Kingdom of BhutanBhutaneseBootan
Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north, the Sikkim state of India and the Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the west, the Arunachal Pradesh state of India in the east, and the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal in the south. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the region's second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is its capital and largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center. Bhutan's independence has endured for centuries. It has never been colonized in its history.

Bengali Muslims

Bengali MuslimMuslimBengalis
Bengali Muslims are an ethnic, linguistic, and religious population who make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens and the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. They are Bengalis who adhere to Islam and speak the Bengali language. They form the largest Bengali and the second largest Muslim ethnic group in the world (after Arab Muslims). Bengal was a leading power of the medieval Islamic East. Europeans traders identified the Bengal Sultanate as "the richest country to trade with".

Bengal tiger

tigerroyal Bengal tigertigers
Bengali revolutionary Jatindranath Mukherjee was called Bagha Jatin (Bengali for Tiger Jatin). Educator Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was often called the "Tiger of Bengal". South African politician Amichand Rajbansi was also nicknamed the Bengal Tiger. Royal Leicestershire Regiment was nicknamed Bengal Tigers or The Tigers. The Beckley, West Virginia team of the Mountain State League was named Beckley Bengals. They were affiliated with the Detroit Tigers in 1937. Royal Bengals were an American basketball team based in Trenton, New Jersey that was a member of the American Basketball League.


Srivijaya EmpireSriwijayaSri Vijaya
Srivijaya also maintained close relations with the Pala Empire in Bengal. The Nalanda inscription, dated 860, records that Maharaja Balaputra dedicated a monastery at the Nalanda university in the Pala territory. The relation between Srivijaya and the Chola dynasty of southern India was initially friendly during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I. In 1006, a Srivijayan Maharaja from the Sailendra dynasty, king Maravijayattungavarman, constructed the Chudamani Vihara in the port town of Nagapattinam. However, during the reign of Rajendra Chola I the relationship deteriorated as the Chola Dynasty started to attack Srivijayan cities.

Gauḍa (city)

Colonial officials, such as Francis Buchanan-Hamilton and William Francklin, left detailed surveys of the former Bengali capital. After the fall of the Gupta Empire, western Bengal was ruled by the Gauda Kingdom and eastern Bengal by the Samatata Kingdom. Gauda was founded by Shashanka, one of the pioneering Bengali kings in history. Shashanka's reign falls approximately between 590 and 625. The origin of the Bengali calendar falls within the reign of Shashanka. The Pala Empire was founded in Gauda region during the rise of Gopala as king with the approval of an assembly of chieftains. The Pala Emperors carried the title Lord of Gauda.

Barak Valley

Nihar Ranjan Roy, author of Bangalir Itihash, claims that "South Assam / Northeastern Bengal or Barak Valley is the extension of the Greater Surma/Meghna Valley of Bengal in every aspect from culture to geography". Assam's Surma Valley (now partly in Bangladesh) had Muslim-majority population. On the eve of partition, hectic activities intensified by the Muslim League as well Congress with the former having an edge. A referendum had been proposed for Sylhet District.

Somapura Mahavihara

SomapuraPaharpurRuins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur
Xuanzang of China was a noted scholar who resided at the Somapura Mahavihara (the largest monastery in ancient India), and Atisa traveled from Bengal to Tibet to preach Buddhism. The earliest form of the Bengali language began to the emerge during the eighth century. The excavation at Paharpur, and the finding of seals bearing the inscription Shri-Somapure-Shri-Dharmapaladeva-Mahavihariyarya-bhiksu-sangghasya, has identified the Somapura Mahavihara as built by the second Pala king Dharmapala (circa 781–821) of Pāla Dynasty.

Chandra dynasty

The Chandras played an important role in the regional politics and military history of erstwhile Bengal. The Chandras supported the Pala Empire in the west against North Indian and South Indian invasions. The Chandras were eventually overthrown during an invasion of the South Indian Chola dynasty. The coastal kingdom had trade networks with states in what is now Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. 10th century shipwrecks around the coast of Java provide evidence of maritime links between southeastern Bengal and Southeast Asia. Bronze sculptures may have been imported by the Javanese from the Chandra kingdom in southeastern Bengal. Arab merchants also traded with the kingdom.

Shorea robusta

salsal treesal forest
In India, it extends from Assam, Bengal, Odisha and Jharkhand west to the Shivalik Hills in Haryana, east of the Yamuna. The range also extends through the Eastern Ghats and to the eastern Vindhya and Satpura ranges of central India. It is often the dominant tree in the forests where it occurs. In Nepal, it is found mostly in the Terai region from east to west, especially, in the Sivalik Hills (Churia Range) in the subtropical climate zone. There are many protected areas, such as Chitwan National Park, Bardia National Park and Shukla Phat Wildlife Reserve, where there are dense forests of huge sal trees. It is also found in the lower belt of the Hilly region and Inner Terai.

