Christmas DayDecember 25Nativity
The Maltese traditionally serve Imbuljuta tal-Qastan, a chocolate and chestnuts beverage, after Midnight Mass and throughout the Christmas season. Slovaks prepare the traditional Christmas bread potica, bûche de Noël in France, panettone in Italy, and elaborate tarts and cakes. The eating of sweets and chocolates has become popular worldwide, and sweeter Christmas delicacies include the German stollen, marzipan cake or candy, and Jamaican rum fruit cake. As one of the few fruits traditionally available to northern countries in winter, oranges have been long associated with special Christmas foods.

Christmas dinner

Christmas family mealEnglish Christmas dinnerBritish Christmas dinner
Alcohol and cocktails of all kinds are staples for both Christmas parties and family gatherings, where harder drinking is done amongst adults and youngsters usually get served soft drinks or a non-alcoholic version of what their parents drink, drinks like the Shirley Temple.


Dresdner StollenChristmas breadcommonly understood meaning
Over the centuries, the bread changed from being a simple, fairly tasteless "bread" to a sweeter bread with richer ingredients, such as marzipan, although traditional Stollen is not as sweet, light and airy as the copies made around the world. Commercially made Stollen has become a popular Christmas food in Britain in recent decades, complementing traditional dishes such as mince pies and Christmas pudding. All the major supermarkets sell their own versions, and it is often baked by home bakers. Every year Stollenfest takes place in Dresden. This historical tradition ended only in 1918 with the fall of the monarchy, and started again in 1994, but the idea comes from Dresden’s history.


By the end of World War II, panettone was cheap enough for anyone and soon became the country's leading Christmas sweet. Lombard immigrants to Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil also brought their love of panettone, and panettone is enjoyed for Christmas with hot cocoa or liquor during the holiday season, which became a mainstream tradition in those countries. In some places, it replaces the king cake. Panettone is widely available in South America, including in Argentina, Brazil, Chile (see: Pan de Pascua), Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Peru. It is known in Spanish as panetón or pan dulce, and as panetone in Brazilian Portuguese.


churrosCalentitoschocolate con churros
Churros are almost always eaten with tsokolate drinks (a pairing known as churros con tsokolate), which can also serve as a dip. They are popular during the Christmas season. Churros in American theme parks and street fairs are most often rolled in cinnamon sugar or other flavored sugars. Andalusian cuisine. Awwamaat. Beignet. Buñuelo. Chakli. Cuisine of the Community of Madrid. Jalebi. List of fried dough foods. List of doughnut varieties. Loukoumades. Puff Puff, similar Nigerian recipe. Tulumba. Youtiao. Zalābiya. Zlebia, the same sweet in the Maghreb (North Africa).


Torrone di Mandorle (usually eaten around Christmas): blocks of chopped almonds in a brittle mass of honey and sugar. "Torrone di Bagnara Calabra " is a renowned Torrone awarded with the quality brand of I.G.P. Xixona (PGI) (Valencian Community). Torró d'Alacant (PGI) (Valencian Community). Torró d'Agramunt (PGI) (Catalonia). Nougat. Halva. Marzipan. Gaz (candy). List of almond dishes. Foods from Spain. Turrón (Spanish Nougat), Sweet Arab Heritage. Regulatory Council for Jijona and Alicante varieties.

Christmas cake

Christmas cakes
Christmas cake is a type of fruitcake served at Christmas time in many countries. Christmas cake is an English tradition that began as plum porridge. A traditional English Christmas Cake is made with rich, moist currants, sultanas (golden raisins) and raisins which have been soaked in rum. If a Christmas cake is covered in icing, it is quite common for it to be decorated - models of houses, of fir trees or of Santa Claus may be in the array of decorations. A particular favourite of many is the traditional Scottish Christmas cake, the Whisky Dundee. As the name implies, the cake originated in Dundee and is made with Scotch whisky.

Yule log (cake)

Yule logbûche de NoëlYule Logs
A Yule log (or bûche de Noël ) is a traditional dessert served near Christmas, especially in Belgium, France, Switzerland, Quebec, Lebanon and several former French colonies, as well as the United Kingdom and Catalonia. Made of sponge cake to resemble a miniature actual Yule log, it is a form of sweet roulade. The original Yule log recipe emerged during the 19th century. It is traditionally made from a genoise, generally baked in a large, shallow Swiss roll pan, iced, rolled to form a cylinder, and iced again on the outside.

