Some of the sulfates that may be present in bedrocks are kieserite, sulfate anhydrate, bassanite, hexahydrite, epsomite, and gypsum. Salts, such as halite, bischofite, antarcticite, bloedite, vanthoffite, or glauberite may also be present. The rocks containing the sulfates had a light tone compared to isolated rocks and rocks examined by landers/rovers at other locations on Mars. The spectra of these light toned rocks, containing hydrated sulfates, were similar to spectra taken by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor.
Georg Wolfgang Wedel (12 November 1645 – 6 September 1721) was a German professor of surgery, botany, theoretical and practical medicine, and chemistry. Wedel was born in Golßen, Niederlausitz, and received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Jena in 1669. He published research on alchemy and pharmaceutical chemistry. He studied the plating of copper onto iron using a solution of copper sulfate and volatile salts obtained from plants. Wedel also invented new medicines and produced a translated German edition of the Greek Bible.
Eilhardt MitscherlichMitscherlichMitscherlich, Eilhardt
After reviewing Mitscherlich's findings, Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius was led to coin the term "catalysis" for the acceleration or enablement of a chemical reaction by a substance that itself was not consumed in the reaction. He obtained selenic acid in 1827 and showed that its salts are isomorphous with the sulphates, while a few years later he proved that the same thing is true of the manganates and the sulfates, and of the permanganates and the perchlorates. He investigated the relation of benzene to benzoic acid and to other derivatives.
MeridianiPlains of Meridiani
Some of the sulfates that may be present in bedrocks are kieserite, sulfate anhydrate, bassanite, hexahydrite, epsomite, and gypsum. Salts, such as halite, bischofite, antarcticite, bloedite, vanthoffite, or gluberite may also be present. The rocks contained the sulfates had a light tone compared to isolated rocks and rocks examined by landers/rovers at other locations on Mars. The spectra of these light toned rocks, containing hydrated sulfates, were similar to spectra taken by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor.
Calcium formate is added to wet calcium carbonate to promote the formation of gypsum when exhaust is run through it. This process is called wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGS). Gypsum binds sulfur oxides thus reducing their release to the environment via exhaust. Calcium formate seems to be more effective than or almost equally as effective as some other industrially used WFGS agents. Calcium formate is formed as a co-product during trimethylolpropane production. Hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) is used as the source of calcium.
In chemistry, chloryl refers to a triatomic cation with chemical formula. This species has the same general structure as chlorite but it is electronically different, with chlorine having a +5 oxidation state (rather than the +3 of chlorite). This makes it a rare example of a positively charged oxychloride. Chloryl compounds, such as [[Chloryl fluoride|]] and [ClO 2 ][RuF 6 ], are all highly reactive and react violently with water and most organic compounds. The cation is isoelectronic with, and has a bent structure with a bond angle close to 120°. The Cl–O bond is of bond order 1.5, with its Lewis structure consisting of a double bond and a dative bond which does not utilize d-orbitals.
Each type of molecule has an individual set of energy levels associated with the makeup of its chemical bonds and nuclei, and thus will absorb light of specific wavelengths, or energies, resulting in unique spectral properties. This is based upon its specific and distinct makeup. The use of spectrophotometers spans various scientific fields, such as physics, materials science, chemistry, biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, and molecular biology. They are widely used in many industries including semiconductors, laser and optical manufacturing, printing and forensic examination, as well in laboratories for the study of chemical substances.
As early as 1870, chemists thought that there should be an alkali metal beyond caesium, with an atomic number of 87. It was then referred to by the provisional name eka-caesium. Research teams attempted to locate and isolate this missing element, and at least four false claims were made that the element had been found before an authentic discovery was made. Soviet chemist D. K. Dobroserdov was the first scientist to claim to have found eka-caesium, or francium.
megaregolithlunar dustlunar soil
The regolith is also an important source of construction material, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, lime, and gypsum. The regolith is the zone through which aquifers are recharged and through which aquifer discharge occurs. Many aquifers, such as alluvial aquifers, occur entirely within regolith. The composition of the regolith can also strongly influence water composition through the presence of salts and acid-generating materials. Regolith covers almost the entire lunar surface, bedrock protruding only on very steep-sided crater walls and the occasional lava channel.
