Edward Archer (physician)

Edward Archer
Edward Archer (1718–1789) was an English physician, closely associated with the practice of inoculation against smallpox. Archer was born in Southwark, studying medicine in Edinburgh and afterwards in Leyden, where he graduated M.D. in 1746. In 1747 he was elected physician to the Smallpox Hospital in north London, which had recently been founded, amalgamating the "Hospital for the Small-pox" and the "Hospital for Inoculation", to give inoculations to those who previously could not afford the treatment. The Hospital had had Robert Poole as its first physician, from 1746, but he left the country in 1748. Archer had a private fortune, and took on little in the way of private practice.

1701 in science

. * Italian physician Giacomo Pylarini inoculates children with smallpox in Constantinople, in hopes of preventing more serious smallpox sickness when the children are older, thus becoming the first immunologist. * Joseph Sauveur coins the French word acoustique, from which the English word acoustics is derived. The seed drill, invented by Jethro Tull, allows farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths. Sir Isaac Newton, reporting (anonymously) to the British Royal Society, describes creation of a liquid-in-glass thermometer that is 3 ft (1 m) long and has a two-inch (5-cm) diameter bulb using linseed oil.

Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Duke of GloucesterPrince William Henrythe Duke of Gloucester
Princess Caroline of Gloucester (Caroline Augusta Maria; 24 June 1774 – 14 March 1775) followed just over a year later and was christened privately on 22 July 1774 – her godparents were the Duchess of Gloucester (her mother), the Hereditary Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg (her paternal aunt) and the Hereditary Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (her uncle by marriage). However, Princess Caroline died aged just nine months following a smallpox inoculation, intended to protect her from the disease. The Duke and Maria had a third and final child in 1776, Prince William Frederick (15 January 1776 – 30 November 1834).

Durrus and District History 1700-1900

Added to this widespread sub-division, early marriages, the availability of wasteland, smallpox inoculation and the presence of a cottier textile industry and the contribution of fishing allowed a massive population expansion. Land was let by the 'gneeve' i.e. the grass of one cow or one twelfth of a ploughland. The contribution of the wife by keeping poultry and spinning was important. Between 1766 and 1821 the number of households in the Durrus area increased by 60/69%, the population rose significantly. From the land appropriations of the 1650s and 1660s, to the Rising of 1798 and the Napoleonic Wars there was a long period of peace and prosperity.

Sir Edward Wilmot, 1st Baronet

He was admitted a candidate or member of the Royal College of Physicians on 30 September 1725, and was elected a fellow on 30 September 1726. In 1729 and 1741 he was a censor, and a Harveian orator in 1735. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on 29 January 1730. From 1725 he practised as a physician in London, and was elected physician to St. Thomas's Hospital, and in 1740 appointed physician-general to the army. In April 1731 he was appointed physician-extraordinary to Queen Caroline of Ansbach; and soon became physician in ordinary, and physician to Frederick, Prince of Wales.

Stanley George Browne

He became a member of the Royal College of Physicians in 1934 and the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1935. Browne met his wife Marion (Mali) Williamson on holiday in England in 1939. She was born in China as the daughter of two Baptist missionaries and her father was the General Foreign Secretary of the Baptist Mission House. She graduated from Oxford University and worked as teacher. They became engaged after their third meeting. The onset of World War II required Browne to return to the Congo shortly after the two had met.

George Buchanan (physician)

Sir George BuchananGeorge Buchanan George Buchanan
Buchanan was the elder son of George Adam Buchanan, general medical practitioner, and Sarah Mary. He received his medical degrees from the University College London and the University of London, graduating in 1854. Between 1855 and 1860 he worked as an assistant physician at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for sick children. In 1858 he also became a member of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and opened his own practice at Gower Street. Between 1861 and 1968 he worked as physician at the London Fever Hospital. In 1866 Buchanan was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London, where he served as censor (1892–1894) and Lettsomian lecturer (1867).

Jan Ingenhousz

IngenhouszIngenhousz, JanJohn Ingen-Housz
She decided to have her own family inoculated first (a cousin had already died), and requested help via the English royal house. On Pringle's recommendation, Ingenhousz was selected and requested to travel to Austria. He had planned to inoculate the Royal Family by pricking them with a needle and thread that were coated with smallpox germs taken from the pus of a smallpox-infected person. The idea of the inoculation was that by giving a few germs to a healthy body the body would develop immunisation from smallpox. The inoculation was a success and he became Maria Theresa's court physician. He settled in Vienna, where in 1775 he married Agatha Maria Jacquin.