Lamb and mutton

Mutton and hogget also tend to be tougher than lamb (because of connective tissue maturation) and are therefore better suited to casserole-style cooking, as in Lancashire hotpot, for example. Lamb is often sorted into three kinds of meat: forequarter, loin, and hindquarter. The forequarter includes the neck, shoulder, front legs, and the ribs up to the shoulder blade. The hindquarter includes the rear legs and hip. The loin includes the ribs between the two. Lamb chops are cut from the rib, loin, and shoulder areas. The rib chops include a rib bone; the loin chops include only a chine bone.


Pikkujoulu (Little Christmas)traditional Finnish Christmas meal
The one who gets the almond gets his or her Christmas presents first or gets a wish. Sometimes rice porridge is served as breakfast. Christmas ham with mustard. Karelian stew (not served everywhere in Finland). Lipeäkala with melted butter and white sauce. Gravlax and lavaret, often served with chopped red onion and sour cream. Pickled herring in various forms (tomato, mustard, matjes or onion sauces). Potato casserole (sweetened or not, depending on the region and preference). Carrot casserole. Liver casserole. Rutabaga casserole. Boiled potatoes. Rosolli (salad from boiled beetroots, carrots, potatoes, apples and pickled cucumber. It's sometimes served with herring.). Mushroom salad.

Janssons frestelse

Torvald Utne says that the name means "temptation." * List of casserole dishes *


ginger breadginger cakepiernik
They are thin, brittle biscuits that are particularly associated with the extended Christmas period. In Norway and Sweden, pepperkaker/pepparkakor are also used as window decorations (the pepperkaker/pepparkakor are a little thicker than usual and are decorated with glaze and candy). Many families bake pepperkaker/pepparkakor/brunkager as a tradition. In Switzerland, a gingerbread confection known as "biber" is typically a two-centimeter (approximately ¾ of an inch) thick rectangular gingerbread cake with a marzipan filling. The cantons of Appenzell and St. Gallen are famous for biber, and are artfully adorned with images of the Appenzell bear or the St.

Swedish cuisine

SwedishSwedenSwedish food
List of Christmas dishes. Swedish festivities. Schildt-Lundgren, Margareta (2000) Simply Swedish. ISBN: 91-974561-7-9. Widenfelt, Sam, ed. (1950) Swedish Food. Gothenburg: Esselte. VisitSweden ‒ Sweden's official website for tourism and travel information ‒ Gastronomy in Sweden. ‒ Swedish culinary classics ‒ recipes with history and originality. Gretchen's Cookbook ‒ Swedish Recipes.

Danish cuisine

DanishDenmarkMeal structure in Danish cuisine
Chocolate milk (kakaomælk) and hot chocolate (varm kakao). Cold chocolate milk is widely consumed and hot chocolate can be had in most cafés. At home, hot chocolate is often served to children as an essential part of family hygge. Hyldeblomstsaft. Sweetened elderflower drink, often mixed at home with added water. Sometimes served hot in the winter but usually cold. Danskvand, or hvid vand, is simply carbonated water. It is often flavoured with citrus. Saftevand, a diluting juice made from concentrated and sweetened fruit syrup. The syrup is mixed with plain water by the consumer and served right away.


Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes (such as eggs, hearts, coins) are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Easter, Valentine's Day, and Hanukkah. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, and in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao. Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries, particularly Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply. With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018.


Saint NicholasSaint Nicholas DaySt Nicholas' Day
In recent years, influenced by North-American media and the Anglosaxian Christmas tradition, when the children reach the age where they get told "the big secret of Sinterklaas", some people will shift to Christmas Eve or Christmas Day for the present giving. Older children in Dutch families where the children are too old to believe in Sinterklaas anymore, also often celebrate Christmas with presents instead of pakjesavond. Instead of such gifts being brought by Sinterklaas, family members ordinarily draw names for an event comparable to Secret Santa. Because of the popularity of his "older cousin" Sinterklaas, Santa Claus is however not commonly seen in the Netherlands and Belgium.


fruit cakefruitcakesBudín
Christmas cake. Christmas pudding. Clementine cake. Fig cake. Kulich. Panettone. List of cakes. List of fruit dishes. Moon cake. Stollen.


