Lord KrishnaSri KrishnaShri Krishna
The synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1stmillenniumBCE literature. In some sub-traditions, Krishna is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, and this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism. These sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement. Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, and Manipuri dance.

East India Company

British East India CompanyHonourable East India CompanyEnglish East India Company
The battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal with the right to collect revenue, in Bengal and Bihar, and a major military and political power in India. In the following decades it gradually increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys.

Indian Rebellion of 1857

Indian MutinyIndian RebellionSepoy Mutiny
The Bengal army dominated the Indian army before 1857 and a direct result after the rebellion was the scaling back of the size of the Bengali contingent in the army. The Brahmin presence in the Bengal Army was reduced because of their perceived primary role as mutineers. The British looked for increased recruitment in the Punjab for the Bengal army as a result of the apparent discontent that resulted in the Sepoy conflict. The rebellion transformed both the native and European armies of British India. Of the 74 regular Bengal Native Infantry regiments in existence at the beginning of 1857, only twelve escaped mutiny or disbandment. All ten of the Bengal Light Cavalry regiments were lost.


BurmaBurmeseBurma (Myanmar)
As of July 2012, the Myanmar Government does not include the Rohingya minority group—classified as stateless Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh since 1982—on the government's list of more than 130 ethnic races and, therefore, the government states that they have no claim to Myanmar citizenship.


BarendraNorth BengalVarendra Brahmin
According to the Khalimpur copper plate inscription, the first Pala Emperor Gopala was the son of a warrior named Vapyata. The Ramacharitam attests that Varendra (North Bengal) was the fatherland (Janakabhu) of the Palas. Traditionally, Bengali Brahmins are divided into the following categories: Rādhi, from the Rarh region southwest of the Ganges. Barendra, from the Varendra or region. Vārendra originally meant rain-maker magicians. Varendra Research Society. Varendra Research Museum. Varendra rebellion. Varendra University. Varendra tract. North Bengal. Pundravardhana.


HimalayaHimalayanHimalayan Mountains
The Brahmaputra originates as the Yarlung Tsangpo River in western Tibet, and flows east through Tibet and west through the plains of Assam. The Ganges and the Brahmaputra meet in Bangladesh and drain into the Bay of Bengal through the world's largest river delta, the Sunderbans. List of Himalayan topics. Eastern, Garhwal and Western Himalaya. List of Himalayan peaks and passes and of Himalayan peaks of Uttarakhand. Indian Himalayan Region. List of mountains in India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal and China. List of Ultras of the Himalayas. Mahalangur Himal. Trekking peak. Aitken, Bill, Footloose in the Himalaya, Delhi, Permanent Black, 2003. ISBN: 81-7824-052-1.


HinduHindusHindu culture
Shaktism focuses on goddess worship of Shakti or Devi as cosmic mother, and it is particularly common in northeastern and eastern states of India such as Assam and Bengal. Devi is depicted as in gentler forms like Parvati, the consort of Shiva; or, as fierce warrior goddesses like Kali and Durga. Followers of Shaktism recognize Shakti as the power that underlies the male principle. Shaktism is also associated with Tantra practices. Community celebrations include festivals, some of which include processions and idol immersion into sea or other water bodies. Smartism centers its worship simultaneously on all the major Hindu deities: Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, Ganesha, Surya and Skanda.


The revelers may also improvise "songs of realization" (caryagiti) to express their heightened clarity and blissful raptures in spontaneous verse. Samual holds that: The ancient Indian, the circle ritual...discussed earlier, is far in the past. In Tibetan practice it has long been replaced by the (Tibetan: tshogs), a considerably tamer affair, still involving a sacramental meal but normally performed indoors and without possession or dancing.

Nepali language

NepaliNepaleseKhas language
In India, Nepali has official status in the state of Sikkim, and significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Uttarakhand and West Bengal's Darjeeling district and Kalimpong. It is also spoken in Myanmar and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide. Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili, and shows Sanskrit influence. However, owing to Nepal's location, it has also been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages.

Kazi Nazrul Islam

NazrulNazrul IslamQazi Nazrul Islam
Nazrul was awarded the Jagattarini Gold Medal in 1945 – the highest honour for work in Bengali literature by the University of Calcutta – and awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third-highest civilian award of India, in 1960. Nazrul's works for children have won acclaim for his use of rich language, imagination, enthusiasm, and an ability to fascinate young readers. Nazrul is regarded for his secularism. His poetry has been translated to languages English, Spanish, and Portuguese. A major avenue is named after him in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Kazi Nazrul University in Asansol, West Bengal, India is named after him.


jute and jutejute bagsJute cultivation
Production is concentrated mostly in Bangladesh, as well as India's states of Assam, Bihar, and West Bengal. India is the world's largest producer of jute, but imported approximately 162,000 tonnes of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes of jute products in 2011. India, Pakistan, and China import significant quantities of jute fiber and products from Bangladesh, as do the United Kingdom, Japan, United States, France, Spain, Ivory Coast, Germany and Brazil.