Michael Madhusudan Dutt

Michael Madhusudan DuttaMichael Madhusudan DattaMichael Modhusudan Dutt
Michael Madhusudan Dutt, or Michael Madhusudan Dutta (মাইকেল মধুসূদন দত্ত ; 25 January 1824 – 29 June 1873) was a popular 19th-century Bengali poet and dramatist. He was a pioneer of Bengali drama. His famous work Meghnad Badh Kavya, is a tragic epic. It consists of nine cantos and is exceptional in Bengali literature both in terms of style and content. He also wrote poems about the sorrows and afflictions of love as spoken by women. Dutta is widely considered to be one of the greatest poets in Bengali literature and the father of the Bengali sonnet. He pioneered what came to be called 'Amitrakshar chhanda' (blank verse).


Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
Pakistan has literature in Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Pashto, Baluchi, Persian, English, and many other languages. The Pakistan Academy of Letters is a large literary community that promotes literature and poetry in Pakistan and abroad. The National Library publishes and promotes literature in the country. Before the 19th century, Pakistani literature consisted mainly of lyric and religious poetry and mystical and folkloric works. During the colonial period, native literary figures were influenced by western literary realism and took up increasingly varied topics and narrative forms. Prose fiction is now very popular.

Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani

Maulana BhashaniMaulana Abdul Hamid Khan BhashaniMaulana Bhasani
In 2004, Bhashani was ranked number 8 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time. In 1880 Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani was born in Dhangara village in Sirajganj, Bengal Presidency. He was the son of Sharafat Ali Khan. Between 1907 and 1909 he received religious education at the Deoband Madrasah. The association of Mahmudul Hasan (known as Shaikhul Hind) and other progressive Islamic thinkers inspired Bhasani against British imperialism. In 1909 he started teaching in a primary school at Kagmaree, Tangail. In 1917, Bhashani was inducted into active politics and joined the Nationalist party led by Desbandhu Chittaranjan Das as an activist.


Boru ChandidasChandidas (Rami)Dwija Chandidas
According to Banglapedia, Chandidas was the first Bengali-language poet to be a humanist. He asserted "Shobar upor manush shotto tahar upore nai" ("Above all is humanity, none else"). Later literature has also often eulogized Chandidas' love for a Rajakini (a female cloth washer), whether this has any historical basis is not known. * Gaudiya Vaishnavism Vaishnava-Sahajiya Bengal. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Jayadeva Goswami. Radha Krishna.

Gopala I

Gopala (ruled c. 750s–770s CE) was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal region of the Indian Subcontinent. The last morpheme of his name Pala means "protector" and was used as an ending for the names of all the Pala monarchs. Pala does not suggest or indicate any ethnic or caste considerations of the Pala dynasty. He came to power around 750 CE in Gaur / Gwal after being elected by a group of regional chieftains. There are no contemporary sources of information about Gopala's life: he is known only through the later literary references and genealogies in inscriptions. The name of his father was Vapyata, and his grandfather Dayitavishnu.


MangalkavyaMangal-KavyaChandi Mangal
It is widely considered to be one of the most important works ever of Bengali literature and references to stories of Manasamangal abound in literature even to this day because of their highly symbolic value. There are also other minor Mangalkavyas such as Raimangalkavya in the Sundarban region. 1) Listening to them was said to bring spiritual and material benefits ("mangal"). 2) They were sung in the Mangal raga. 3) They were read out in rituals extending from one "Mangalbar" (Tuesday) to the next. Chaitanya Bhagavata. Tulsidas. Bhakti. Bengali literature.


Their historical influence throughout the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayas was vast and they reached mythic proportions as codified in their songs of realization and hagiographies, or namtars, many of which have been preserved in the Tibetan Buddhist canon. The Mahasiddhas are the founders of Vajrayana traditions and lineages such as Dzogchen and Mahamudra.

Bangladeshi art

Art in Bangladeshart festivalsarts
The most significant development of Bangladeshi art took place during the Pala rule which existed from 750–1174 CE. The Palas created a distinctive form of Buddhist art in Bangladesh which even influenced the Chinese, Japanese, eastern Asian and Tibetan art. This progress of Bangladeshi art continued to some extent during the Sena rule through the 11th and 12th centuries. Bangladeshi art witnessed the influence of Islamic art though the arrival of Muslims in Bengal beginning from the 11th century. This influence started through the establishment of Sultanate of Bengal which covered most of the area of present-day Bangladesh.

