Germany (Deutschland ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ), is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.


Bremen, GermanyBremercity of Bremen
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.


Chechenethnic ChechenChechnen
Chechens (Нохчий ; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe. They refer to themselves as Vainakhs (which means our people in Chechen) or Nokhchiy (pronounced ; singular Nokhchi, Nakhchuo or Nakhtche). Chechen and Ingush peoples are collectively known as the Vainakh. The majority of Chechens today live in the Chechen Republic, a subdivision of the Russian Federation.


Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion. It is sometimes euphemistically referred to as a "protection racket" since the racketeers often phrase their demands as payment for "protection" from (real or hypothetical) threats from unspecified other parties; though often, and almost always, such "protection" is simply abstinence of harm from the same party, and such is implied in the "protection" offer. Extortion is commonly practiced by organized crime groups. The actual obtainment of money or property is not required to commit the offense.


CossackUkrainian CossacksRussian Cossacks
Cossacks (казакi, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok, kozacy, казаки́, козаки́ ) were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Southern Russia and in South-Eastern Ukraine. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don, Terek and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia.

Executive Decision

Lieutenant Colonel Austin Travis leads an unsuccessful Special Forces raid on a Chechen mafia safe house in Italy to recover a stolen Soviet nerve agent, DZ-5. Shortly after, Oceanic Airlines Flight 343 leaves Athens, Greece, bound for Washington, with U.S. Senator Mavros onboard. Nagi Hassan, lieutenant of the imprisoned terrorist leader El Sayed Jaffa, and his men hijack the flight, demanding Jaffa's release. Dr. David Grant, a consultant for the U.S. Army's intelligence community, attends a black-tie ball but is interrupted and summoned to a meeting at the Pentagon to plan an operation to retake the plane.

Russian mafia in popular culture

The protagonist in the Brooklyn-set film The Drop (2014) has his bar taken over by Chechen mobsters. The 2014 film adaptation of The Equalizer (which was directed by the same director of Training Day and also starring Denzel Washington) features the Russian mafia as the primary antagonists where they were led by Vladimir Pushkin (played by Vladimir Kulich). The protagonist of John Wick (2014) goes to war with the Russian mafia after the boss' son steals his vintage muscle car and kills his dog. Our Kind of Traitor (2016) is a British spy thriller film adapted from John le Carré's novel of the same name. The Pyramid. The Soviet Mafia, a 1990 novel by Telman Gdlyan and Evgeny Dodolev.

Azerbaijani mafia

Azeri gangsAzeri gangster
Since the position of the Chechen mafia groups was at the time greatly weakened, the newly formed Azerbaijani criminal groups were able to take over a large chunk of the heroin trade. At the time a lot of the trafficking funded military and guerilla operations in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. After the war ended, younger generation of impoverished Azerbaijanis living in Moscow and other Russian cities learned their trade, which quickly led to the further formation of Azeri criminal outfits in the former Soviet Union.

Red Serpent (film)

Red Serpent
A group of Russian special forces "Alpha" headed by Sergei Popov, tries to liquidate Chechen mobsters who transport drugs on the train. But leader of the Chechen mob, Hassan also known as "Red Serpent" with his henchwoman Aigul abducts Popov's wife and daughter and then blows up the car with them. Popov retires from Alpha. After six months American businessman Steve Nichols arrives in Russia to sign a profitable contract. But after the arrival his daughter is kidnapped by Hassan, who demands to smuggle a large cargo of drugs into the United States. Consequently, Steve joins forces with Sergei in order to stop Hassan. Film was shot in Moscow (Russia) and United States.

Shamil Basayev

Shamil BasaevBasayevBaseyev
Some sources claim that after Abkhazia, Basayev moved to Chechnya and became a successful entrepreneur in the Chechen mafia, organizing train-car theft and drug dealing networks. According to Basayev himself, millions of dollars were donated to him by unnamed foreign businessmen from the Chechen diaspora. ;1994–1995 The First Chechen War began when Russian forces invaded Chechnya on 11 December 1994, to depose the government of Dzhokhar Dudayev. With the outbreak of war, Dudayev made Basayev one of the front-line commanders. Basayev took an active role in the resistance, successfully commanding his "Abkhaz Battalion."

White Nights 3.98

Jo Kyung-hwan as Yuri Kim, Chechen mafia boss. Shin Hyun-joon as Peter Kim, son of Yuri. Im Hyeok-ju as Min Se-yoon, father of Gyeong-bin and captain of the Jongno Police Station. Park Soon-cheon as Se-yoon's wife. Kim Young-ae as Hong Young-sook, Agency for National Security Planning and Consul General to Russia, aunt of Jung-yeon. Park Sang-won as Air Force major Choi Sang-gyu. Kim Ye-ryeong as Sang-gyu's wife. Park Eun-bin as Choi So-young, Sang-gyu's daughter. Nam Sung-hoon as ANSP personnel. Jo Hyung-ki as Park Seon-bae, ANSP agent sent to Russia. Lee Seung-hyung as ANSP agent sent to Russia. Lee Hee-do as ANSP agent sent to Kazakhstan.

