial boundary in New York. The doctor, only five years older than Allen, taught the younger Allen a great deal about philosophy and political theory, while Allen was able to bring to Young his appreciation of nature and life on the frontier. Young and Allen eventually decided to collaborate on a book intended to be an attack on organized religion, as Young had convinced Allen to become a Deist.

James Stuart-Wortley, 1st Baron Wharncliffe

Hon. James Stuart-WortleyThe Lord WharncliffeJames Stuart-Wortley
In 1837 Lord Wharncliffe brought out an edition of the writings of his ancestress, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Lord Wharncliffe married Lady Elizabeth Caroline Mary Crichton (1779–1856), daughter of John Crichton, 1st Earl Erne and his second wife Lady Mary Hervey on 30 March 1799. They had four children: Lord Wharncliffe died in December 1845, aged 69, and was succeeded in the barony by his eldest son, John, whose son Edward, 3rd Baron was created Earl of Wharncliffe in 1876. Lady Wharncliffe died in April 1856.

Thomas Henry Flewett

Tom Flewett
Thomas Henry Flewett, MD, FRCPath, FRCP (29 June 1922 – 12 December 2006) was a founder member (and subsequently Fellow) of the Royal College of Pathologists and was elected (by distinction) a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London in 1978. He was chairman of the World Health Organization (WHO) Steering Committee on Viral Diarrhoeal Diseases, 1990–3, and a member until 1996. His laboratory in Birmingham was a World Health Organization Reference and Research Centre for Rotavirus Infections from 1980 until his retirement in 1987. He was an external examiner, visiting lecturer, and scientific journal editor.

William Drennan

He is credited with having been one of the earliest advocates of inoculation against smallpox, and of hand washing to prevent the spread of infection. Drennan also wrote much poetry, coining the phrase "Emerald Isle" and was the founder and editor of a literary periodical, "Belfast Magazine". He moved to Newry in 1783 but eventually moved to Dublin in 1789 where he quickly became involved in nationalist circles. Like many other Ulster Presbyterians, William was an early supporter of the American Colonies in the American Revolution and joined the Volunteers who had been formed to defend Ireland for Britain in the event of French invasion.


February 23 – Jonathan Edwards, the famed English theologian who had assumed the presidency of what is now Princeton University only a week earlier, sets an example for students and faculty by publicly receiving an inoculation against smallpox. Unfortunately, the vaccine contains live smallpox; Edwards develops the disease and dies on March 22 at the age of 54. March 16 – Members of the Comanche Nation loot and destroy the Spanish Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá (near present day Menard, Texas ) and kill eight of the people there, including the mission leader, Father Alonso Giraldo de Terreros.

Silvester Gardiner

Dr. Silvester GardinerDr. Sylvester Gardiner
He actively promoted inoculation for small pox, for which he proposed and established a hospital in 1761. But he made his fortune importing drugs for distribution and sale. He contributed generously to the construction of Boston's King's Chapel, where he was a warden, and also to the compilation and publication of a prayer book. But he is most remembered for his purchase and development of over 100,000 acres (400 km²) of wilderness on the Kennebec River in Maine, where he founded what is today the city of Gardiner. A proprietor of the old Plymouth Patent, his efforts to settle the territory were unceasing between 1753 and the American Revolution.

William Oliver (physician)

William OliverDr. William Oliver
On returning from Leyden, Oliver practised for a time at Plymouth, where he introduced inoculation for smallpox which he learnt from india. but about 1725 he settled at Bath and remained there for the rest of his life, obtaining in a very short time the leading practice of the city. This was mainly due to his friendship with Ralph Allen (a fellow Cornishman, who introduced him to Pope, Warburton, and the rest of the guests at Prior Park), and with Dr. William Borlase, his ‘friend and relation,’ who, after being his patient in 1730, sent to him the gentry of the west country.

Marquess of Bute

Marquesses of ButeButeEarl of Bute
Lord Bute married Mary, daughter of Edward Wortley Montagu and his wife, the writer Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. In 1761 Mary was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain in her own right as Baroness Mount Stuart, of Wortley in the County of York, with remainder to the heirs male of her body by her then husband Lord Bute. They were both succeeded by their eldest son, the fourth Earl. In 1766, he married the Hon. Charlotte Jane, daughter and heiress of Herbert Windsor, 2nd Viscount Windsor, son of Thomas Windsor, 1st Viscount Windsor (see Viscount Windsor) and his wife Lady Charlotte, daughter of Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke.