Jibanananda Das

Jibananda DasJibananad DasJibananada Das
As of 2009, Bengali is the mother tongue of more than 300 million people living mainly in Bangladesh and India. Bengali poetry of the modern age flourished on the elaborate foundation laid by Michael Madhusudan Dutt (1824–1873) and Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941). Tagore ruled over the domain of Bengali poetry and literature for almost half a century, inescapably influencing contemporary poets. Bengali literature caught the attention of the international literary world when Tagore was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature for Gitanjali, an anthology of poems rendered into English by the poet himself with the title Song Offering. Since then Bengali poetry has travelled a long way.

Buddhadeb Bosu

Buddhadeva BoseBuddhadeb BasuBuddhadeb Bose
Buddhadeva Bose (also spelt Buddhadeb Bosu; 1908–1974) was an Indian Bengali writer of the 20th century. Frequently referred to as a poet, he was a versatile writer who wrote novels, short stories, plays and essays in addition to poetry. He was an influential critic and editor of his time. He is recognised as one of the five poets who moved to introduce modernity into Bengali poetry. It is said that since Rabindranath Tagore, there has not been a more versatile talent in Bengali literature. Buddhadeva Bose (BB) was born in Comilla, Bengal Presidency, British India (now Bangladesh), on 30 November 1908. His ancestral home was in the village of Malkhanagar in the Bikrampur region.

Manik Bandopadhyay

Manik BandyopadhyayManik Bandopadhay
Manik Bandopadhyay (19 May 1908 – 3 December 1956) was a Bengali writer and novelist, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th century Bengali literature. During a lifespan of 48 years, plagued simultaneously by illness and financial crisis, he produced 36 novels and 177 short stories. His notable works include Padma Nadir Majhi (The Boatman on The River Padma, 1936) and Putul Nacher Itikatha (The Puppet's Tale, 1936), Shahartali (Suburbia, 1941) and Chatushkone (The Quadrilateral, 1948). Bandopadhyay was born on 19 May 1908 in Dumka, a small town in Santal Parganas district in the state of Bihar in British India. His real name was Prabodh Kumar Bandhopaddhay.

Mughal Empire

MughalMughalsMughal India
The most important center of cotton production was the Bengal province, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka. Bengal accounted for more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks imported by the Dutch from Asia, Bengali silk and cotton textiles were exported in large quantities to Europe, Indonesia, and Japan, and Bengali muslin textiles from Dhaka were sold in Central Asia, where they were known as "daka" textiles.


HaoraHowrah, West BengalBotanical Garden
Howrah's first vernacular Bengali medium school was established in 1857, and is currently known as Santragachi Kedarnath Institution, Howrah. Howrah's schools are either run by the state government or by private institutions. The medium of instruction is Bengali, English or Hindi. Schools are affiliated to the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE), West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education (WBCHSE), the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).

Assam separatist movements

Assam conflictAssamese nationalismAssam
Conversely, assertions of Assamese nationalism are found in Assamese literature and culture. The neglect and exploitation by the Indian state are common refrains in the Assamese-language media with some reports casting the ULFA leaders as saviors. Internationally acclaimed Assamese novelist Indira Goswami has tried to broker peace for several years between the rebels and the government. In a recent development Hiren Gohain, a public intellectual, has stepped in to expedite the process. Operation All Clear. 2008 Assam bombings. Bhimajuli Massacre. 2009 Guwahati bombings. 2009 Assam serial blasts. Insurgency in North-East India. Separatist movements of India.

Bengali Language Movement (Barak Valley)

Birendra SutradharBengali Language MovementBengali Language Movement in the Barak Valley
The Bengali Language Movement in Barak Valley, Assam was a protest against the decision of the Government of Assam to make Assamese the only official language of the state even though a significant proportion of population were Bengali people. In the Barak Valley, the Sylheti speaking Bengali population constitute the majority of the population. The main incident, in which 11 people were killed by State police, took place on 19 May 1961 at Silchar railway station. In April, 1960, a proposal was raised at the Assam Pradesh Congress Committee, to declare Assamese as the one and only official language of the state.

Sylheti language

SylhetiSylheti dialectlinguistic differences
When the British arrived in 1765, Sylhet became a part of Assam leading to some Assamese influence on Sylheti. In the 19th century, the British tea-planters in the area referred to the vernacular spoken in Surma and Barak Valleys as Sylheti. Local names included Ujaniyo (northern tongue i.e. a northern form of Bengali) and Srihottiyo (Srihattan). In Assam, the language is still referred to as Sylheti. In 1868, a short glossary of Sylheti terms were written up and compared to standard Bengali to allow ease in understanding the dialect. This is most likely the earliest appearance of a Sylheti dictionary. Many terms listed here differ from modern Sylheti - highlighting the dialect's evolution.