List of criminal enterprises, gangs and syndicates

Guerreros UnidosList of Criminal Organizations
Chechen mafia (See also Special Purpose Islamic Regiment and Kadyrovtsy). Obschina. Labazanov gang. [[Contents of the United States diplomatic cables leak (Asia and Oceania)#Corruption, human rights and organized crime|Uzbek mafia]] (See also Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan). Rakhimov organization. Kyrgyz mafia. Erkinbayev group. Akmatbayev group. Kolbayev group. Korean criminal organizations (see also North Korea's illicit activities). Jongro street gang. Roku-daime Yamaguchi-gumi 六代目山口組. Yoshitomi Group. Yon-daime Yamaken-gumi 四代目山健組. Ni-daime Kodo-kai 二代目弘道会. Ni-daime Takumi-gumi 二代目宅見組. Go-daime Kokusui-kai 五代目國粹会. Inagawa-kai 稲川会. Sumiyoshi-kai 住吉会. Sumiyoshi-ikka Shinwa-kai 住吉一家親和会.

Robert Young Pelton

Robert Young Pelton (born July 25, 1955 in Edmonton, Alberta) is a Canadian-American author, journalist and documentary filmmaker. Pelton's work usually consists of conflict reporting and interviews with military and political figures in warzones. His career is notable because of the number of conflict zones he has reported from and the breadth of important figures he has interviewed. His reputation is built on his history of entering forbidden, deadly and violent places.

List of Islamophobic incidents

islamophobic incidents
The following is a list of a number of recent incidents characterized as inspired by Islamophobia by commentators. Islamophobia became a popular term in ideological debate in the 2000s, and it has been applied retrospectively to earlier incidents.

Said-Khasanom Abumuslimov

Dr. Said-Khasan Abumuslimov (also spelled Sait-Khassan Abumuslimov and Said-Hassan Abumuslimov) is a historian, writer and publicist. In the years 1996–1997 he was acting vice president of the breakaway Chechen Republic of Ichkeria under acting president Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev.

The Making of a New Empire

The film portrays Khozh-Ahmed Noukhaev as the founder of a Moscow-based underground movement, which later became known as the Chechen mafia. The film explores Noukhaev's cultural background and his ideas about Chechenya's future. After its release in 1999, the film was nominated for the Golden Calf for best long documentary and was selected for the competition programs of several leading documentary film festivals across the globe, including Hot Docs and IDFA. * Background notes director

Vakha Arsanov

Arsanov was accused of corruption and involvement in criminal activity, including kidnappings of foreigners and connections with the Chechen mafia in Moscow. In February 1999, Arsanov was sacked when a presidential decree abolished his post, but he said he would not leave office unless President Maskhadov also stepped down. He said the republic's top Islamic body, the Shura, should be allowed to select a new national leadership to transform Chechnya into an Islamic state.

Alexander Solonik

Kurganskaya group
Alexander Viktorovich Solonik (Алекса́ндр Ви́кторович Соло́ник, 16 October 1960 – 31 January 1997) was a Russian gangster, known for his reputation as a notorious contract killer in the Russian criminal underworld. Also known as The Macedonian, Superkiller and Valerianych, Solonik was involved in Russian Mob activity for much of the 1990s until disappearing after his second escape from prison. Solonik was discovered dead in Athens, Greece, in 1997.

Adlan Amagov

Adlan Mairbekovich Amagov (Адлан Майрбекович Амагов; born October 30, 1986) is a Russian mixed martial artist and kickboxer of Chechen heritage, who most recently competed in the Welterweight division of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. A professional competitor from 2007-2014, Amagov also formerly competed for Strikeforce and is the former Unifight World Champion.

Maxim Lazovsky

Lazovsky gang
Maxim Yuryevich Lazovsky (Макси́м Ю́рьевич Лазовский, nicknames "Max", "Lame"; July 31, 1965 – April 28, 2000) was a former KGB and FSB officer who became involved in underground business. According to Alexander Litvinenko and co-authors he was also suspected of participation in Russian apartment bombings in 1999, along with other crimes including murders and kidnappings.

Otari Kvantrishvili

21st Century Association
During the chaotic transition to capitalism in the early 1990s, Kvantrishvili became something of a public face for the mafia, befriending politicians and celebrities such as Joseph Kobzon while also acting as a mediator between various underworld factions, including the thieves in law and Slavic and Chechen mobsters. In late 1993, Kvantrishvili publicly announced his intention to enter politics through a new party, the Party of Sportsmen, at a conference attended by many well-known athletes. But several months later he was shot dead by a sniper while leaving a bathhouse.