Marzipan: An almond-based confection, doughy in consistency. Mithai: A generic term for confectionery in the Indian subcontinent, typically made from dairy products and/or some form of flour. Sugar or molasses are used as sweeteners. Persipan: similar to marzipan, but made with peaches or apricots instead of almonds. Pastillage: A thick sugar paste made with gelatin, water, and confectioner's sugar, similar to gum paste, which is moulded into shapes, which then harden. Tablet: A crumbly milk-based soft and hard candy, based on sugars cooked to the soft ball stage. Comes in several forms, such as wafers and heart shapes. Not to be confused with tableting, a method of candy production.


sikwatehot chocolatetabliya
Tsokolate, also spelled chocolate, is a native Filipino thick hot chocolate drink. It is made from tabliya, tablets of pure ground roasted cacao beans, dissolved in water and milk. Like in Spanish and Latin American versions of hot chocolate, the drink is traditionally made in a tsokolatera and briskly mixed with a wooden baton called the molinillo (also called batidor or batirol), causing the drink to be characteristically frothy. Tsokolate is typically sweetened with a bit of muscovado sugar, and has a distinctive grainy texture. Tsokolate is commonly consumed at breakfast with traditional kakanin delicacies or pandesal and other types of bread.

Christmas pudding

plum puddingplum duffChristmas plum pudding
Christmas puddings have very good keeping properties and many families keep one back from Christmas to be eaten at another celebration later in the year, often at Easter. Constance Spry records that it was not uncommon to go so far as to make each year's pudding the previous Christmas. Drover's Plum Pudding. Figgy pudding. Christmas cake. Fruit cake. Frumenty, an early English dish made with wheat, fruits, and nuts, sometimes served on holidays. Mincemeat, another common Christmas food incorporating suet. List of Christmas dishes. List of steamed foods.

Christmas and holiday season

holiday seasonChristmas seasonholiday shopping season
In the UK and Ireland, Christmas food generally appears on supermarket shelves as early as September or even August, while the Christmas shopping season itself starts from mid-November when the high street Christmas lights are switched on. Secular icons and symbols, such as Santa Claus and Frosty the Snowman, are on display in addition to overtly Christian displays of the nativity. Public holiday celebrations similarly range from midnight mass to Christmas tree lighting ceremonies and participation in the Little Drummer Boy Challenge.

Feast of the Seven Fishes

List of Christmas dishes. List of dining events. Christmas Eve Dinner. Explanation of The Feast of the Seven Fishes. Feast of the Seven Fishes blog: A weblog about this Italian Christmas Eve tradition. A Christmas meal in Tuscany. Traditional Christmas Sweets. Christmas Eve Fish Dinner.


Ris à l'amandeRiskrem
Norwegians have a similar dish called riskrem (“rice cream”) and, as in Denmark, the person finding a hidden almond in the dessert wins a mandelgave (almond-gift) in the form of a marzipan pig or the like. The desert may contain almonds for flavour, but mostly chopped on top as decoration. In Norway, the sauce is also normally made of raspberry (or even strawberry) rather than cherry. Danish cuisine. List of Christmas dishes: Denmark. Christmas worldwide: Denmark.


sugarssugar tradesugar cube
Sugar refiners and manufacturers of sugary foods and drinks have sought to influence medical research and public health recommendations, with substantial and largely clandestine spending documented from the 1960s to 2016. The results of research on the health effects of sugary food and drink differ significantly, depending on whether the researcher has financial ties to the food and drink industry. A 2013 medical review concluded that "unhealthy commodity industries should have no role in the formation of national or international NCD non-communicable disease policy".

Chicken as food

chickenchicken meatchicken breast
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. Owing to the relative ease and low cost of raising them in comparison to animals such as cattle or hogs, chickens have become prevalent throughout the cuisine of cultures around the world, and their meat has been variously adapted to regional tastes.