Heonjong of Joseon

HeonjongKing HeonjongHun-jong
As King Heonjong died without an heir, the throne passed to a distant descendant of King Yeongjo, King Cheoljong. As was customary with the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, the chronicle of Heonjong's reign was compiled after his death, in 1851. The compilation of the 16-volume chronicle was supervised by Jo In-yeong. * 獻宗莊肅體健繼極中正光大至聖廣德弘運章化經文緯武明仁哲孝大王 Father: King Munjo of Joseon (18 September 1809 – 25 June 1830) . Grandfather : King Sunjo of Joseon (29 July 1790 – 13 December 1834) . Grandmother : Queen Sunwon of the Andong Kim clan (8 June 1789 – 21 September 1857) . Mother: Queen Sinjeong of the Pungyang Jo clan (21 January 1809 – 4 June 1890) .

Gojong of Korea

GojongEmperor GojongKing Gojong
Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919), was the last king of Joseon and the first Emperor of Korea.

Heungseon Daewongun

Daewon-gunDaewongunYi Ha-eung
In January 1864, King Cheoljong died without an heir. The selection of the next king was in the hands of three dowagers: Queen Sinjeong, mother of King Heonjong; Queen Myeongheon, King Heonjong’s wife; and Queen Cheorin, Cheoljong's wife. The "designation right" resided with Dowager Queen Sinjeong, as she was the oldest of the dowagers. In an apocryphal story, Queen Cheorin sent a minister to fetch the son of Yi Ha-eung, eleven-year-old Yi Myeong-bok, who was flying a kite in a palace garden. The son was brought to the palace in a sedan chair, where Queen Sinjeong rushed forward and called him her son, thus producing the new Joseon king, King Gojong, adopted son of Crown Prince Hyomyeong.

Queen Sinjeong

Jo Ha-yeonCrown Princess Jo
Her son, Heonjong of Joseon, became king in 1834 but died childless in 1849, and was succeeded by a distant relative, Cheoljong of Joseon. After the death of her son, she was given the title Grand Royal Dowager Queen Sinjeong. In January 1864, King Cheoljong died without an heir. There were no male heirs, the result of suspected foul play by a rival branch of the royal family, the Andong Kim clan. The Andong Kim clan had risen to power through intermarriage with the House of Yi. The selection of the next king was in the hands of three dowagers: Queen Sinjeong, mother of King Heonjong; Queen Myeongheon, King Heonjong’s wife; and Queen Cheorin, Cheoljong's wife.

Empress Myeongseong

Queen MinEulmi Incidentassassinated
In 1863, Cheoljong of Joseon died suddenly as the result of suspected foul play by the Andong Kim clan, an aristocratic and influential clan of the 19th century. Cheoljong was childless and had not appointed an heir. The Andong Kim clan had risen to power through intermarriage with the royal House of Yi. Queen Cheorin, Cheoljong's consort and a member of the Andong Kim clan, claimed the right to choose the next king, although traditionally the most senior Queen Dowager had the official authority to select the new king.

Korea

KoreanKorean PeninsulaSouth Korea
Korea is a region in East Asia consisting of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea has been divided since 1948 between two distinct sovereign states, North Korea and South Korea. Korea is bordered by Russia to the northeast, China to the northwest, and neighbours Japan to the east via the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea).

Yeongjo of Joseon

YeongjoKing YeongjoKing Yeongjo of Joseon
Yeongjo of Joseon (31 October 1694 – 22 April 1776, reigned 16 October 1724 – 22 April 1776) was the 21st king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. He was the second son of King Sukjong. His mother was Consort Suk of the Choi clan. Before ascending to power, his name was Prince Yeoning. In 1720, a few months after the accession of his older brother, King Gyeongjong as the 20th King, Yeoning became the Royal Prince Successor Brother (wangseje, 왕세제). This induced a large controversy between political factions. Nevertheless, four years later, at the death of Gyeongjong, Yeongjo ascended the throne.

Joseon

Joseon DynastyJoseon (Korea)Korea
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosen, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국, ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. Joseon was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.

House of Yi

Yi dynastyJeonju YiKorean Imperial Household
He is the eldest son of Yi Wu, who inherited the title "Prince Heung" with the fourth head of Unhyeongung and his wife, Princess Chanju, a granddaughter of marquess Park Yeonghyo, who was a son-in-law of Cheoljong of Joseon, whose wife died young in 1872 at the age 13. At the age of nine, Prince Heung inherited Unhyeongung, where Emperor Gojong was born, after his father died in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. In 1947, his father's elder brother, Prince Gun (Momoyama Ken'ichi), acquired Japanese citizenship. This change of citizenship made Prince Chung the direct heir of his grandfather, Prince Kang, who died in 1955.

