Incest

incestuousincestuous relationshipinbreeding
Although the mothers may be accused of being seductive with their sons and inviting the sexual contact, this is contrary to evidence. Such accusations can parallel other forms of rape, where, due to victim blaming, a woman is accused of somehow being at fault for the rape. In some cases, mother-son incest is best classified as acquaintance rape of the mother by the adolescent son. Childhood sibling–sibling incest is considered to be widespread but rarely reported. Sibling–sibling incest becomes child-on-child sexual abuse when it occurs without consent, without equality, or as a result of coercion. In this form, it is believed to be the most common form of intrafamilial abuse.

Abuse

abusiveabuse of officemaltreatment
Rape, a form of sexual assault, is an assault by a person involving sexual intercourse (with or without sexual penetration) of another without the other's consent (this includes those who are considered unable to consent, e.g., if they were inebriated or asleep) The rate of reporting, prosecution and convictions for rape varies considerably in different jurisdictions. The US Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999) estimated that 91% of US rape victims are female and 9% are male, with 99% of the offenders being male. In one survey of women, only two percent of respondents who stated they were sexually assaulted said that the assault was perpetrated by a stranger.

Laws regarding rape

rape lawRapeconvicted of rape
Minors, for example, are often considered too young to consent to sexual relations with older persons (see statutory rape and age of consent). Consent is also considered invalid if obtained under duress, or from a person who does not have the ability to understand the nature of the act, due to factors such as young age, mental disability, or substance intoxication. Many jurisdictions, such as Canada, and the several US and Australian states, have abandoned the term 'rape' in favor of other terms such as 'sexual assault', 'sexual intercourse without consent', 'criminal sexual conduct', etc.

Human sexual activity

sexual activitysexual behaviorsex
Sexual activity can be consensual, which means that both or all participants agree to take part and are of the age that they can consent, or it may take place under force or duress, which is often called sexual assault or rape. In different cultures and countries, various sexual activities may be lawful or illegal in regards to the age, gender, marital status or other factors of the participants, or otherwise contrary to social norms or generally accepted sexual morals. In evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology, human mating strategies are a set of behaviors used by individuals to attract, select, and retain mates.

Sex and the law

sex crimesex crimessexual offences
Most countries prohibit female genital mutilation, including prohibiting the procedure to be performed on its citizens and residents while outside their jurisdictions, and the New York State Penal Law lists female genital mutilation as a sexual offense. Rape, lust murder and other forms of sexual assault and sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse. Statutory rape. Spousal rape. Obscenity. Human trafficking. Frotteurism, sexual arousal through rubbing one's self against a non-consenting stranger in public. Exhibitionism and voyeurism, if deliberate and non-consensual, called "indecent exposure" and "peeping tom" respectively in this context. Incest between close relatives.

Sexual harassment in education in the United States

sexual harassmenteducationalother way round
It is often recommended that consistent anti-sexual harassment workshops begin in the younger grades so that students remain informed and the policies are strongly enforced. • Abuse • Bullying in academia • Bullying in teaching • Catholic sex abuse cases • Charol Shakeshaft • Child sexual abuse • Harassment • Incest • Mary Kay Letourneau • Pamela Rogers Turner • Professional abuse • Rape of college women • School bullying • Scouting sex abuse cases • Sexual harassment • Sexual harassment in education es:Acoso sexual en la educación ja:性的いじめ 81% or eight out of 10 students experience sexual harassment in school. 83% of girls have been sexually harassed. 78% of boys have been sexually harassed.

Age of consent

underageage of sexual consentunderage sex
Jurisdictions use a variety of terms for the offense, including child sexual abuse, statutory rape, illegal carnal knowledge, corruption of a minor, besides others. The enforcement practices of age-of-consent laws vary depending on the social sensibilities of the particular culture (see above). Often, enforcement is not exercised to the letter of the law, with legal action being taken only when a sufficiently socially-unacceptable age gap exists between the two individuals, or if the perpetrator is in a position of power over the minor (e.g. a teacher, minister, or doctor). The sex of each participant can also influence perceptions of an individual's guilt and therefore enforcement.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderpost traumatic stress disorderPTSD
Those who have experienced sexual assault or rape may develop symptoms of PTSD. PTSD symptoms include re-experiencing the assault, avoiding things associated with the assault, numbness, and increased anxiety and an increased startle response. The likelihood of sustained symptoms of PTSD is higher if the rapist confined or restrained the person, if the person being raped believed the rapist would kill him or her, the person who was raped was very young or very old, and if the rapist was someone he or she knew. The likelihood of sustained severe symptoms is also higher if people around the survivor ignore (or are ignorant of) the rape or blame the rape survivor.

