Incest

incestuousincestuous relationshipinbreeding
Although the mothers may be accused of being seductive with their sons and inviting the sexual contact, this is contrary to evidence. Such accusations can parallel other forms of rape, where, due to victim blaming, a woman is accused of somehow being at fault for the rape. In some cases, mother-son incest is best classified as acquaintance rape of the mother by the adolescent son. Childhood sibling–sibling incest is considered to be widespread but rarely reported. Sibling–sibling incest becomes child-on-child sexual abuse when it occurs without consent, without equality, or as a result of coercion. In this form, it is believed to be the most common form of intrafamilial abuse.

Factors associated with being a victim of sexual violence

For instance, a case control study in Australia on the long-term impact of abuse reported significant associations between child sexual abuse and experiencing rape, sexual and mental health problems, domestic violence and other problems in intimate relationships even after accounting for various family background characteristics. Those who had experienced abuse involving intercourse had more negative outcomes than those suffering other types of coercion. Women are at increased risk of sexual violence, as they are of physical violence by an intimate partner, when they become more educated and thus more empowered.

Initiatives to prevent sexual violence

rape prevention
Anti-rape movement. Domestic violence. Ni Putes Ni Soumises (Neither Whores Nor Submissives). Outline of domestic violence. Rape crisis center. Sexual Abuse Prevention Network. Sexual assault. Women Power Line 1090. Erin Merryn. Child Sexual Abuse. NSOPW. "United States Department of Justice National Sex Offender Public Website." Facts and Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice, 2017. Web. 09 Apr. 2017. < https://www.nsopw.gov/en-US/Education/FactsStatistics?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1>. “Violence Prevention.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 June 2016. Web. 05 Apr. 2017.

Estimates of sexual violence

In Zimbabwe, a retrospective study of reported cases of child sexual abuse over an 8-year period (1990 to 1997) found high rates of sexual abuse committed by teachers in rural primary schools. Many of the victims were girls between 11 and 13 years of age and penetrative sex was the most prevalent type of sexual abuse. Sexual violence against patients in health facilities has been reported in many places. A study of physicians disciplined for sexual offences in the United States, for instance, found that the number of cases had increased from 42 in 1989 to 147 in 1996, with the proportion of all disciplinary action that was sex-related rising from 2.1% to 4.4% over the same period.

Laws regarding rape

rape lawRapeconvicted of rape
Minors, for example, are often considered too young to consent to sexual relations with older persons (see statutory rape and age of consent). Consent is also considered invalid if obtained under duress, or from a person who does not have the ability to understand the nature of the act, due to factors such as young age, mental disability, or substance intoxication. Many jurisdictions, such as Canada, and the several US and Australian states, have abandoned the term 'rape' in favor of other terms such as 'sexual assault', 'sexual intercourse without consent', 'criminal sexual conduct', etc.

Sex and the law

sex crimesex crimessexual offences
Most countries prohibit female genital mutilation, including prohibiting the procedure to be performed on its citizens and residents while outside their jurisdictions, and the New York State Penal Law lists female genital mutilation as a sexual offense. Rape, lust murder and other forms of sexual assault and sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse. Statutory rape. Spousal rape. Obscenity. Human trafficking. Frotteurism, sexual arousal through rubbing one's self against a non-consenting stranger in public. Exhibitionism and voyeurism, if deliberate and non-consensual, called "indecent exposure" and "peeping tom" respectively in this context. Incest between close relatives.

Ages of consent in South America

age of consent in Colombiaage of consent in Paraguaycriminalizes every kind of prostitution
The Penal Code of 1940 lowered the presumption of violence in sexual acts (equivalent of statutory rape) to 14 (Article 224, “a”, of the then Penal Code), but consensual sex with adolescents aged 14 to 17 could still be prosecuted under “corruption of minors” (Article 218) or “seduction of minors” (Article 217) while, in both cases, only parents could file charges to form a lawsuit (Article 225).

Catholic sexual abuse cases in Canada

Canadaclerical abuse affairsin Canada
They would have experienced some aspect of sexual abuse." Canadian author and artist, Michael D. O'Brien, has also spoken out about his painful experiences of residential school abuse, revealing that "the sexual exploitation of the young has been epidemic in Catholic residential schools and orphanages." Abuse. Child abuse. Child sexual abuse. Religious abuse. Sexual abuse. Sexual misconduct. Spiritual abuse.