Vidyapati ThakurVidyāpati
Vidyapati's influence was not just restricted to Maithili and Sanskrit literature but also extended to other Eastern literary traditions. The language at the time of Vidyapati, the prakrit-derived late abahatta, had just begun to transition into early versions of the Eastern languages such as Maithili, Bhojpuri etc. Thus, Vidyapati's influence on making these languages has been described as "analogous to that of Dante in Italy and Chaucer in England". Vidyapati was born to a Shaivite Brahmin family in the village of Bisfi in the present-day Madhubani district of Mithila region of Bihar, India. He was the son of Shri Ganapati Thakur who was a Maithil Brahmin.


Syed Alaol
Syed Alaol (সৈয়দ আলাওল; 1607 – 1673) was a poet in Bengal during the medieval age. He was probably born in 1607 in Jalalpur village in Madaripur of Fatehabad of Bangladesh. His father was a minister of Majlis Qutb, the ruler of Fatehabad, Bangladesh. His most well known work is Padmavati, which depicts the story of Padmavati, the Sinhalese princess and the queen of Chittor. He is considered to be one of the most prolific medieval Bengali poets. Since most of his poems combine emotion with intellect, he is called the Pandit Kabi or 'Wise Poet' of medieval Bengali literature. An important Bangladeshi literary prize, the Alaol Sahitya Puroshkar, is named after him.

Northeast India

North-East IndiaNorth East IndiaNortheastern India
(Assam); Garo, Hajong, Biate (Meghalaya) Ao, Angami, Sema, Lotha, Konyak etc.(Nagaland); Mizo, Hmar, Chakma etc. (Mizoram); Hrusso, Tanee, Nisi, Adi, Abor, Nocte, Apatani, Misimi etc. (Arunachal). Meitei is the official language in Manipur, the dominant language of the Imphal Valley; while "Naga" languages such as Poumai, Mao, Maram, Rongmei (Kabui) and Tangkul, and Kuki-Chin languages such as Thadou-Kuki, Mizo, Hmar, Simte and Paite predominate in individual hill areas of the state. Among other Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali is spoken in South Assam in the Barak Valley. Besides the Sino-Tibetan Tripuri language, Bengali is a majority language in Tripura.

Humayun Ahmed

KrishnopakshoKrishnopokkhoAhmed, Humayun
Nobel laureate economist Muhammad Yunus assessed Ahmed's overall impact saying: "Humayun's works are the most profound and most fruitful that literature has experienced since the time of Tagore and Nazrul." Similarly, according to poet Al Mahmud, “one golden age of Bengali literature ended with Tagore and Nazrul and another began" with Ahmed. Writer Imdadul Haq Milan considered him to be "the almighty lord of Bengali literature, controlling all their actions and thoughts". Dawn, Pakistan's oldest and most widely read English-language newspaper, referred to him as the cultural legend of Bangladesh.

Sylhet District

SylhetGour (North Sylhet)60
Sylhet district was established on 3 January 1782, and until 1878 it was part of Bengal province. In that year, Sylhet was included in the newly created Assam Province, and it remained as part of Assam up to 1947 (except during the brief break-up of Bengal province in 1905–11). In 1947, Sylhet became a part of East Pakistan as a result of a referendum (except the sub-division of Karimganj) as part of Chittagong Division. It was subdivided into four districts in 1983-84. The current Sylhet District was known as North Sylhet. It was converted into a Division in 1995. Sylhet District is divided into thirteen Upazilas. The upazilas are: Balaganj. Beanibazar. Bishwanath. Companiganj.


Arab traders recognised Harikela (known as Harkand in Arabic) as the coastal regions of Bengal (near Chittagong) in the early period and included Sylhet in the later period reaching as far as the ancient Sundarbans. * *

Eastern Bengal and Assam

East Bengal and Assam(Lieutenant) Governor DesignateAssamese province
Eastern Bengal was reunited with western Bengali districts, and Assam was made a chief commissioner's province. Eastern Bengal and Assam had a total area of 111,569 sq m and was situated between 20° 45' and 28° 17' N., and between 87° 48' and 97° 5' E. It was bounded by Tibet and the Kingdom of Bhutan to the north, British Burma to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the south. Within these limits, were the princely states of Hill Tippera, Cooch Behar and Manipur. The Viceroy represented the British monarch and the Lieutenant Governor was the chief administrator. Dacca was the provincial capital, with the Legislative Council and the High Court.