Disease in colonial America

disease environment
Inoculation caused a mild form of the disease; it was new to the country and very controversial because of the threat that the procedure itself could be fatal, or otherwise spread the disease. It was introduced by Zabdiel Boylston and Cotton Mather in Boston in 1721. The procedure involved injecting the infection into the patient, which resulted in a mild form of the disease. This led to a shorter period a person had Smallpox than if they had contracted naturally. Strong support for inoculation came the leading Puritan minister, Cotton Mather, who preached for inoculations during the 1721 smallpox epidemic in Boston. His advice was heeded primarily by well-educated wealthy Puritan families.

Calvin Jones (physician)

Calvin JonesDr. Calvin JonesWake Forest Historical Museum
He was the first physician in North Carolina to practice the inoculation of smallpox. He helped found the North Carolina Medical Society in 1799. He was a trustee of the University of North Carolina for thirty years between 1802 and 1832. In 1803, Jones moved from Smithfield to Raleigh. He served in the House of Commons for Wake County in 1807, and was elected Intendant of Police of Raleigh the same year. In 1808, Jones became an editor with the Raleigh Star, an early local newspaper. He sold his shares to his partner, Thomas Henderson, in 1815. In 1798, Jones served in the Johnston County regiment of the North Carolina militia.

Public health

healthcommunity medicinepublic health specialist
The ancient Chinese medical doctors developed the practice of variolation following a smallpox epidemic around 1000 BC. An individual without the disease could gain some measure of immunity against it by inhaling the dried crusts that formed around lesions of infected individuals. Also, children were protected by inoculating a scratch on their forearms with the pus from a lesion. In 1485 the Republic of Venice established a permanent Venetian Magistrate for Health comprising supervisors of health with special attention to the prevention of the spread of epidemics in the territory from abroad. The three supervisors were initially appointed by the Venetian Senate.

William Henry Hosking

William Hosking
He achieved several qualifications that included LSA Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries, London 1863; LRCPI Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians in Ireland, 1873; LRCP Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, London; MRCS Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, England 1873; LM Doctor of Laws, University of Liverpool 1874. He registered under the Medical Practitioners Ordinance of the Province of New Munster in Campbelltown on 19 Sept 1863. Hosking registered on 23 Sept 1869 under the Medical Practitioners Act of 1867 at Ross and Masterton.

1775–82 North American smallpox epidemic

smallpox epidemic1780–17821773–76 smallpox epidemic
It was widely publicized by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who inoculated her own children against smallpox, despite widespread concern and controversy. Inoculation was the practice of introducing infected materials in to the bodies of healthy individuals with the hope that they would contract a mild form of smallpox, recover, and be immune to further infections. The outcome of inoculations in surviving patients was successful, these individuals proved to be immune to smallpox. Understandably, there was much concern surrounding the practice of inoculation.


Sandleford Priory
Burgess who died in 1550, had an AM Oxon (1530–1), MB (1533–4), MD, and was admitted a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (FRCP) in 1536, was elected Censor and Elect, 1543; Consiliarius, 1544, 1545, 1546; and President, 1547. William Munk says that 'Dr. Burgess was dead on 30 March 1550, when his place of Elect was filled by the appointment of Dr. Caius' . A lease dated 11 October 1560 of the site of Sandleford Priory was named: Lease to Thomas Hide of Hurst, in the County of Barks, gentleman, for 6 years for £15, all the scite of the pryarye of Sandylforde [Sandleford] near unto Newberye [Newbury], in the County of Barks., signed Thomas Hyde.

Tancred Robinson

Robinson became M.D. of Cambridge in 1685, and fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1687, serving as censor in 1693 and 1717. He was appointed physician in ordinary to George I, and was knighted by him. Robinson died at an advanced age on 29 March 1748. Robinson's own contributions to Philosophical Transactions included ten papers on varied topics. Though his letters and papers deal with natural history generally, he paid particular attention to plants, and was styled by Leonard Plukenet in 1696 "vir de re herbariâ optime meritus", in his Almagestum. There is evidence that he assisted both James Petiver and Samuel Dale with the Latin of their scientific works.

Wilhelmina Maria Frederica of Rochlitz

Frederica of RochlitzWilhelmina MariaWilhelmina Maria Frederica
She was born in Frankfurt am Main and orphaned at less than a year old by both her parents' deaths from smallpox. For the first year of her life (until her father's death) she was in a way a stepsister of Caroline of Ansbach, future queen consort of Great Britain, being the daughter of Caroline's then-stepfather. Her first two names, Wilhelmina Maria, were given in honour of the King and Queen of England, William and Mary; however, contrary to popular assumption, the English monarchs were not her godparents. Sir William Dutton Colt, the English envoy to Dresden since 1689, was her actual godfather. The name Frederica was given to please the Danish royal family.

