bakers and confectionerskonditoribakery
In the 14th century, the Venetians introduced marzipan, a confection made from almonds, sugar and rose water, to central Europe. Marzipan was an ideal material for moulding magnificent pictures from, which were artistically painted with plant colouring and often decorated with gold leaf. At the start of the 19th century, chocolate first made its way to Germany, after the ladies of the upper classes in Spain, Italy and France had long been used to a daily cup of hot chocolate. When the Dutchman Coenraad Johannes van Houten managed to press out the cocoa mass, the additional ingredients cocoa butter and cocoa powder were created.

The Queen-Like Closet

Recipe 142 is "To make Chaculato", a hot chocolate drink made with claret, chocolate, egg yolk and sugar. Part 2 is headed "The Second Part of the Queen-Like Closet; Having an Addition of what hath already been treated of, and directing a very true & excellent way for all manner of Cookery, both Fish, Flesh, & Pastry." It contains 288 recipes, and is ascribed to Hannah Wolley, alias Chaloner, and published by "R. L." in 1670. Recipe 3 is the first for a main dish, "To make Coller'd Beef", the flank of beef being marinaded with saltpeter, spices and herbs, and then braised in a pot with claret and butter.

Hungarian cuisine

HungarianHungarycuisine of Hungary
Typical times are as follows: Breakfast 6-9 am; Lunch 12 noon-2 pm; Dinner 6-9 pm For Christmas, Hungarians have a fish soup called halászlé. Other dishes may be served, such as roast goose, roast turkey or roast duck, cabbage rolls (töltött káposzta). Pastry roll filled with walnut or poppy seed called (bejgli) is a usual Christmas food, and candies and sweets used to decorate the Christmas tree, such as szaloncukor are eaten during all Christmas, when everybody picks them and eats them directly from the tree. On New Year's Eve (Szilveszter), Hungarians traditionally celebrate with virsli (Vienna sausage, and lentil soup.

List of Jones Soda flavors

Christmas Cocoa. Candy Cane ('repeat' from 2006). Egg Nog (part of 'Christmas Pack', 'repeat' from 2006). Sugar Plum (part of 'Christmas Pack', 'repeat' from 2006). Christmas Ham (part of 'Christmas Pack'). "Christmas Tree" (part of 'Christmas Pack'). Chocolate Coins (part of 'Chanukah Pack'). Applesauce (part of 'Chanukah Pack'). Jelly Doughnut (part of 'Chanukah Pack'). Latke (part of 'Chanukah Pack'). 2008 Holiday 12 oz. bottle flavors. Spiced Pear. Candy Cane ('repeat' from past two years). Mele Kalikimaka (Hawaiian for "Merry Christmas" ; a tropical flavor). Jingle Lime Soda. Jingle Berry Soda. Jingle Blue Bubble Gum Soda. Jingle Cream Soda. Big Ass Canned Ham Soda. Nyan Cat Soda.

His Dark Materials

alethiometerHis Dark Materials'' (trilogy)His Dark Materials'' terminology
Sometimes hot chocolate; other times "a bar of chocolatl" (a chocolate bar). From chocolatl, the Nahuatl word for chocolate. Chthonic Railway Station: An underground railway station. "Chthonic" is from Greek χθόνιος (chthonios), meaning pertaining to the earth; earthy. Cloud-pine: A type of wood used by witches for flying (akin to broomsticks in other literature). Coal-silk: A synthetic fibre made from coal, was invented as a substitute for natural silk, akin to Nylon. Coal spirit: Petroleum or other hydrocarbon fuels derived from it. Dæmon: The animal embodiment of a human's inner-life. It is pronounced 'demon'. Dust: Mysterious cosmic particles that are integral to the plot.

Nicaraguan cuisine

NicaraguanNicaraguaNicaraguan dish
Many fruits are made into drinks, such as melon, papaya, guayaba, guanábana, coconut, pineapple, and pitahaya. Pinolillo is very popular among Nicaraguans, as many times they refer to themselves as pinoleros, which means "pinolillo drinkers". Many drinks are also made from grains and seeds, mixed with milk, water, sugar and ice. Other drinks include: * Latin American cuisine * http://waterunit2013.weebly.com/nicaragua.html Achiote con limon. Achiote con toronja. Agua de arroz. Arroz con Pino. Arroz con piña. Atol. Avena (drink). Avena con leche. Avena con limon. Cacao. Caimito. Cebada. Cebada con limon. Cebada con Milca. Coyolito. Chia. Chicha. Chicha bruja. Chicha de caña.


