Castaneachestnutschestnut tree
Chestnuts are picked in autumn, and candied from the start of the following summer for the ensuing Christmas. Thus, the marrons glacés eaten at Christmas are those picked the year before. In Hungarian cuisine, cooked chestnuts are puréed, mixed with sugar (and usually rum), forced through a ricer, and topped with whipped cream to make a dessert called gesztenyepüré (chestnut purée). In Swiss cuisine, a similar dish made with kirsch and butter is called vermicelles. A French version is known as "Mont Blanc". A fine granular sugar can be obtained from the fermentation of the juice, as well as a beer; the roasted fruit provides a coffee substitute.

Latin American cuisine

Latin AmericanLatin AmericaCentral American cuisine
Some typical Peruvian dishes are ceviche (fish and shellfish marinated in citrus juices), the chupe de camarones (a soup made of shrimp (Cryphiops caementarius)), anticuchos (cow's heart roasted en brochette), the olluco con charqui (a casserole dish made of ulluco and charqui), the Andean pachamanca (meats, tubers and broad beans cooked in a stone oven), the lomo saltado (meat fried lightly with tomato and onion, served with french fries and rice) that has a Chinese influence, and the picante de cuy (a casserole dish made of fried guinea pig with some spices). Peruvian food can be accompanied by typical drinks like the chicha de jora (a chicha made of tender corn dried by the sun).

Comfort food

comfort foodshome-style cookinghome-style food
Tsokolate – hot chocolate drink. Arroz con gandules – rice with pigeon peas. Arroz con pollo – rice with chicken. Bistec encebollado – steak and onions. Carne Guisada – stewed beef. Carne mechada – Puerto Rican style meatloaf. Churrasco – grilled flank or skirt steak. Cuchifritos and Fritanga – assortments of fried appetizers (alcapurrias, bacalaitos, pastelitos/pastelillos, piononos, sorrullos/sorullitos). Habichuelas guisadas con calabaza – beans stewed with pumpkin. Lechón asado – roast pork. Mixta – white rice, stewed beans with pumpkin and stewed meat with potatoes and carrots. Mofongo and trifongo – fried mashed green plantains.


The cougnou or bread of Jesus is a bread baked during Christmas time and is typical of the southern Low Countries. It has various names according to the location: The bread of Jesus is a sweet bread formed like a baby Jesus. It is made with flour, eggs, milk, yeast, raisins and sugar. Usually, it is given to children on Christmas and St. Martin's Day and usually enjoyed with a cup of hot chocolate. This bread seems to have originated in ancient Hainaut but the bread of Jesus is now spread throughout the southern Low Countries.


Noche BuenaFlor de Nochebuenala Nochebuena
Nochebuena is a Spanish word referring to the night of Christmas Eve and celebrated on December 24 every year. Nochebuena, for Latin American cultures, is often the biggest feast for the Christmas season and is the annual Spanish tradition. Nochebuena (literally "the Good Night") is the Spanish word for Christmas Eve. In Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines, the evening consists of a traditional family dinner. Roasted pig, or lechón is often the center of Nochebuena for feasts around the world.

Slow cooker

slow cookingcrock potcrockpot
A wide variety of dishes can be prepared in slow cookers, including ones typically made quickly, such as cocoa and bread. The Naxon Utilities Corporation of Chicago, under the leadership of Irving Naxon, developed the Naxon Beanery All-Purpose Cooker for the purposes of cooking a bean meal. Naxon was inspired by a story his grandmother told about how back in her native Lithuanian town, her mother made a stew called cholent, which took several hours to cook in an oven. A 1950 advertisement shows a slow cooker called the "Simmer Crock" made by the Industrial Radiant Heat Corp. of Gladstone, NJ.

Fish soup

Riblji paprikašBalıkFish
Although they may be consumed on their own, or with a meal, the canned, condensed form of cream soup is sometimes used as a quick sauce in a variety of meat and pasta convenience food dishes, such as casseroles. Similar to a bisque, chowders are thick soups usually containing seafood and potatoes, milk and cream. * Retro soups list Fish stew. List of fish and seafood soups. List of soups. Murdoch (2004) Essential Seafood Cookbook Soups and chowders, pp. 32–55. Murdoch Books. ISBN: 9781740454124. Rumble, Victoria R (2009) Soup Through the Ages: A Culinary History With Period Recipes McFarland. ISBN: 9780786439614.


dessertssweetsweet dish
Common flavorings include dried, candied or fresh fruit, nuts, cocoa or extracts. They may be filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders, or candied fruit. Cake is often served as a celebratory dish on ceremonial occasions, for example weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays. Small-sized cakes have become popular, in the form of cupcakes and petits fours. Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown, food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted, ground, and often flavored. Pure, unsweetened chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions.