Henry Levett

Dr. Henry Levett
He also served as treasurer to the Royal College of Physicians. In that capacity Levett purchased 10 candlesticks and a pair of snuffers and stands from the goldsmith Matthew Cooper that are still in the collection of the Royal College of Physicians. Levett is buried at the foot of the altar in the chapel at Charterhouse, where there is a classical monument in his honor. The grave contains an inscription in Latin as well as Levett's coat-of-arms. Dr. Henry Levett was the son of William Levett Esq. of Swindon and Savernake Forest, Wiltshire, courtier to King Charles I of England, who accompanied the King during his imprisonment and to his eventual execution.

Herd immunity

herd immunity § Mechanismthe wider community
Vaccination is originally based on the observation that milkmaids exposed to cowpox were immune to smallpox, so the practice of inoculating people with the cowpox virus began as a way to prevent smallpox. Well-developed vaccines provide protection in a far safer way than natural infections, as vaccines generally do not cause the diseases they protect against and severe adverse effects are significantly less common than complications from natural infections.

Isaac de Sequeira Samuda

In March 1722, Samuda was admitted as a licentiate by the Royal College of Physicians. In February 1723, he translated a Portuguese report of a whale stranded in the Tagus, for the Royal Society, and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 27 June 1723, proposed by its secretary, James Jurin, and supported by Sir Hans Sloane. In April 1724, he delivered a paper to the society giving a detailed description by a Lisbon physician of the yellow fever epidemic in Portugal the previous year.

Samuel Garth

Dr Sir Samuel GarthGarthSir Samuel Garth
He took his M.D. and became a member of the College of Physicians in 1691. He settled as a physician in London and soon acquired a large practice. He was a zealous Whig, the friend of Addison and, though of different political views, of Pope. He ended his career as physician to George I, who knighted him in 1714. The politician John Garth was a nephew of Samuel Garth. In 1699 Samuel Garth was called to give evidence in what became known as the Sarah Stout Affair. Spencer Cowper, a lawyer and member of a prominent Hertfordshire family, was accused with some friends of the murder of a Quaker woman called Sarah Stout.

John Gerard

In 1586, the College of Physicians established a physic garden with Gerard as curator, a position he held till 1604. In 1588, Burghley was Chancellor of the University of Cambridge and Gerard wrote to him commending himself as a suitable superintendent of the university botanic garden, writing "to signe for ye University of Cambridge for planting of gardens". Amongst his qualifications he wrote "by reason of his travaile into farre countries his great practise and long experience". There is no evidence for this claim and nothing seems to have come of his application.


other events in 1717
François-Marie Arouet is sentenced to imprisonment in the Bastille for eleven months, because of a satirical verse against the Régent of France and his infamous daughter Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, who at the time was hiding an illegitimate pregnancy and soon to give birth; Arouet will emerge with the pseudonym Voltaire, and the completed text of his first play, Œdipe. The Tatar invasions in Transylvania, devastate many towns, including Cavnic, Sighet and Dej. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, wife of the British ambassador to Istanbul, has her son inoculated. The Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) is set up in Cádiz.

Mary Hervey

Mary LepellLady HerveyMary
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu records, in a letter written to the Countess of Mar, in July 1721, "the ardent affection" shown to her by Mrs Hervey and "her dear spouse". They had eight children: In spite of her husband's infidelity she lived with him on very amicable terms, and was an admirable mother to a large family of troublesome children, who inherited those peculiar qualities which gave rise to the well-known saying, ascribed to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu among others, "that this world consisted of men, women, and Herveys". She appears to have been always a warm partisan of the Stuarts.

Fitzpatrick Lecture

The Fitzpatrick Lecture is given annually at the Royal College of Physicians on a subject related to history of medicine. The lecturer, who must be a fellow of the College, is selected by the president and may be chosen to speak for two years successively. The lectures are supported by funds from the Fitzpatrick Trust which was established in 1901 by Agnes Letitia Fitzpatrick with a £2,000 donation in memory of her physician husband Thomas Fitzpatrick. Agnes was influenced by her husband’s close friend, Sir Norman Moore, who persuaded her to choose ‘’history of medicine’’ as a subject. Subsequently, Moore was credited with its idea and implementation.


virologistvirologistsviral ecology
It involved the application of materials from smallpox sufferers in order to immunize others. In 1717 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu observed the practice in Istanbul and attempted to popularize it in Britain, but encountered considerable resistance. In 1796 Edward Jenner developed a much safer method, using cowpox to successfully immunize a young boy against smallpox, and this practice was widely adopted. Vaccinations against other viral diseases followed, including the successful rabies vaccination by Louis Pasteur in 1886. The nature of viruses however was not clear to these researchers.