Suniti Kumar Chatterji, a recognised Bengali phonetician, listed the BPM language to be a dialect of Bengali, whereas Dr. Maheswer Neog and Dr. Banikanta Kakti claimed it as a dialect of indigenous Assamese. Their assumptions later caused contradiction about the origin of Bishnupriya Manipuri language. But the assumptions were proven incorrect by scientific research and observation of morphology, vocabulary, and phonology of BPM. The orthodox Bishnupriyas claim that they have their own script, that is, the Devanagari script, which was used to write in the Bishnupriya language in its early years.
Bishnupriya ManipuriBishnupriyaBishnupriya Manipuri (বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী)
Suniti Kumar Chatterji says, "Dharma who is however described as the supreme deity, creator and ordainer of the Universe, superior even to Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva and at times identified with them, and he has nothing of the abstractions of Buddhist Dharma about him." He has further opined that the songs and dances linked with Gajan of Dharma is clearly non-Aryan in origin. It could be Dravidian or Tibeto-Chinese. Sukumar Sen says that Dharmathakur has come down with the so-called lower category of common people. They formed a majority at one point of time and had no right to Brahminical learning.
Bengali language authorsList of Bengali language authors
History of Bengali Literature, Rabbani Choudhury, Utso, Dhaka, 2010. Bangla Literature, an English magazine edited by Sayeed Abybakar.
Notable linguist Khudiram Das authored the ' Santali Bangla Samasabda Abhidhan', a book focusing on the influence of the Santali language on Bengali and providing a basis for further research on this subject. ' Bangla Santali Bhasha Samparka is a collection of essays in E-book format authored by him and dedicated to linguist Suniti Kumar Chatterji on the relationship between the Bengali and Santali languages.
Bengali dialects can be thus classified along at least two dimensions: spoken vs. literary variations, and prestige vs. regional variations. Suniti Kumar Chatterji and Sukumar Sen classified Bengali Dialects in 6 classes by their phonology & pronunciation. They are: 1. Rarhi dialect: Rarhi is the basis of official Standard Bengali language. This dialect is spoken across much of Southern West Bengal, India. The regions where it is spoken include the whole of Presidency division (including the city of Kolkata and the Nadia district), the Southern half of Burdwan division and the district of Murshidabad. 2. Bangali dialect: Bangali is the most widely spoken dialect of Bengali language.
ancient IndiaIndiaIndian history
The Pala Empire was founded by Gopala I. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. The Palas reunified Bengal after the fall of Shashanka's Gauda Kingdom. The Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism, they also patronised Shaivism and Vaishnavism. The morpheme Pala, meaning "protector", was used as an ending for the names of all the Pala monarchs. The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. Dharmapala is believed to have conquered Kanauj and extended his sway up to the farthest limits of India in the northwest. The Pala Empire can be considered as the golden era of Bengal in many ways.
SitakundaMuradpur, SitakundaSitakunda, Chittagong
In the next century, it was briefly ruled by Dharmapala (reign: 770–810) of the Pala Empire. The area was conquered in 1340 by Sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah (reign: 1338–1349) of Sonargaon, who founded the first dynasty of the Sultanate of Bengal. When Sultan Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah (reign: 1533–1538) of the last dynasty of the Sultanate of Bengal was defeated in 1538 by Sher Shah Suri of the Sur Dynasty, the Arakanese captured the region again. Batsauphyu (reign: 1459–1482) of the Mrauk U dynasty took advantage of the weakness of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal to lead the invasion. In this period, Keyakchu (or Chandrajyoti), a prince of Arakan, established a monastery in Sitakunda.
Islamadvent of IslamMuslim
The Arab writers also knew about the kingdoms of Samrup and Ruhmi, the latter being identified with the empire of Dharmapal of the Pala Empire. The earliest mosque in South Asia is possibly in Lalmonirhat, built during or just after the Prophet Muhammad's lifetime. Between the 8th century and 12th century, the Buddhist dynasty known as the Pala Empire ruled Bengal. During that time, the majority of the population in Bengal were thought to be Buddhists. After the decline of the Pala dynasty, the Sena dynasty came to power. The large scale conversion to Islam began in the 13th century, during the rule of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, and continued for hundreds of years.