Santa Claus

SantaKris Kringlemall Santa
The next morning they will find the hay and carrot replaced by a gift; often, this is a marzipan figurine. Naughty children were once told that they would be left a roe (a bundle of sticks) instead of sweets, but this practice has been discontinued. Other Christmas Eve Santa Claus rituals in the United States include reading A Visit from St.

Thirteen desserts

The thirteen desserts (Occitan: lei tretze dessèrts) are the traditional dessert foods used in celebrating Christmas in the French region of Provence. The "big supper" (le gros souper) ends with a ritual 13 desserts, representing Jesus Christ and the 12 apostles. The desserts always number thirteen but the exact items vary by local or familial tradition. The food traditionally is set out Christmas Eve and remains on the table three days until December 27. The first four of these are known as the "four beggars" (les quatre mendiants), representing the four mendicant monastic orders: Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinian and Carmelites. Bayle St.


Austrian dessertSacher cake
For example, at "Graz-Kulturhauptstadt 2003", a festival marking the city of Graz being declared cultural capital that year, "Sacher-Masoch-Torte" was presented (its name alluding to Leopold von Sacher-Masoch), using redcurrant jam and marzipan. Hotel Sacher's "Original Sacher Torte" is sold at the Vienna and Salzburg locations of the Hotel Sacher, at Cafe Sacher branches in Innsbruck and Graz, at the Sacher Shop in Bolzano, in the Duty Free area of Vienna airport, and via the Hotel Sacher's online shop. The recipe of the Hotel Sacher's version of the cake is a closely guarded secret.


paella valencianapaiellaPiella
Consequently, Valencians often made casseroles of rice, fish, and spices for family gatherings and religious feasts, thus establishing the custom of eating rice in Spain. This led to rice becoming a staple by the 15th century. Afterwards, it became customary for cooks to combine rice with vegetables, beans, and dry cod, providing an acceptable meal for Lent. Along Spain's eastern coast, rice was predominantly eaten with fish. Spanish food historian Lourdes March notes that the dish "symbolizes the union and heritage of two important cultures, the Roman, which gives us the utensil and the Arab which brought us the basic food of humanity for centuries."


They are also used as filler in foods such as mincemeat and Christmas cake. In the US, rutabagas are mostly eaten as part of stews or casseroles, served mashed with carrots, or baked in a pasty. They are frequently found in the New England boiled dinner. In Australia, swedes are used as a flavor enhancer in casseroles, stews and soups. Rutabaga and other cyanoglucoside-containing foods (including cassava, maize (corn), bamboo shoots, sweet potatoes, and lima beans) release cyanide, which is subsequently detoxified into thiocyanate. Thiocyanate inhibits thyroid iodide transport and, at high doses, competes with iodide in the organification process within thyroid tissue.

Nut roast

A nut roast or roasted nut loaf is a rich and savoury vegetarian dish consisting of nuts, grains, vegetable oils, broth or butter, and seasonings formed into a firm loaf shape or long casserole dish before roasting and often eaten as an alternative to a traditional British style roast dinner. It is popular with vegetarians at Christmas, as well as part of a traditional Sunday roast. Nut roasts are also made by Canadian and American vegetarians and vegans as the main dish for Thanksgiving or other harvest festival meals.

Hors d'oeuvre

appetizerhors d'œuvrehors d'oeuvres
In the late 19th and early 20th century, even more words, foods and customs from culinary France made their way into England, such as éclair, casserole, à la carte, rôtisserie and hors d'oeuvre. The custom of the savoury course is of British origin and comes towards the end of the meal, before dessert or sweets or even after the dessert, in contrast to the hors d'oeuvre, which is served before the meal. The British favored the savoury course as a palate cleanser before drinking after the meal, which made the hors d'oeuvre before the meal unnecessary. The savoury is generally small, well spiced and often served hot, requiring cooking just before serving.


The best known include Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, and Vaisakhi. India has three national holidays which are observed in all states and union territories – Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states. Cotton was domesticated in India by 4000 BCE. Traditional Indian dress varies in colour and style across regions and depends on various factors, including climate and faith. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men.

List of Mexican dishes

pan dulceMexican dishesList of Mexican dishes – Desserts and sweets
Chocolate, generally known better as a drink rather than a candy or sweet. Horchata. Jamaica (drink). Jarritos (drink). Jugos frescos. Lechuguilla. Licuado, a drink that includes banana, chocolate, and sugar. Mangonada. Mexican Coke. Mexican tea culture. Pópo. Pozol. Tamarindo. Tejate. Bacanora. Cerveza, Mexican beers such as "Sol" and "Corona". Colonche. Mexican wine. Mezcal. Michelada. Pulque, a popular drink of the Aztecs. Sotol. Tejuino. Tepache. Tequila. Tubâ. List of cuisines. List of maize dishes. List of tortilla-based dishes. Mexican breads. Mexican street food. New Mexican cuisine. Sopaipilla (not typical in Mexico, but common in New Mexico). Tex-Mex.

