bee honeyforest honeyhonied
Mead varieties include drinks called metheglin (with spices or herbs), melomel (with fruit juices, such as grape, specifically called pyment), hippocras (with cinnamon), and sack mead (high concentration of honey), many of which have been developed as commercial products numbering in the hundreds in the United States as of 2014. Honey is also used to make mead beer, called "braggot". The physical properties of honey vary, depending on water content, the type of flora used to produce it (pasturage), temperature, and the proportion of the specific sugars it contains. Fresh honey is a supersaturated liquid, containing more sugar than the water can typically dissolve at ambient temperatures.

Christ Child

infant Jesusbaby Jesuschild Jesus
It is sung in the Hebrides at Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve. In some apocryphal texts, the Infancy Gospels grew up with legendary accounts of the intervening period, and these are sometimes depicted. These stories were intended to show Jesus as having extraordinary gifts of power and knowledge, even from the youngest age. One common pious tale has the young Jesus animating sparrows out of clay belonging to his playmates. When admonished for doing so on the Sabbath, he causes the birds to fly away.

New Year's Day

January 1New Year1 January
This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius (died 659 or 660), who warned the Flemish and Dutch: "(Do not) make vetulas, [little figures of the Old Woman], little deer or iotticos or set tables [for the house-elf, compare Puck] at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks [another Yule custom]." However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar; the custom of exchanging Christmas gifts in a Christian context is traced back to the Biblical Magi who gave gifts to the Child Jesus.


hard ciderapple ciderciders
In Argentina, cider, or sidra is by far the most popular alcoholic carbonated drink during the Christmas and New Year holidays. It has traditionally been considered the choice of the middle and lower classes (along with ananá fizz and pineapple juice), whereas the higher classes would rather go for champagne or local sparkling wines for their Christmas or New Year toast. Popular commercial brands of cider are Real, La Victoria, "Rama Caida", Tunuyan. It is usually marketed in 0.72 litre glass or plastic bottles. However, there has been lately a campaign by some bottlers to make cider a drink consumed all year round, in any occasion, and not only seasonally.


{{Infobox country * conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Spain * native_name = * common_name = Spain * name = '''{{resize|1.0 em|4 other official names}}{{efn|name=a|The Spanish Constitution does not establish any official name for Spain, even though the terms España (Spain), Estado español (Spanish State) and Nación española (Spanish Nation) are used throughout the document. Nonetheless, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs established in an ordinance published in 1984 that the denominations España (Spain) and Reino de España (Kingdom of Spain) are equally valid to designate Spain in international treaties.

United Kingdom

Drinking water standards and wastewater discharge standards in the UK, as in other countries of the European Union, are determined by the EU (see Water supply and sanitation in the European Union). In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies. In Scotland water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Scottish Water. In Northern Ireland water and sewerage services are also provided by a single public entity, Northern Ireland Water. A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years.


Roast pork is often accompanied by sage and onion stuffing in England; roast poultry in a Christmas dinner may be stuffed with sweet chestnuts. Oysters are used in one traditional stuffing for Thanksgiving. These may also be combined with mashed potatoes, for a heavy stuffing. Fruits and dried fruits can be added to stuffing including apples, apricots, dried prunes, and raisins. In England, a stuffing is sometimes made of minced pork shoulder seasoned with various ingredients, sage, onion, bread, chestnuts, dried apricots, dried cranberries etc. The stuffing mixture may be cooked separately and served as a side dish. This may still be called stuffing or it may be called dressing.

Mince pie

mince piesmince meat pieis ambiguous
In his essay The Life of Samuel Butler, Samuel Johnson wrote of "an old Puritan, who was alive in my childhood ... would have none of his superstitious meats and drinks." Another essay, published in the December 1733 issue of The Gentleman's Magazine, explained the popularity of "Christmas Pye" as perhaps "owing to the Barrenness of the Season, and the Scarcity of Fruit and Milk, to make Tarts, Custards, and other Desserts", but also possibly bearing "a religious kind of Relation to the Festivity from which it takes its Name."

Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Candy cane

candy canescandy stripecandy cane stripes
The Nursery monthly magazine noted them in association with Christmas in 1874, and the Babyland magazine mentioned canes being hung on Christmas trees in 1882. As with other forms of stick candy, the earliest canes were manufactured by hand. Chicago confectioners the Bunte Brothers filed one of the earliest patents for candy cane making machines in the early 1920s. In 1919 in Albany, Georgia, Robert McCormack began making candy canes for local children and by the middle of the century, his company (originally the Famous Candy Company, then the Mills-McCormack Candy Company, and later Bobs Candies) had become one of the world's leading candy cane producers.


egg nogegg-nogNog
Tom and Jerry, a hot eggnog cocktail, is described in Damon Runyon's 1932 story "Dancing Dan's Christmas". Tom and Jerry drinks are described in Yogi Yorgesson's 1949 novelty song "I Yust Go Nuts at Christmas" and characters drink Tom and Jerrys in the 1940 film Beyond Tomorrow and the 1941 film The Great Mr. Nobody. Tom and Jerry drinks are mentioned in the 1960 film The Apartment. In the 1989 film National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation film, the fictional characters Clark Griswold and Cousin Eddie are depicted drinking egg nog out of Wally World mugs, an inside joke which makes reference to the fictional theme park featured in an earlier National Lampoon movie.

Yule log

The Yule log, Yule clog, or Christmas block is a specially selected log burnt on a hearth as a Christmas tradition in a number of countries in Europe. The origin of the folk custom is unclear. Numerous scholars have observed that, like other traditions associated with Yule (such as the Yule boar), the custom may ultimately derive from Germanic paganism. After the Christianization of Scandinavia, it may have been incorporated into the Christian celebration of Christmas there, with the pagan significance no longer remaining.

Cranberry sauce

Cranberry sauce is often eaten in conjunction with turkey for Christmas in the United Kingdom and Canada or Thanksgiving in the United States and Canada, and it is only rarely eaten or served in other contexts there. * Lingonberry jam Ocean Spray (cooperative). Redcurrant sauce.


Kentucky Fried ChickenColonel SandersKentucky Fried Chicken (KFC)
In December 1974, KFC Japan began to promote fried chicken as a Christmas meal. Eating KFC as a Christmas time meal has since become a widely practiced custom in Japan., Japan is the third-largest market for KFC after China and the United States with 1,200 outlets. In December 2007, Mitsubishi assumed majority control of KFC Japan in a JP¥ 14.83 billion transaction. Being one of its largest overseas markets, the Malaysian KFC traces its origin from 1st January 1973 from its first outlet in Jalan Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur.


Dutch🇳🇱the Netherlands
Several Christian religious holidays are national holidays (Christmas, Easter, Pentecost and the Ascension of Jesus). In the late 19th century atheism began to rise as secularism, liberalism and socialism grew. By 1960, Protestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian branches began to decline. There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year 2000 there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism. The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism, specifically the 1795 disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church.


lechónfoodlechon de leche
Sometimes carbonated drinks may also be used. They are cooked on a bamboo spit over charcoal for a few hours with constant (traditionally manual) turning. The pig is roasted on all sides for several hours until done. The process of cooking and basting usually results in making the pork skin crisp and is a distinctive feature of the dish. Leftover parts from the lechon, such as the head and feet, are usually cooked into another popular dish, lechon paksiw. Like lechon itself, lechon paksiw also differs based on whether it is prepared Luzon-style or Visayas-style, with the former using liver sauce as an essential ingredient, while the latter does not. Lechon kawali. Lechon manok.


Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices. UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List. There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day). Prior to reunification, the day was celebrated on 17 June, in honour of the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany which was brutally suppressed on that date. In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre.