These are cement slurries that upon entering the formation they begin the gel and eventually become self-supporting. 1) To support the vertical and radial loads applied to the casing. 2) Isolate porous formations from the producing zone formations. 3) Exclude unwanted sub-surface fluids from the producing interval. 4) Protect casing from corrosion. 5) Resist chemical deterioration of cement. 6) Confine abnormal pore pressure. 7) To increase the possibility to hit the target. Particle size distribution. Distribution of silicate and aluminate phases. Reactivity of hydrating phases. Gypsum/hemihydrates ratio and total sulphate content. Free alkali content.
ClevePer Theodor CleveT. Cleve
Per Teodor Cleve (10 February 1840 – 18 June 1905) was a Swedish chemist, biologist, mineralogist and oceanographer. He is best known for his discovery of the chemical elements holmium and thulium. Born in Stockholm in 1840, Cleve earned his BSc and PhD from Uppsala University in 1863 and 1868, respectively. After receiving his PhD, he became an assistant professor of chemistry at the university. He later became professor of general and agricultural chemistry. In 1874 he theorised that didymium was in fact two elements; this theory was confirmed in 1885 when Carl Auer von Welsbach discovered neodymium and praseodymium. In 1879 Cleve discovered holmium and thulium.
In chemistry, it is used in the preparation of other acetates; and as a catalyst in organic synthesis. A powerful poison, it was featured in a 2001 episode of the television series Forensic Files, recounting the 1993 murder of a man by his teenaged daughter (Marie Robards), though the episode and other crime documentary shows examining the Robards case willfully excluded the words "barium acetate" in hopes of preventing future "copycat" crimes. The print media, and a 2014 episode of the crime documentary series Redrum, have not been so circumspect.
carbon compoundsinorganic carboninorganic carbon compound
With carbon bonded to metals the field of organic chemistry crosses over into organometallic chemistry. There is a rich variety of carbon chemistry that does not fall within the realm of organic chemistry and is thus called inorganic carbon chemistry. There are many oxides of carbon (oxocarbons), of which the most common are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). Other less known oxides include carbon suboxide (C 3 O 2 ) and mellitic anhydride (C 12 O 9 ). There are also numerous unstable or elusive oxides, such as dicarbon monoxide (C 2 O), oxalic anhydride (C 2 O 4 ), and carbon trioxide (CO 3 ).
Terra MeridianiMeridian Bay
Some of the sulfates that may be present in bedrocks are kieserite, sulfate anhydrate, bassanite, hexahydrite, epsomite, and gypsum. Salts, such as halite, bischofite, antarcticite, bloedite, vanthoffite, or glauberite may also be present. The rocks contained the sulfates had a light tone compared to isolated rocks and rocks examined by landers/rovers at other locations on Mars. The spectra of these light toned rocks, containing hydrated sulfates, were similar to spectra taken by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor.
In 1820 he obtained his doctoral degree by a chemical treatise De mangano, and immediately after set out on a journey through England, Scotland and the Faroe Islands. In 1823 he was appointed lecturer at Copenhagen University on chemistry and mineralogy; in 1829 he obtained a similar post in the newly established polytechnic school; and in 1831 he was appointed professor of mineralogy in the university, and in 1848 became curator of the geological museum. From 1835 to 1837 he made many contributions to the geological survey of Denmark. On the death of Hans Christian Ørsted in 1851, he succeeded him as director of the polytechnic school and secretary of the Academy of Sciences.
However, in August, 2008, the Phoenix Lander conducted simple chemistry experiments, mixing water from Earth with Martian soil in an attempt to test its pH, and discovered traces of the salt perchlorate, while also confirming many scientists' theories that the Martian surface was considerably basic, measuring at 8.3. The presence of the perchlorate, makes Martian soil more exotic than previously believed (see Toxicity section). Further testing was necessary to eliminate the possibility of the perchlorate readings being caused by terrestrial sources, which at the time were thought could have migrated from the spacecraft either into samples or the instrumentation.
In terms of its chemistry and pharmacology, maprotiline is closely related to other secondary amine TCAs like nortriptyline and protriptyline, and has similar effects to them. Maprotiline is used in the treatment of depression, such as depression associated with agitation or anxiety and has similar efficacy to the antidepressant drug moclobemide. The use of maprotiline in the treatment of enuresis in pediatric patients has so far not been systematically explored and its use is not recommended. Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population in general have not been established.