Gim clan of Andong

Andong Kim clanAndong KimKim
Queen Cheorin. Queen Hyohyeon. Queen Sunwon. Kim Yerim.

Jeongye Daewongun

Grand Internal Prince JeongyeGrand Prince JeongyePrince Jeongye
Jeongye Daewongun (hangul: 전계대원군, hanja: 全溪大院君, March 21, 1785 – November 2, 1841) or Grand Internal Prince Jeongye was a royal family member of the Korean Joseon dynasty, a biological father of 25th King Cheoljong of Joseon also King Cheoljong was his third illegitimate son, also he was illegitimate son of his fathers. His real name was Yi Kwang (hangul: 이광, hanja: 李㼅), his Chinese name was Changgang (hangul: 창강, hanja: 昌康), first real name was Kwae-deuk(hangul: 쾌득, hanja: 快得), Hae-dong (hangul: 해동, hanja: 海東).

History of Korea

Korean historyKoreaancient Korea
Gojong of Korea (r. 1864–1907), enthroned at the age of twelve, succeeded Cheoljong of Joseon (r. 1849–63). King Gojong's father, the Heungseon Daewongun (Yi Ha-ung; 1820–98), ruled as the de facto regent and inaugurated far-ranging reforms to strengthen the central administration. Of special note was the decision to rebuild palace buildings and finance the project through additional levies on the population. Further inherited rule by a few elite ruling families was challenged by the adoption of a merit system for official appointments.

Queen Hyojeong

Queen MyeongheonQueen Hyojeong of the Namyang Hong clanEmpress dowager Myeongheon
Queen Hyojeong (6 March 1831 – 2 January 1904) also known as Empress Dowager Myeongheon was the Queen Consort of King Heonjong of Joseon, the 24th monarch of the Joseon Dynasty. She was of the Hong clan

List of monarchs of Korea

List of Korean monarchsRulers of Koreacomplete list
This is a list of monarchs of Korea, arranged by dynasty. Names are romanized according to the South Korean Revised Romanization of Korean. McCune-Reischauer romanizations may be found at the articles about the individual monarchs.

Ganghwa County

GanghwaGanghwa-gun
Ganghwa County is a county in the city of Incheon, South Korea. The county is composed of Ganghwa Island, and the minor islands around it.

Ganghwa Island

GanghwadoGanghwaGanghwa-do
Ganghwa Island, also known by its native name Ganghwado, is a South Korean island in the estuary of the Han River. It lies in the Yellow Sea off Korea's west coast, separated from Gimpo on the South Korean mainland by a narrow channel spanned by two bridges and from Kaesong (Gaeseong) in North Korea by the main channel of the Han River.

Injo of Joseon

King InjoInjoKing Injo of Joseon
Injo of Joseon (7 December 1595 – 17 June 1649, r. 1623–1649) was the sixteenth king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea. He was the grandson of Seonjo and son of Grand Prince Jeongwon . King Injo was king during both the first and second Manchu invasions, which ended with the surrender of Joseon to the Qing dynasty in 1636.

Lord

lordshipseigneurseigneurs
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the peerage in the United Kingdom, or are entitled to courtesy titles. The collective "Lords" can refer to a group or body of peers.

Prince

princelyprincessovereign prince
A prince is a male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is also a title of nobility (often highest), often hereditary, in some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus (first) and capio (to seize), meaning "the chief, most distinguished, ruler, prince".

Royal Highness

His Royal HighnessHer Royal HighnessHRH
Royal Highness (abbreviated HRH for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness) is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are usually styled Majesty. When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific (His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness, both abbreviated HRH) and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses (TRH).

Heir presumptive

heiress presumptiveheir-presumptiveheirs presumptive
An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.

Majesty

Her MajestyHis MajestyHM
Majesty (abbreviation HM for Her/ His Majesty, oral address Your Majesty) is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning greatness, and used as a style by many monarchs, usually Kings or Queens where used, the style outranks the style of (Imperial/Royal) Highness, but is inferior to the style of Imperial Majesty. It has cognates in many other languages, especially Indo-European languages of Europe.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication.

Crown Prince Hyomyeong

Lee YeongJoseon Crown PrinceYi Yeong
Crown Prince Hyomyeong (18 September 1809 – 25 June 1830), born Yi Yeong, or Lee Yeong, and posthumously called King Munjo, was a prince of the Joseon Dynasty.