Factors associated with being a victim of sexual violence

For instance, a case control study in Australia on the long-term impact of abuse reported significant associations between child sexual abuse and experiencing rape, sexual and mental health problems, domestic violence and other problems in intimate relationships even after accounting for various family background characteristics. Those who had experienced abuse involving intercourse had more negative outcomes than those suffering other types of coercion. Women are at increased risk of sexual violence, as they are of physical violence by an intimate partner, when they become more educated and thus more empowered.

Initiatives to prevent sexual violence

rape prevention
Anti-rape movement. Domestic violence. Ni Putes Ni Soumises (Neither Whores Nor Submissives). Outline of domestic violence. Rape crisis center. Sexual Abuse Prevention Network. Sexual assault. Women Power Line 1090. Erin Merryn. Child Sexual Abuse. NSOPW. "United States Department of Justice National Sex Offender Public Website." Facts and Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice, 2017. Web. 09 Apr. 2017. < https://www.nsopw.gov/en-US/Education/FactsStatistics?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1>. “Violence Prevention.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 June 2016. Web. 05 Apr. 2017.

Estimates of sexual violence

In Zimbabwe, a retrospective study of reported cases of child sexual abuse over an 8-year period (1990 to 1997) found high rates of sexual abuse committed by teachers in rural primary schools. Many of the victims were girls between 11 and 13 years of age and penetrative sex was the most prevalent type of sexual abuse. Sexual violence against patients in health facilities has been reported in many places. A study of physicians disciplined for sexual offences in the United States, for instance, found that the number of cases had increased from 42 in 1989 to 147 in 1996, with the proportion of all disciplinary action that was sex-related rising from 2.1% to 4.4% over the same period.

Index of law articles

abuseSexual assaultSexual discrimination – Sexual harassment – Sexual morality – Sexual norm – Shafi'i – Shaikh – Shall – Shame – Share – Share capital – Share certificate – Shareholder – Shareholders agreement – Shareholders' agreement – Shareholders' derivative action – Shareholders' meeting – Sharia law –Sharp practice – Shepardize – Sheriff – Sheriff's sale – Shield laws – Shifting the burden of proof – Shoplifting – Short cause – Shortening time – Show cause order – Shulkhan Arukh – Sick pay – Sidebar – Sign – Signature – Signing bonus – Silk – Simple trust – Simultaneous death act – Sin – Sin-offering – sine die – sine qua non – Single life annuity – Situated ethics – Situational

Human trafficking in Morocco

Morocco
The Government of Morocco reports that it also employs the Immigration Law of 2003 and other statutes, such as those prohibiting kidnapping, fraud, and coercion, to prosecute trafficking offenses; however, it has not provided any information on cases tried under these laws. Penalties prescribed by these various statutes for sex trafficking offenses are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape.

Outline of human sexuality

outline
Rape trauma syndrome. Motivation for rape. Sociobiological theories of rape. Rape culture. Laws. Statutory rape. Rape shield law. False accusation of rape. Rape and punishment. Rape investigation. Rape kit. Related. History of rape. Rape statistics. Rape by gender. Anti-rape device. Rape crisis centers. Rape pornography. Rape and revenge films. Rape fantasy. Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education. Sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse. Child-on-child sexual abuse. Religion and Sexual abuse. Catholic sex abuse cases. Roman Catholic sex abuse cases by country. Ecclesiastical response to Catholic sex abuse cases. Settlements and bankruptcies in Catholic sex abuse cases.

Index of human sexuality articles

British Journal of Sexual Medicine. British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology. Broken heart. Brotherly love (philosophy). Buddhism and sexual orientation. Buddhism and sexuality. Bugchasing. Bukkake (sex act). Bundling (tradition). Bunga bunga. Burusera. Buttocks eroticism. Camel toe. Camgirl. Candaulism. Capacitation. Carrageenan. Cass identity model. Casting couch. Castration. Casual relationship. Casual sex. Catfight. Catholic sex abuse cases. Catholicism and sexuality. Celibacy. Certified Sex Therapist. Chickenhawk (gay slang). Chickenhead (sexuality). Child-on-child sexual abuse. Child sex. Child sex tourism. Child sexual abuse. Child sexuality. Childbirth.

Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
Typical causes and dangers of psychological trauma include harassment, embarrassment, abandonment, abusive relationships, rejection, co-dependence, physical assault, sexual abuse, partner battery, employment discrimination, police brutality, judicial corruption and misconduct, bullying, paternalism, domestic violence, indoctrination, being the victim of an alcoholic parent, the threat or the witnessing of violence (particularly in childhood), life-threatening medical conditions, and medication-induced trauma.

Sexual harassment

sexually harassedsexually harassingharassment
. • Catharine MacKinnon • Disciplinary counseling • Employment discrimination • Hostile environment sexual harassment • Hostile work environment • Initiatives to prevent sexual violence • London Anti-Street Harassment campaign • Love contract • Microinequity • Mass sexual assault • #MeToo • Occupational health psychology • Operation Anti Sexual Harassment • Posttraumatic stress disorder • Psychological stress • Sexism • Sexual abuseSexual assaultSexual bullying • Sexual harassment in education • Sexual harassment in the military • Stalking • Sexual harassment in the workplace in the United States • Til It Happens To You • Workplace bullying • Workplace harassment • Workplace stress * Boland

Sexually transmitted infection

venereal diseasesexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted diseases
The presence of an STI in prepubescent children may indicate sexual abuse. A sexually transmitted infection present in a pregnant woman may be passed on to the infant before or after birth. * Candidiasis (yeast infection) * Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B virus)—saliva, venereal fluids. (Note: Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are transmitted via the fecal-oral route; Hepatitis C is rarely sexually transmittable, and the route of transmission of Hepatitis D (only if infected with B) is uncertain, but may include sexual transmission. ) Sexually transmitted infections include: Twenty-seven different viruses have been identified in semen.

Rape by gender

homosexual rapenon statutory female on male raperape of a man by a woman
Various studies argue that male-male and female-female prison rape are quite common and may be the least reported form of rape. Furthermore, a large number of rape cases take place when the victims are below the age of consent, bringing in the issue of child sexual abuse or statutory rape. In the 2001 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 10.2% of girls and 5.1% of boys reported "[having] ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when [they] did not want to". In a 2010 study of heterosexual couples where sexual coercion existed, 45% reported female victimization, 30% reported male victimization and 20% reported reciprocal victimization.

Sexual violence

sexualanti-violenceviolence
The Elements of Crime establishes that sexual violence is: *"An act of sexual nature against one or more persons or caused such person or persons to engage in an act of sexual nature by force, or by threat of force or coercion, such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against such person or persons or another person, or by taking advantage of a coercive environment or such person’s or persons’ incapacity to give genuine consent."

Depression (mood)

depressiondepressedmelancholy
Adversity in childhood, such as bereavement, neglect, mental abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and unequal parental treatment of siblings can contribute to depression in adulthood. Childhood physical or sexual abuse in particular significantly correlates with the likelihood of experiencing depression over the victim's lifetime.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
Childhood abuse, either physical, sexual or psychological, are all risk factors for depression, among other psychiatric issues that co-occur such as anxiety and drug abuse. Childhood trauma also correlates with severity of depression, lack of response to treatment and length of illness. However, some are more susceptible to developing mental illness such as depression after trauma, and various genes have been suggested to control susceptibility. The 5-HTTLPR, or serotonin transporter promoter gene's short allele has been associated with increased risk of depression. However, since the 1990s, results have been inconsistent, with three recent reviews finding an effect and two finding none.

Torture

torturedtorturingtorture device
Psychological torture also includes deliberate use of extreme stressors and situations such as mock execution, shunning, violation of deep-seated social or sexual norms and taboos, or extended solitary confinement. Because psychological torture needs no physical violence to be effective, it is possible to induce severe psychological pain, suffering, and trauma with no externally visible effects. Rape and other forms of sexual abuse are often used as methods of torture for interrogative or punitive purposes. In medical torture, medical practitioners use torture to judge what victims can endure, to apply treatments that enhance torture, or act as torturers in their own right.

HIV

human immunodeficiency virusHIV positiveHIV-positive
In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.

Sex offender

sex offenderssexual offendersexual offenders
If any sexual contact was made by the adult to the minor, then child molestation has occurred. Other serious offenses are sexual assault, statutory rape, bestiality, child sexual abuse, female genital mutilation, incest, rape, and sexual imposition. Sex offender registration laws in the United States, may also classify less serious offenses as sexual offenses requiring sex offender registration. In some states public urination, having sex on a beach, or unlawful imprisonment of a minor also constitute sexual offenses requiring registration. In looking at various types of offenses, an example of a digital obscenity offense is child pornography.