The best known include Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, and Vaisakhi. India has three national holidays which are observed in all states and union territories – Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states. Cotton was domesticated in India by 4000 BCE. Traditional Indian dress varies in colour and style across regions and depends on various factors, including climate and faith. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men.

Christmas pudding

plum puddingplum duffChristmas plum pudding
Christmas puddings have very good keeping properties and many families keep one back from Christmas to be eaten at another celebration later in the year, often at Easter. Constance Spry records that it was not uncommon to go so far as to make each year's pudding the previous Christmas. Figgy pudding. Christmas cake. Fruit cake. Frumenty, an early English dish made with wheat, fruits, and nuts, sometimes served on holidays. Mincemeat, another common Christmas food incorporating suet. List of Christmas dishes. List of steamed foods.


Tagine, a Moroccan stew, named after the conical pot in which it is traditionally cooked and/or served. Tocană, a Romanian stew prepared with tomato, garlic and sweet paprika. Tharid, a traditional Arab stew of bread in broth. Waterzooi, a Belgian stew. Yahni, a Greek, Turkish and Persian stew. Braising. Casserole. Curry. Eintopf. Hot pot. Jugging. List of foods. Nabemono. Perpetual stew. Pottage. Soup.

Christmas and holiday season

holiday seasonChristmas seasonholiday shopping season
"Merry Christmas" in this new context figured prominently in A Christmas Carol. The cynical Ebenezer Scrooge rudely deflects the friendly greeting: "If I could work my will … every idiot who goes about with 'Merry Christmas' on his lips should be boiled with his own pudding." After the visit from the Ghosts of Christmas effects his transformation, Scrooge exclaims; "I am as merry as a school-boy. A merry Christmas to everybody!" and heartily exchanges the wish to all he meets. The instant popularity of A Christmas Carol, the Victorian era Christmas traditions it typifies, and the term's new meaning appearing in the book popularized the phrase "Merry Christmas".

Belgian chocolate

BelgianBelgium they continue eating chocolateBelgium's chocolate industry
By the mid-18th century, chocolate had become extremely popular in upper and middle class circles, particularly in the form of hot chocolate. Among them was Charles-Alexander of Lorraine, the Austrian governor of the territory. From the early 20th century, the country was able to import large quantities of cocoa from its African colony, the Belgian Congo. Contrary to popular opinion, however, Belgium's colonies did not play an important role in the foundation of the Belgian chocolate industry. By 1900, chocolate was increasingly affordable for the Belgian working class.

Italian meal structure

PrimoMeal structure in Italian cuisinesecondo
Children drink hot chocolate, plain milk, or hot milk with very little coffee. If breakfast is eaten in a bar (coffee shop), it is composed of cappuccino and cornetto (frothed hot milk with coffee and a pastry) or espresso and pastry. Other products, such as breakfast cereals, fruit salad (macedonia), muesli and yogurt, are becoming increasingly common as part of the meal. However, Italian breakfasts vary by region and by season. In some regions, such as Tuscany and Umbria, in the past, people used to drink red wine (notably Chianti) into which they would dip their biscuits.


bakers and confectionerskonditoriKonditor
In the 14th century, the Venetians introduced marzipan, a confection made from almonds, sugar and rose water, to central Europe. Marzipan was an ideal material for moulding magnificent pictures from, which were artistically painted with plant colouring and often decorated with gold leaf. At the start of the 19th century, chocolate first made its way to Germany, after the ladies of the upper classes in Spain, Italy and France had long been used to a daily cup of hot chocolate. When the Dutchman Coenraad Johannes van Houten managed to press out the cocoa mass, the additional ingredients cocoa butter and cocoa powder were created.

The Queen-Like Closet

Recipe 142 is "To make Chaculato", a hot chocolate drink made with claret, chocolate, egg yolk and sugar. Part 2 is headed "The Second Part of the Queen-Like Closet; Having an Addition of what hath already been treated of, and directing a very true & excellent way for all manner of Cookery, both Fish, Flesh, & Pastry." It contains 288 recipes, and is ascribed to Hannah Wolley, alias Chaloner, and published by "R. L." in 1670. Recipe 3 is the first for a main dish, "To make Coller'd Beef", the flank of beef being marinaded with saltpeter, spices and herbs, and then braised in a pot with claret and butter.