John and Richard Marriot

Richard MarriotJohn MarriotJohn Marriott
In 1618 Marriot became the publisher of the Royal College of Physicians, and published their Pharmacopoeia (1618, 1619) — though his relationship with the College would prove difficult and contentious. He published Barnabe Rich's The Irish Hubbub, or the English Hue and Cry in 1617, and John Murrell's A New Book of Cookery in 1631. Yet the elder Marriot is most strongly associated with the publication of poetry and literary prose. He produced the first (defective) edition of the collected Poems of John Donne in 1633, plus subsequent (improved) editions in 1635, 1639, and down to 1650; he also issued volumes of Donne's sermons and other prose works.

Elizabeth Hervey, Countess of Bristol

ElizabethLady Elizabeth Howardone daughter and heir, Elizabeth
The children of the marriage were: The countess was described by her friend, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, as "young, blooming, coquette and gallant", and said that "resolved to make up for time misspent, she has two lovers at a time". She became a Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales and future queen, Caroline of Ansbach, in 1714, retaining the position until Caroline's death in 1737. The countess died four years after the queen and was buried at St Mary's Church, Ickworth, a traditional resting place for the Hervey family. A portrait of the countess, by John Simon after Michael Dahl, is held by the National Portrait Gallery. She was also painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

Witton Isolation Hospital

In his reply, Julian Snow said: "that the Microbiological Research Station at Porton, Salisbury, was asked by the senior administrative medical officer of the hospital board and the medical officer of health for the City of Birmingham to investigate the possibilities of smallpox virus surviving at Witton Hospital, and 26 samples of material from the hospital wards and drainage system were examined for smallpox virus, and no clear evidence has so far been obtained to indicate the presence of smallpox virus from any of the samples... it seems to be in the nature of small boys that they are tempted to break into empty buildings and go climbing where they should not."

Comparative medicine

He introduced animal models for rabies and showed that dogs could be inoculated with the spittle of infected animals. Jenner is most famously remembered for his historic 1796 experiment where he demonstrated inoculation from smallpox by exposure to and transmission of the milder cowpox. Jenner's work, a breakthrough in vaccinology and an important precursor to immunology in general, is generally credited as the very beginning of modern medicine. The experiments of Jenner and others set the stage for certain inoculation programs to be introduced to the general public.

White Lodge, Richmond Park

White LodgeWhite Lodge Museum and Ballet Resource Centre
Queen Caroline, consort of George II, stayed at the new lodge frequently and, on her death in 1737, White Lodge passed to her friend Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister. After his death, it passed to Queen Caroline's daughter, Princess Amelia, in 1751. The Princess, who also became the ranger of Richmond Park, closed the entire park to the public, except to distinguished friends and those with permits, sparking public outrage. In 1758, a court case made by a local brewer against a park gatekeeper eventually overturned the Princess's order, and the park was once again opened to the public.

William Munk

Dr. MunkMunk, William
He was elected physician to the Smallpox Hospital in February 1853, and held office there for forty years. When Prince Arthur had smallpox at Greenwich in October 1867 he was called in consultation. He long resided at 40 Finsbury Square, London, enjoyed a considerable practice, and died there on 20 December 1898. He was of short stature. In 1857 he published 'Memoirs of the Life and Writings of J. A. Paris, M.D.', on John Ayrton Paris, and in 1861 'The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London,' in two volumes.

Anthony Relhan

Dr. Anthony Relhan
In 1763, having been incorporated M.D. at Cambridge, he became a candidate or member of the College of Physicians of London, and was elected a fellow on 25 June 1764. In the same year he published 'Refutation of the Reflections [by D. Rust and others] against Inoculation'. He delivered at the College of Physicians the Gulstonian lectures in 1765, and the Harveian Oration on 18 Oct. 1770. The oration, which is altogether occupied with the praise of Thomas Linacre and the other benefactors of the college, dwells at some length on the friendship of Erasmus and Linacre.