This is a timeline of Bangladeshi history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Bangladesh and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Bangladesh. See also the list of Presidents of Bangladesh and list of Prime Ministers of Bangladesh, and the list of years in Bangladesh.
sahaja samadhiSahajiyasahaja nirvikalpa samadhi
The Buddhist siddha Saraha (8th century CE) was the founder of the Buddhist movement termed "Sahajayana" which flourished in Odisha and Bengal. Sahajiya mahasiddhas like Saraha, Kanha, Savari and Luipa were tantric Buddhists who expounded their beliefs in songs and dohas in the Apabhraṃśa languages and Bengali. Many of the songs in this tradition are preserved in the Charyapada. Sahajiyas such as Saraha believed that enlightenment could be achieved in this lifetime, by laypersons living in samsara. Though he was a famed Buddhist sage,. The sahajiyas practiced a form of ritual union which was supposed to bring the female and male elements together in balance.
The Bengali Brahmins are Hindu Brahmins who traditionally reside in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, currently comprising the Indian state of West Bengal, Tripura and Bangladesh and parts of Assam. When the British left India in 1947, carving out separate nations, a number of families moved from the Muslim-majority East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) to be within the borders of the newly defined Republic of India, and continued to migrate for several decades thereafter. Bengali Brahmins are categorized as Pancha-Gauda Brahmins (the Brahmins who traditionally lived to the north of the Vindhyas).
Assameseliterature Assamese language
The British imposed Bengali in 1836 in Assam after the state was occupied and annexed with the Bengal Presidency. As a result of this language imposition, the progress of education in Assam remained not only slow but highly defected and a lot of Bengalis were imported and employed in the different schools of Assam. Writing of text books in Assamese for school children in Assamese did not get any encouragement and Assamese literature naturally suffered in its growth. Due to a sustained campaign, Assamese was reinstated in 1873 as the state language.
– Beas – Beas River – Beed – Beed District – Beejoliya Kalan – Begamganj – Begampur – Begowal – Begum Pur – Begumabad Budhana – Begun – Begusarai – Behat – Behea – Behror – Behta Hajipur – Bela Pratapgarh – Belagachhia – Beldanga – Beldubi – Belebathan – Belgaum – Belgaum Cantonment – Belgaum District – Beliatore – Bellaguntha – Bellampalli – Bellary – Bellary District – Belonia – Belpahar – Belsand – Beltangadi – Belthara Road – Belur – Belur Math – Belvata – Bemetra – Bengal – Bengali language – Bengali poetry – Bengali script – Beniganj – Benoît de Boigne – Beohari – Berach River – Berar – Berasia – Bermo – Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais – Bestavaripeta – Beswan – Betel nut – Bethamcheria
BengaliBengali poetBengali poem
It is known for the mystic poems called Charyacharyavinishchaya, and sometimes called Charyapad or Charyagiti. These poems were discovered in Nepal's Royal Library by Bengali scholar Mahamahopadhyay Haraprasad Shastri. The Medieval period of Bengali poetry was between 1350 and 1800. It marked the start of the Dobhashi influence and many Muslim literature was written during this period. It was also the period of Jayadeva, the renowned 12th-century poet from neighboring Odisha who was famous for his poem Gitagovinda. Originally, Muslim poets adapted popular Persian and Arabic tales of war and love. It is considered this period was when romantic themes where introduced to Bengali poetry.
The Pala Empire was a Buddhist dynasty that ruled from the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. The name Pala (Modern পাল pal) means protector and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs. The Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. Gopala was the first ruler from the dynasty. He came to power in 750 in Gaur by a democratic election. This event is recognised as one of the first democratic elections in South Asia since the time of the Mahā Janapadas. He reigned from 750-770 and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal as well as parts of Bihar. The Buddhist dynasty lasted for four centuries (750-1120 CE).
Syloti NagriSylhetiSylheti Nagari script
Suniti Kumar Chatterji, however, is of the opinion that Shah Jalal brought the script with him when he arrived in the area in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The bulk of text written in Sylheti Nagari being influenced by Sufism seems to support this hypothesis. On the other hand, according to Ahmad Hasan Dani it was the Afghans living in Sylhet during the Afghan rule who invented the script, since some of Sylheti Nagari's letters resemble the symbols on Afghan coins, and there were a large number of Afghans living in Sylhet at that time.