Child pornography

child pornchild pornographerpornography
Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation. It may be produced with the direct involvement or sexual assault of a child (also known as child sexual abuse images ) or it may be simulated child pornography. Abuse of the child occurs during the sexual acts or lascivious exhibitions of genitals or pubic areas which are recorded in the production of child pornography. Child pornography may use a variety of media, including writings, magazines, photos, sculpture, drawing, cartoon, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, and video games.

Sexual harassment

sexually harassedsexually harassingharassment
. • Catharine MacKinnon • Disciplinary counseling • Employment discrimination • Hostile environment sexual harassment • Hostile work environment • Initiatives to prevent sexual violence • London Anti-Street Harassment campaign • Love contract • Microinequity • Mass sexual assault • #MeToo • Occupational health psychology • Operation Anti Sexual Harassment • Posttraumatic stress disorder • Psychological stress • Sexism • Sexual abuseSexual assaultSexual bullying • Sexual harassment in education • Sexual harassment in the military • Stalking • Sexual harassment in the workplace in the United States • Til It Happens To You • Workplace bullying • Workplace harassment • Workplace stress * Boland

Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
Typical causes and dangers of psychological trauma include harassment, embarrassment, abandonment, abusive relationships, rejection, co-dependence, physical assault, sexual abuse, partner battery, employment discrimination, police brutality, judicial corruption and misconduct, bullying, paternalism, domestic violence, indoctrination, being the victim of an alcoholic parent, the threat or the witnessing of violence (particularly in childhood), life-threatening medical conditions, and medication-induced trauma.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderpost traumatic stress disorderPTSD
Those who have experienced sexual assault or rape may develop symptoms of PTSD. PTSD symptoms include re-experiencing the assault, avoiding things associated with the assault, numbness, and increased anxiety and an increased startle response. The likelihood of sustained symptoms of PTSD is higher if the rapist confined or restrained the person, if the person being raped believed the rapist would kill him or her, the person who was raped was very young or very old, and if the rapist was someone he or she knew. The likelihood of sustained severe symptoms is also higher if people around the survivor ignore (or are ignorant of) the rape or blame the rape survivor.

Sexually transmitted infection

venereal diseasesexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted diseases
The presence of an STI in prepubescent children may indicate sexual abuse. A sexually transmitted infection present in a pregnant woman may be passed on to the infant before or after birth. * Candidiasis (yeast infection) * Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B virus)—saliva, venereal fluids. (Note: Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are transmitted via the fecal-oral route; Hepatitis C is rarely sexually transmittable, and the route of transmission of Hepatitis D (only if infected with B) is uncertain, but may include sexual transmission. ) Sexually transmitted infections include: Twenty-seven different viruses have been identified in semen.

Depression (mood)

depressiondepressedmelancholy
Adversity in childhood, such as bereavement, neglect, mental abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and unequal parental treatment of siblings can contribute to depression in adulthood. Childhood physical or sexual abuse in particular significantly correlates with the likelihood of experiencing depression over the victim's lifetime.

Sexual violence

sexualanti-violenceviolence
The Elements of Crime establishes that sexual violence is: *"An act of sexual nature against one or more persons or caused such person or persons to engage in an act of sexual nature by force, or by threat of force or coercion, such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against such person or persons or another person, or by taking advantage of a coercive environment or such person’s or persons’ incapacity to give genuine consent."

Pedophilia

pedophilepaedophilepaedophilia
These crimes may include child sexual abuse, statutory rape, offenses involving child pornography, child grooming, stalking, and indecent exposure. One unit of the United Kingdom's Child Abuse Investigation Command is known as the "Paedophile Unit" and specializes in online investigations and enforcement work. Some forensic science texts, such as Holmes (2008), use the term to refer to offenders who target child victims, even when such children are not the primary sexual interest of the offender. FBI agent Kenneth Lanning, however, makes a point of distinguishing between pedophiles and child molesters. In the United States, following Kansas v.