Aachener Printen

Aachener PrintePrintenkopf
Additionally to the original Printen, there are also Printen with nuts (usually almonds), covered in chocolate or glaze and marzipan. * List of German desserts * Aachener Printen


During Christmas season, it is a tradition to top the pastry with a specially aged type of Edam cheese called queso de bola. It is also customary to eat ensaymada with hot chocolate and strawberries during Christmas. Due to its extreme popularity as a snack across the islands, popular bakeshop chains such as Goldilocks, Red Ribbon, Julie's and Kamuning Bakery also offer ensaymada with their own recipe. In Puerto Rico, another Spanish colony until 1898, the ensaïmada is called Mallorca and is traditionally eaten for breakfast or as an afternoon snack. Llisa (literally plain) with no extra ingredient.

Tunis cake

A Tunis cake is a Madeira cake topped with a thick layer of chocolate and decorated with marzipan fruits. It is traditionally eaten at Christmas. The origins of the cake are Edwardian. Scottish bakery Macfarlane Langs produced commercial Tunis Cakes in the 1930s, and when they merged with McVitie & Price in 1948 to form a company called United Biscuits (which still owns the McVitie’s brand) the recipe passed to the new company. McVitie's produced a Tunis cake until the mid 1980s. It is now sold seasonally by some supermarkets in the UK. An early recipe does not include the chocolate and marzipan topping.

Date palm

datesdatedate palms
Reflecting the maritime trading heritage of Britain, imported chopped dates are added to, or form the main basis of a variety of traditional dessert recipes including sticky toffee pudding, Christmas pudding and date and walnut loaf. They are particularly available to eat whole at Christmas time. Dates are one of the ingredients of HP Sauce, a popular British condiment. Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed. In Southeast Spain (where a large date plantation exists including UNESCO-protected Palmeral of Elche) dates (usually pitted with fried almond) are served wrapped in bacon and shallow fried.

Icelandic cuisine

IcelandIcelandic foodIcelandic
"leafbread"), a very thin wafer, with patterns cut into it with a sharp knife and ridged cutting wheels and fried crisp in oil, is a traditional Christmas food, sometimes served with hangikjöt. In Iceland the Christmas dinner is traditionally served on Christmas Eve. Traditional main courses are hangikjöt (smoked lamb), hamborgarhryggur (salted pork rib) and various types of game, especially ptarmigan stew, puffin (sometimes lightly smoked) and roast greylag goose where these are available. These are usually accompanied by a béchamel or mushroom sauce, boiled potatoes and peas, pickled beetroot or red cabbage and jam.


parsnipswild parsnipPastinaca sativa
When used in stews, soups, and casseroles, they give a rich flavor. In some cases, parsnips are boiled and the solid portions are removed from the soup or stew, leaving behind a more subtle flavor than the whole root, and starch to thicken the dish. Roast parsnip is considered an essential part of Christmas dinner in some parts of the English-speaking world and frequently features in the traditional Sunday roast. Parsnips can also be fried or thinly sliced and made into crisps. They can be made into a wine with a taste similar to Madeira. In Roman times, parsnips were believed to be an aphrodisiac. However, parsnips do not typically feature in modern Italian cooking.

Belgian chocolate

BelgianBelgium they continue eating chocolateBelgium's chocolate industry
By the mid-18th century, chocolate had become extremely popular in upper and middle class circles, particularly in the form of hot chocolate. Among them was Charles-Alexander of Lorraine, the Austrian governor of the territory. From the early 20th century, the country was able to import large quantities of cocoa from its African colony, the Belgian Congo. Contrary to popular opinion, however, Belgium's colonies did not play an important role in the foundation of the Belgian chocolate industry. By 1900, chocolate was increasingly affordable for the Belgian working class.

Italian meal structure

Primofirst courseMeal structure in Italian cuisine
Children drink hot chocolate, plain milk, or hot milk with very little coffee. If breakfast is eaten in a bar (coffee shop), it is composed of cappuccino and cornetto (frothed hot milk with coffee and a pastry) or espresso and pastry. Other products, such as breakfast cereals, fruit salad (macedonia), muesli and yogurt, are becoming increasingly common as part of the meal. However, Italian breakfasts vary by region and by season. In some regions, such as Tuscany and Umbria, in the past, people used to drink red wine (notably Chianti) into which they would dip their biscuits.