Hungarian cuisine

HungarianHungarycuisine of Hungary
Typical times are as follows: Breakfast 6-9 am; Lunch 12 noon-2 pm; Dinner 6-9 pm For Christmas, Hungarians have a fish soup called halászlé. Other dishes may be served, such as roast goose, roast turkey or roast duck, cabbage rolls (töltött káposzta). Pastry roll filled with walnut or poppy seed called (bejgli) is a usual Christmas food, and candies and sweets used to decorate the Christmas tree, such as szaloncukor are eaten during all Christmas, when everybody picks them and eats them directly from the tree. On New Year's Eve (Szilveszter), Hungarians traditionally celebrate with virsli (Vienna sausage, and lentil soup.

List of Jones Soda flavors

Christmas Cocoa. Candy Cane ('repeat' from 2006). Egg Nog (part of 'Christmas Pack', 'repeat' from 2006). Sugar Plum (part of 'Christmas Pack', 'repeat' from 2006). Christmas Ham (part of 'Christmas Pack'). "Christmas Tree" (part of 'Christmas Pack'). Chocolate Coins (part of 'Chanukah Pack'). Applesauce (part of 'Chanukah Pack'). Jelly Doughnut (part of 'Chanukah Pack'). Latke (part of 'Chanukah Pack'). 2008 Holiday 12 oz. bottle flavors. Spiced Pear. Candy Cane ('repeat' from past two years). Mele Kalikimaka (Hawaiian for "Merry Christmas" ; a tropical flavor). Jingle Lime Soda. Jingle Berry Soda. Jingle Blue Bubble Gum Soda. Jingle Cream Soda. Big Ass Canned Ham Soda. Nyan Cat Soda.

His Dark Materials

alethiometerThe Golden Compassof the same title
Sometimes hot chocolate; other times "a bar of chocolatl" (a chocolate bar). From chocolatl, the Nahuatl word for chocolate. Chthonic Railway Station: An underground railway station. "Chthonic" is from Greek χθόνιος (chthonios), meaning pertaining to the earth; earthy. Cloud-pine: A type of wood used by witches for flying (akin to broomsticks in other literature). Coal-silk: A synthetic fibre made from coal, was invented as a substitute for natural silk, akin to Nylon. Coal spirit: Petroleum or other hydrocarbon fuels derived from it. Dæmon: The animal embodiment of a human's inner-life. It is pronounced 'demon'. Dust: Mysterious cosmic particles that are integral to the plot.

Nicaraguan cuisine

NicaraguanNicaraguan dishNicaraguan foods
Mazapan. Melcocha. Motas de atol. Nancites cocidos. Nancites en conserva. Perrerreque. Piñonate. Pio Quinto. Polvorón. Raspados. Requeson. Sopa borracha. Suspiros. Toronja en miel (en jarabe). Torta de leche. Tres leches cake. Turron. Traditional Nicaraguan food. Nicaraguan Food recipes. Wikipedia Cookbook.


Water glasses, juice glasses and hot chocolate mugs are also differentiated. Their appearance as part of the tableware depends on the meal and the style of table arrangement. Tea and coffee tend to involve strong social rituals and so teacups and, coffee cups (including demitasse cups) have a shape that depends on the culture and the social situation in which the drink is taken. Cutlery is an important part of tableware. A basic formal place setting will usually have a dinner plate at the centre, resting on a charger. The rest of the place setting depends upon the first course, which may be soup, salad or fish.

Dutch cuisine

DutchNetherlandsMeal structure in Dutch cuisine
On this occasion, the Dutch drink hot chocolate milk and eat spice cookies, like speculaas. Special treats distributed by Saint Nicholas' aide Zwarte Piet include pepernoten (irregular shaped small cookies made of rye, honey and anise, often confused with kruidnoten); kruidnoten (gingernut-like biscuits but made with speculaas spices: a mix of cinnamon, pepper, cloves, and nutmeg); ' or banket (a baked pastry crust filled with a sugared almond paste filling and shaped into a letter); chocolate letters; marzipan (often in the shape of animals or other topical items), ' (discs of fondant); and . Christmas in the Netherlands is a typical family holiday.

Yule and Christmas in Denmark

Julin DenmarkChristmas time
About Julestuer and Danish Christmas traditions in the 1600 and 1700's.