East Pakistan

East-PakistanEastGovernor of East Pakistan
Bengali Muslims formed the predominant majority, followed by Bengali Hindus, Bengali Buddhists and Bengali Christians. East Pakistan also had many tribal groups, including the Chakmas, Marmas, Tangchangyas, Garos, Manipuris, Tripuris, Santhals and Bawms. They largely followed the religions of Buddhism, Christianity and Hinduism. East Pakistan was home to immigrant Muslims from across the Indian subcontinent, including West Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, the Northwest Frontier Province, Assam, Orissa, the Punjab and Kerala. A small Armenian and Jewish minority resided in East Pakistan. The Asiatic Society of Pakistan was founded in Old Dacca by Ahmad Hasan Dani in 1948.

Sunil Gangopadhyay

Sunil GangopadhyayaShri Sunil GangopadhyaySunil Gangopadhayay
Indian President Pranab Mukherjee and Bangladesh condoled the death of Gangopadhyay saying– Gangopadhyay had enriched Bengali literature through his unique style. He was one of the best intellectuals among his contemporaries. The vacuum created by his death cannot be filled Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, the former Chief Minister of West Bengal, who was closely associated with the writer since 1964, said that Bengali literature would remain indebted to him. • Sabuj Dwiper Raja • Kakababu O Sindukrahasya • Kakababu O Bajralama • Santu Kothay, Kakababu Kothay • Vijaynagarer Hire • Jangaler Modhe Ek Hotel • Bhayankar Sundoor • Santu O Ak Tukro Chand • Kakababu Herey Gelen?

Indian National Congress

CongressINCIndian National Congress (I)
After the passage of the Government of India Act of 1935, provincial elections were held in India in the winter of 1936–37 in eleven provinces: Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. After contesting these elections, the Indian National Congress gained power in eight of them except Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. The All-India Muslim League failed to form a government in any province. Congress ministries resigned in October and November 1939 in protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's declaration that India was a belligerent in the Second World War without consulting the Indian people.


Parts of the Sangam literature in Tamil are attributed to Jaina authors. The authenticity and interpolations are controversial, because the Sangam literature presents Hindu ideas. Some scholars state that the Jain portions of the Sangam literature were added about or after the 8th-century CE, and they are not the ancient layer. Tamil Jain texts such as the Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi and Nālaṭiyār are credited to Digambara Jain authors. These texts have seen interpolations and revisions. For example, it is generally accepted now that the Jain nun Kanti inserted a 445-verse poem into Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi in the 12th century.

Durga Puja

DurgapujaDurgashtamiDurga Pooja
The prominence of Durga puja increased during the British Raj in the provinces of Bengal and Assam. In today's time, the importance of Durga puja is as much as a social and cultural festival as a religious one, wherever it is observed. In West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, and Tripura, Durga puja is also called Akalbodhan (literally, "untimely awakening of Durga"), Sharadiya pujo ("autumnal worship"), Sharodotsab ("festival of autumn"), Maha pujo ("grand puja"), Maayer pujo ("worship of the Mother"), Durga pujo, or merely Puja or Pujo. In Bangladesh, Durga puja has historically been celebrated as Bhagabati puja.

Areca nut

betel nutarecanutbetel nuts
In Assam, it is a tradition to offer pan-tamul (betel leaves and raw areca nut) to guests, after tea or meals, served in a brass plate with stands called bota. Among the Assamese, the areca nut also has a variety of uses during religious and marriage ceremonies, where it has the role of a fertility symbol. A tradition from Upper Assam is to invite guests to wedding receptions by offering a few areca nuts with betel leaves. During Bihu, the husori players are offered areca nuts and betel leaves by each household while their blessings are solicited.

Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay

Bibhutibhushan BandopadhyayBibhuti Bhusan BandyopadhhayBibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay
Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay (12 September 1894 – 1 November 1950) was an Indian Bengali author, and one of the leading writers of modern Bengali literature. His best known work is the autobiographical novel, Pather Panchali (The Song of the Road). He was posthumously awarded the Rabindra Puraskar in 1951, the most prestigious literary award in West Bengal, for his novel Ichhamati. The Bandyopadhyay family originated in the Panitar village near Basirhat, located in the North 24 Parganas district of modern-day West Bengal. Bandyopadhyay's great-grandfather, who was an Ayurvedic physician, eventually settled in Barakpur village, near Gopalnagar, Banagram (now Bangaon), North 24 Parganas.