Edam cheese

Edamqueso de bolaqueso bola
In the Philippines, queso de bola is popular during Christmas in the Philippines, when Filipinos feast with family and friends. It is customarily served with jamón and pan de sal during the Noche Buena, the traditional feast taken around midnight of Christmas Eve and lasting until the early hours of Christmas Day. The cheese is also associated with Christmas in Sweden due to its red color, and is often found on the Christmas Julbord buffet. Edam has been treated dramatically and humorously in a variety of cultural art forms. In the novel All Quiet on the Western Front, the main character believes its red outer covering is a sign of impending death.

French language

., naïf—naive, Noël—Christmas) as in English, specifies that this vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding one, not combined, and is not a schwa. The cedilla (la cédille) ç (e.g., garçon—boy) means that the letter ç is pronounced in front of the back vowels a, o and u (c is otherwise before a back vowel). C is always pronounced in front of the front vowels e, i, and y, thus ç is never found in front of front vowels. Accents with no pronunciation effect. The circumflex does not affect the pronunciation of the letters i or u, nor, in most dialects, a. It usually indicates that an s came after it long ago, as in île (isle, compare with English island).


cinnamon stickscinnamon treecinnamon bark
Cinnamon can also be used in pickling and Christmas drinks such as eggnog. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in enhancing the flavour of Persian cuisine, used in a variety of thick soups, drinks, and sweets. Ground cinnamon is composed of around 11% water, 81% carbohydrates (including 53% dietary fiber), 4% protein, and 1% fat (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, ground cinnamon is a rich source of calcium (100% of the Daily Value, DV), iron (64% DV), and vitamin K (30% DV). The flavour of cinnamon is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.5 to 1% of its composition.

Sparkling wine

sparklingsparkling winesfrizzante
Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy. Commonly called champagne, EU countries legally reserve that term for products exclusively produced in the Champagne region of France. Usually sparkling wine is white or rosé, but there are examples of red sparkling wines such as the Italian Brachetto, Bonarda and Lambrusco, Australian sparkling Shiraz, and Azerbaijani "Pearl of Azerbaijan" made from Madrasa grapes. The sweetness of sparkling wine can range from very dry brut styles to sweeter doux varieties (French for 'raw' and 'sweet', respectively).

New Year's Eve

December 31New YearNew Year's Day
Early the next morning, party attendees usually gather to have the traditional winter breakfast of hot chocolate and fried pastry (chocolate con churros). In Sweden, New Year's Eve is usually celebrated with families or with friends. A few hours before and after midnight, people usually party and eat a special dinner, often three courses. New Year's Eve is celebrated with large fireworks displays throughout the country, especially in the cities. People over the age of 18 are allowed to buy fireworks, which are sold by local stores or by private persons. While watching or lighting fireworks at midnight, people usually drink champagne.


pan de sal
It is most commonly served hot and consumed by dipping in coffee or hot chocolate drink. It can also be complemented with butter (or margarine), cheese, jam, or peanut butter. For some areas in the Philippines, they included malunggay leaves as part of its main ingredient. They call it "malunggay pandesal." Its taste and texture closely resemble those of the Puerto Rican bread pan de agua, baguette in france, and Mexican bolillos. Contrary to its name, pan de sal tastes slightly sweet rather than salty. Most of the bakeries bake pandesal in the morning for breakfast consumption.


dry-cured hamsmoked hamdry-cured
Such roasts are a traditional part of British Christmas dinners. As a processed meat, there has been concern over the health effects of ham consumption. A meta-analysis study from 2012 has shown a statistically relevant correlation between processed meat consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer, with an increase in consumption of 50 g per day leading to a 19% increase in risk. This supported earlier studies, including the 2007 study [[Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective]], by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, which reviewed more than 7,000 studies published worldwide.


Sicilian religious festivals also include the presepe vivente (living nativity scene), which takes place at Christmas time. Deftly combining religion and folklore, it is a constructed mock 19th century Sicilian village, complete with a nativity scene, and has people of all ages dressed in the costumes of the period, some impersonating the Holy Family, and others working as artisans of their particular assigned trade. It is normally concluded on Epiphany, often highlighted by the arrival of the magi on horseback. Oral tradition plays a large role in Sicilian folklore. Many stories passed down from generation to generation involve a character named "Giufà".