Christmas customsGerman Christmas traditionsChristmas eve
During the Christmas period, the Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) becomes a feature of almost every city, town, or village in the German-speaking countries, where visitors enjoy stalls, entertainment, and savour food and Glühwein (mulled wine). Famous Christmastime treats include Lebkuchen (gingerbread), Stollen (fruit cake), Speculaas and marzipan (confectionery often made into sweets). Perhaps the most famed of these markets is the Christkindlesmarkt held in Nuremberg, that attracts millions of visitors every year. The Weihnachtsbaum (Christmas Tree) is usually put up in the afternoon of 24 December.

Christmas tree cultivation

Christmas tree farmsChristmas tree farmGrowers
In a statement released to support New York Christmas tree growers he stated, "It is a tradition in my family to visit our local tree farm and harvest our family's Christmas tree. It is a wonderful event for the whole family and if you don’t already do so, I encourage you to share this tradition with your family. –NY Agriculture Commissioner Patrick H. Brennan, 2006" Some tree farms offer more than just a chance to cut down a live Christmas tree. Outdoor and holiday themed activities are not uncommon and include wagon rides, offering hot cocoa or cider, Santa Claus visits and holiday crafts. Many tree farms actively encourage schools to sponsor field trips to the farms.

Christmas card

Antichristmas cardsChristmascharity Christmas card
A Christmas card is generally commercially designed and purchased for the occasion. The content of the design might relate directly to the Christmas narrative with depictions of the Nativity of Jesus, or have Christian symbols such as the Star of Bethlehem or a white dove representing both the Holy Spirit and Peace. Many Christmas cards show Christmas traditions, such as seasonal figures (e.g., Santa Claus, snowmen, and reindeer), objects associated with Christmas such as candles, holly, baubles, and Christmas trees, and Christmastime activities such as shopping, caroling, and partying, or other aspects of the season such as the snow and wildlife of the northern winter.

Christianity in Japan

ChristianChristianityJapanese Christians
Christmas in Japan is celebrated on a much larger scale as a commercial and secular festival, but again is not an official public holiday. Christmas lights, Santa Claus, parties, gift exchanges, and eating Western-inspired Christmas foods, especially Kentucky Fried Chicken and strawberry shortcake, are all familiar features of this event. Rather than being a family or religious occasion, Christmas is seen as a time to spend with friends or a significant other. Christmas Eve is celebrated as a couple's holiday on which romantic gifts are exchanged.


Common additional ingredients and flavourings include dried, candied, or fresh fruit, nuts, cocoa, and extracts such as vanilla, with numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients. Cakes can also be filled with fruit preserves, nuts or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders, or candied fruit. Cake is often served as a celebratory dish on ceremonial occasions, such as weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays. There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some are rich and elaborate, and many are centuries old.

Wedding cake

wedding cakescakeWedding-cake
Some couples use a piece of art which will be displayed in their home later, such as a statuette or Christmas ornament. Some couples skip the topper altogether or decorate the top tier with flowers. In the United Kingdom, the traditional wedding cake is made from a rich fruitcake whose ingredients last without degrading. This allowed the top tier to be stored after the wedding, to be eaten at the christening of the first child. Many modern cakes now consist of flavors such as vanilla sponge, chocolate sponge or carrot cake. Most cakes are between three and five tiers in height. Royal wedding cakes are among the more elaborate cakes seen in the United Kingdom.

Princess cake

Variants with other colours of marzipan are occasionally called prinstårta (prince cake) for yellow marzipan and operatårta (opera cake) for red or pink marzipan. Swedish cuisine. Frog cake, a broadly similar Australian dessert. List of cakes.

Marzipan pig

The marzipan pig is a traditional German and Scandinavian confectionery consisting of marzipan shaped as a pig. During Jul in Norway, a tradition is to eat a rice porridge known as risgrøt; a single almond is hidden in the porridge. Whoever finds the almond receives a marzipan pig as a prize. The same tradition exists for Christmas Eve in Denmark, but with risalamande. In Germany, marzipan pigs are given at New Year's for good luck (Glücksschwein). The Marzipan Pig (1986, ISBN: 0-374-34859-6) is a children's book by Russell Hoban. The story was filmed as one of the HBO Storybook Musicals. It was also on the list of programs broadcast by ABC Television.

Christmas wafer

In the 20th century, "opłatek" custom went beyond families and gained another meaning: the meeting of present or past co-workers or students. * Christmas in Poland Opłatki Wafers: Preserving Polish Christmas Eve Tradition. Visited 1/3/2005. Christmas Customs and Traditions. Sharing my Own Christmas traditions. Worry of Tainted Wafer scares church. Oplatki information for non-Poles in Poland.