Water glasses, juice glasses and hot chocolate mugs are also differentiated. Their appearance as part of the tableware depends on the meal and the style of table arrangement. Tea and coffee tend to involve strong social rituals and so teacups and, coffee cups (including demitasse cups) have a shape that depends on the culture and the social situation in which the drink is taken. Cutlery is an important part of tableware. A basic formal place setting will usually have a dinner plate at the centre, resting on a charger. The rest of the place setting depends upon the first course, which may be soup, salad or fish.

Dutch cuisine

DutchNetherlandsDutch food
On this occasion, the Dutch drink hot chocolate milk and eat spice cookies, like speculaas. Special treats distributed by Saint Nicholas' aide Zwarte Piet include pepernoten (irregular shaped small cookies made of rye, honey and anise, often confused with kruidnoten); kruidnoten (gingernut-like biscuits but made with speculaas spices: a mix of cinnamon, pepper, cloves, and nutmeg); ' or banket (a baked pastry crust filled with a sugared almond paste filling and shaped into a letter); chocolate letters; marzipan (often in the shape of animals or other topical items), ' (discs of fondant); and . Christmas in the Netherlands is a typical family holiday.

Yule and Christmas in Denmark

JulChristmas DayChristmas time
About Julestuer and Danish Christmas traditions in the 1600 and 1700's.


Christmas customsChristmas eveChristmas tradition
During the Christmas period, the Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) becomes a feature of almost every city, town, or village in the German-speaking countries, where visitors enjoy stalls, entertainment, and savour food and Glühwein (mulled wine). Famous Christmastime treats include Lebkuchen (gingerbread), Stollen (fruit cake), Speculaas and marzipan (confectionery often made into sweets). Perhaps the most famed of these markets is the Christkindlesmarkt held in Nuremberg, that attracts millions of visitors every year. The Weihnachtsbaum (Christmas Tree) is usually put up in the afternoon of 24 December.

Christmas tree cultivation

Christmas tree farmsChristmas tree farmChristmas tree farmer
In a statement released to support New York Christmas tree growers he stated, "It is a tradition in my family to visit our local tree farm and harvest our family's Christmas tree. It is a wonderful event for the whole family and if you don’t already do so, I encourage you to share this tradition with your family. –NY Agriculture Commissioner Patrick H. Brennan, 2006" Some tree farms offer more than just a chance to cut down a live Christmas tree. Outdoor and holiday themed activities are not uncommon and include wagon rides, offering hot cocoa or cider, Santa Claus visits and holiday crafts. Many tree farms actively encourage schools to sponsor field trips to the farms.


Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia; the earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen. Hot chocolate, also known as drinking chocolate or cocoa, is a heated drink consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, and usually a sweetener. Hot chocolate may be topped with whipped cream. Hot chocolate made with melted chocolate is sometimes called drinking chocolate, characterized by less sweetness and a thicker consistency.

Christmas Eve

December 2424 DecemberEve of Nativity
The main attributes of Holy Meal in Ukraine are kutia, a poppy seed, honey and wheat dish, and uzvar, a drink made from reconstituted dried fruits. Other typical dishes are borscht, Varenyky, and dishes made of fish, phaseolus and cabbage. In accordance with the Christmas traditions of the Serbs, their festive meal has a copious and diverse selection of foods, although it is prepared according to the rules of fasting. As well as a round, unleavened loaf of bread and salt, which are necessary, this meal may comprise roast fish, cooked beans, sauerkraut, noodles with ground walnuts, honey, and wine.

Christmas card

Antichristmas cardsChristmascharity Christmas card
A Christmas card is generally commercially designed and purchased for the occasion. The content of the design might relate directly to the Christmas narrative with depictions of the Nativity of Jesus, or have Christian symbols such as the Star of Bethlehem or a white dove representing both the Holy Spirit and Peace. Many Christmas cards show Christmas traditions, such as seasonal figures (e.g., Santa Claus, snowmen, and reindeer), objects associated with Christmas such as candles, holly, baubles, and Christmas trees, and Christmastime activities such as shopping, caroling, and partying, or other aspects of the season such as the snow and wildlife of the northern winter.

Christianity in Japan

ChristianChristianityJapanese Christians
Christmas in Japan is celebrated on a much larger scale as a commercial and secular festival, but again is not an official public holiday. Christmas lights, Santa Claus, parties, gift exchanges, and eating Western-inspired Christmas foods, especially Kentucky Fried Chicken and strawberry shortcake, are all familiar features of this event. Rather than being a family or religious occasion, Christmas is seen as a time to spend with friends or a significant other. Christmas Eve is celebrated as a couple's holiday on which romantic gifts are exchanged.