Carl Friedrich Christian MohsFriedrich Mohs (1773 - 1839)Mohs
Thus gypsum was given the value 2 because it will scratch talc crystals, and calcite the value 3 because it will scratch gypsum. Minerals are also now classified by chemical characteristics, but the physical properties are still useful in field examination. In 1812, Mohs became a professor in Graz. In 1818, Mohs was appointed professor at his alma mater in Freiberg. In 1826, Mohs was a Professor in Vienna. In 1816, Mohs settled in Vienna. In 1818, Mohs moved to Freiberg, Saxony.
Impermeable clay limits downward percolation of water and fulvic acids, reducing chemical weathering and podzolization. The depth to the maximum concentration of clay increases in areas of increased precipitation and leaching. When leaching is decreased, the Ca precipitates as calcite (CaCO 3 ) in the lower soil levels, a layer known as caliche. Deserts behave similarly to grasslands but operate in constant drought as precipitation is less than evapotranspiration. Chemical weathering proceeds more slowly than in grasslands and beneath the caliche layer may be a layer of gypsum and halite.
Other minerals that are mined around the city consist of gypsum, salts, zeolite, bentonite, and celestine. Some heavy industries of Semnan consist of the Iran Khodro Semnan Production Plant (producing 100,000 Samand cars per year), Oqab Afshan Production Plant (largest bus production plant in the region of Asia), the Semnan Sodium Carbonate Company (largest in the region of Asia), and the Semnan Rolling Mills Group (major producer of piping and profiles). One of the largest industrial zone in the city is the Semnan Industrial Town, which features 2,100 hectares of land and 900 industrial units. Agricultural traditions still persist around and within the city of Semnan.
collidine p-toluenesulfonateCollidinium ''p''-toluenesulfonate
Collidinium p-toluenesulfonate or CPTS is a salt between p-toluenesulfonic acid and collidine (2,4,6-trimethylpyridine). It is used as a mild glycosylation catalyst in chemistry.
Milk and soy milk are curdled intentionally to make cheese and tofu by the addition of enzymes (typically rennet), acids (including lemon juice), or various salts (magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, or gypsum); the curds are then pressed. In hot preparations emulsified with eggs like hollandaise and custard, curdling is the undesirable result of overheating the sauce. Sauces which contain starch curdle with more difficulty. In cold sauces like mayonnaise as well as in hot sauces, too large a ratio of fat to egg may also cause curdling. In sauces which include milk or yogurt, overheating often causes curdling. The higher the fat content, the less likely curdling is.
Geraldine Lee Richmond (born January 17, 1953 in Salina, Kansas) is an American chemist and physical chemist. Richmond is the Presidential Chair in Science and Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oregon (UO). She conducts fundamental research to understand the chemistry and physics of complex surfaces and interfaces. These understandings are most relevant to energy production, atmospheric chemistry and remediation of the environment. Throughout her career she has worked to increase the number and success of women scientists in the U.S. and in many developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America.
SantanderSantander BayBahia de Santander
Its materials are composed of clays and salts (specially Keuper's gypsums) that ascended taking advantage of the faults. This movement generated an increase of the fracturing and an important dragging of rocks from the outer layers. The weakness zone generated by the Keuper's clays made easier its erosion compared with other sandstone or limestone areas, which involved the advance of the sea and the formation of the bay. *Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) Live webcam of Santander Bay. High resolution live camera of the Bay. Pictures of Santander and Cantabria, including Santander's bay. Report about the refill process of the Bay of Santander.
Paul Emile Lecoq de BoisbaudranLecoq de BoisbaudranPaul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, also called François Lecoq de Boisbaudran (18 April 1838 – 28 May 1912), was a French chemist known for his discoveries of the chemical elements gallium, samarium and dysprosium. De Boisbaudran belonged to the ancient Protestant nobility of considerable fortune, which, however, disappeared after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The property of de Boisbaudran was sold, and his father Paul started a wine business at Cognac. The venture required the energy of the entire family, including young Lecoq. His mother was well educated and taught him history and foreign languages, so he was fluent in English.