When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal. When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. The Cholas could under the rule of Raja Raja Chola defeat their rivals and rise to a regional power. Cholas expanded northward and defeated Eastern Chalukya, Kalinga and the Pala. Under Rajendra Chola the Cholas created the first notable navy of Indian subcontinent. The Chola navy extended the influence of Chola empire to southeast asia.
medievallate medievalMiddle Ages
The Sena dynasty, was a Hindu dynasty that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. The empire at its peak covered much of the north-eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. The rulers of the Sena Dynasty traced their origin to the south Indian region of Karnataka. Delhi Sultanate, five short-lived dynasties, based in Delhi, from 1206 to 1526, when it fell to the Mughal Empire. Chero dynasty, 12th CE-18th CE ruled much parts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand. Bengal Sultanate, 1352 to 1576, ruled over Bengal and much of Burma. Ahom Kingdom, 1228–1826, Brahmaputra valley in Assam, resisted the Mughals, eventually taken by the British.
Bengali Kayastha denotes a Bengali Hindu who is a member of the Kayastha caste. In Bengal, Kayasthas, alongside Brahmins are regarded as the "highest Hindu castes" that comprise the "upper layer of Hindu society." Bengali Kayasthas are considered an offshoot of the northern Indian Kayastha group who claim descent from the sons of Chitragupta. They claim lineage from migrants to Bengal from the ancient city of Kannauj who came at the request of Sena Dynasty kings in the 10th century. According to Tej Ram Sharma, an Indian historian, the office of Kayastha in Bengal was instituted before the Gupta period (c. 320 to 550 CE), although there is no reference to Kayastha as a caste at that time.
Rajendra later completed the conquest of Sri Lanka, crossed the Ganges, and marched across Kalinga to Bengal. He sent out a great naval expedition that occupied parts of Java, Malaya, and Sumatra. The Cholas were brought down by the Hoysalas from the west and Pandyas from the south. The Arab scholar Sulaiman described the Emperor of the Rashtrakuta dynasty as one of the 4 great Kings of the World in the 9th century. In middle of 9th century, the Palas under Devapala attacked the Gurjara-Pratiharas. Led by Mihir Bhoja, the Pratiharas and their allies defeated Narayan Pala.
Indian nationalistIndian nationalistsnationalist
In addition, much of India has also been unified under a central government by empires, such as the Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire, Mughal Empire, British Indian Empire etc. India's concept of nationhood is based not merely on territorial extent of its sovereignty. Nationalistic sentiments and expression encompass that India's ancient history, as the birthplace of the Indus Valley Civilization and Vedic Civilization, as well as four major world religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Indian nationalists see India stretching along these lines across the Indian Subcontinent.
Khana (pron. khawnaa) was a Bengali poet and legendary astrologer, who composed in the medieval Bengali language between the ninth and 12th centuries AD. She is associated with the village Deulia (Chandraketugarh, near Berachampa), in Barasat, North 24 parganas district, West Bengal. Her poetry, known as khanar bachan (or vachan) (meaning "khana's words"), among the earliest compositions in Bengali literature, is known for its agricultural themes.
The Parliament of Bengal, including the Bengal Legislative Council and the Bengal Legislative Assembly, was the oldest and largest in British India. The Bengal Presidency had the highest gross domestic product in British India. Citing administrative improvement and affirmative action for Bengali Muslims and non-Bengali communities in colonial Assam, the British government enacted the first partition of Bengal in 1905. The new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, with its own Legislative Council, saw more investments in education and infrastructure. The province was a center of the petroleum, tea, and jute industries. Its capital was Dacca, with a summer capital at Shillong.
Indian BuddhismBuddhism in IndiaBuddhism
According to Damien Keown, the kings of the Pala dynasty (8th to 12th century, Gangetic plains region) were a major supporter of Buddhism, various Buddhist and Hindu arts, and the flow of ideas between India, Tibet and China: "During this period [Pala dynasty] Mahayana Buddhism reached its zenith of sophistication, while tantric Buddhism flourished throughout India and surrounding lands. This was also a key period for the consolidation of the epistemological-logical (pramana) school of Buddhist philosophy.
religionIndiareligions of India
Although Buddhism virtually disappeared from mainstream India by the 11th century CE, its presence remained and manifested itself through other movements such as the Bhakti tradition, Vaishnavism and the Bauls of Bengal, who are influenced by the Sahajjyana form of Buddhism that was popular in Bengal during the Pala period. During the 14–17th centuries, when North India was under Muslim rule, the Bhakti movement swept through Central and Northern India. The Bhakti movement actually started in the eighth-century Tamil south India (present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala), and gradually spread northwards. It was initiated by a loosely associated group of teachers, or saints.