Common additional ingredients and flavourings include dried, candied, or fresh fruit, nuts, cocoa, and extracts such as vanilla, with numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients. Cakes can also be filled with fruit preserves, nuts or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders, or candied fruit. Cake is often served as a celebratory dish on ceremonial occasions, such as weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays. There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some are rich and elaborate, and many are centuries old.

Wedding cake

wedding cakescakeWedding-cake
Some couples use a piece of art which will be displayed in their home later, such as a statuette or Christmas ornament. Some couples skip the topper altogether or decorate the top tier with flowers. In the United Kingdom, the traditional wedding cake is made from a rich fruitcake whose ingredients last without degrading. This allowed the top tier to be stored after the wedding, to be eaten at the christening of the first child. Many modern cakes now consist of flavors such as vanilla sponge, chocolate sponge or carrot cake. Most cakes are between three and five tiers in height. Royal wedding cakes are among the more elaborate cakes seen in the United Kingdom.

Princess cake

Variants with other colours of marzipan are occasionally called prinstårta (prince cake) for yellow marzipan and operatårta (opera cake) for red or pink marzipan. Swedish cuisine. Frog cake, a broadly similar Australian dessert. List of cakes.


Tortell de Reisgâteau des Rois
Christmas Trivia edited by Jennie Miller Helderman, Mary Caulkins. Gramercy, 2002. Marix-Evans, Martin. The Twelve Days of Christmas. Peter Pauper Press, 2002. Bowler, Gerry. The World Encyclopedia of Christmas. McClelland & Stewart, 2004. Collins, Ace. Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Zondervan, 2003.

Dutch letter

Marzipan, an almond paste prepared with almond meal and honey or sugar, is sometimes used as the filling. The Dutch letter has a porous or airy and flaky texture. The pastry was originally shaped "into the initial of the family's surname." Nowadays, the most common shape of the food in the United States is as the letter "S". Dutch letters are served as a treat during December, and particularly on Sinterklaasavond on December 5 in the Netherlands, and during some festivals in the United States. The pastry's name is a shortened version of the Dutch word banketletter. They may also be called banketstaven and letterbanket by Dutch people.

Almond meal

almond flouralmond powderalmond
It is used in pastry and confectionery – in the manufacture of almond macarons and macaroons and other sweet pastries, in cake and pie filling, such as Sachertorte – and is one of the two main ingredients of marzipan and almond paste. In France, almond meal is an important ingredient in frangipane, the filling of traditional galette des Rois cake. Almond meal has recently become important in baking items for those on low carbohydrate diets. It adds moistness and a rich nutty taste to baked goods. Items baked with almond meal tend to be calorie-dense. Almonds have high levels of polyunsaturated fats in them.

Hans Sloane

Sir Hans SloaneSloaneSloane of Chelsea
By the 1750s, a Soho grocer named Nicholas Sanders claimed to be selling Sloane's recipe as a medicinal elixir, perhaps making "Sir Hans Sloane's Milk Chocolate" the first brand-name milk chocolate drink. By the nineteenth century, the Cadbury Brothers sold tins of drinking chocolate whose trade cards also invoked Sloane's recipe. After studying medicine and botany in London, Paris and Montpellier, Sloane graduated from the University of Orange in 1684 as an MD and moved to London to practice; he was hired as an assistant to prominent physician Thomas Sydenham who gave the young man valuable introductions to practice.

Marzipan pig

The marzipan pig is a traditional German and Scandinavian confectionery consisting of marzipan shaped as a pig. During Jul in Norway, a tradition is to eat a rice porridge known as risgrøt; a single almond is hidden in the porridge. Whoever finds the almond receives a marzipan pig as a prize. The same tradition exists for Christmas Eve in Denmark, but with risalamande. In Germany, marzipan pigs are given at New Year's for good luck (Glücksschwein). The Marzipan Pig (1986, ISBN: 0-374-34859-6) is a children's book by Russell Hoban. The story was filmed as one of the HBO Storybook Musicals. It was also on the list of programs broadcast by ABC Television.

Cookware and bakeware

cookwaresaucepancooking pot
Casserole pots (for making casseroles) resemble roasters and Dutch ovens, and many recipes can be used interchangeably between them. Depending on their material, casseroles can be used in the oven or on the stovetop. Casseroles are often made of metal, but are popular in glazed ceramic or other vitreous material as well. Dilipots are long thin pots created to sanitize with boiling water. Dutch ovens are heavy, relatively deep pots with a heavy lid, designed to re-create oven conditions on the stovetop or campfire. They can be used for stews, braised meats, soups and a large variety of other dishes that benefit from low heat, slow cooking.