Intestinal villus

villiintestinal villivillus
Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine. Each villus is approximately 0.5–1.6 mm in length (in humans), and has many microvilli projecting from the enterocytes of its epithelium which collectively form the striated or brush border. Each of these microvilli are much smaller than a single villus. The intestinal villi are much smaller than any of the circular folds in the intestine.

Duodenal lymphocytosis

The list of possible causes is wide, including coeliac disease, environmental enteropathy (tropical sprue), autoimmune enteropathy, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, NSAID damage, Helicobacter pylori, other infections and Crohn's disease. Diagnosis is made by accurate counting of intraepithelial lymphocytes during histological examination of the duodenum. The definition of the condition includes the requirement that the duodenal histological appearances are otherwise unremarkable, specifically with normal villous architecture. In coeliac disease (also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy), duodenal lymphocytosis is found in untreated or partially treated cases.


cornTriticumdwarf wheat
Coeliac disease affects about 1% of the general population in developed countries. There is evidence that most cases remain undiagnosed and untreated. The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. While coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as a wheat allergy. Other diseases triggered by eating gluten are non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, (estimated to affect 0.5% to 13% of the general population), gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis. The following table shows the nutrient content of wheat and other major staple foods in a raw form. Raw forms of these staples, however, are not edible and cannot be digested.

Fatty liver disease

fatty liverhepatic steatosisfatty liver, alcoholic
Other: celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, HIV, hepatitis C (especially genotype 3), and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Photo at Atlas of Pathology. Healthdirect.


malting barleysix-row barleyH. vulgare
Like wheat, rye, and their hybrids and derivatives, barley contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others. Nevertheless, some wheat allergy patients can tolerate barley or rye. Barley is a key ingredient in beer and whisky production. Two-row barley is traditionally used in German and English beers. Six-row barley was traditionally used in US beers, but both varieties are in common usage now.

Proton-pump inhibitor

proton pump inhibitorproton pump inhibitorsproton-pump inhibitors
Concerns have also been raised about spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in older people taking PPIs and in people with irritable bowel syndrome taking PPIs; both types of infections arise in these populations due to underlying conditions and it is not clear if this is a class effect of PPIs. PPIs may predispose an individual to developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or fungal overgrowth. Long-term use of PPIs is associated with the development of benign polyps from fundic glands (which is distinct from fundic gland polyposis); these polyps do not cause cancer and resolve when PPIs are discontinued. There is no association between PPI use and cancer or pre-cancer.

Breakfast cereal

cerealbreakfast cerealscereals
Breakfast cereal companies make gluten-free cereals which are free of any gluten-containing grains. These cereals are targeted for consumers who suffer from gluten-related disorders, as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy, among others. Some companies that produce gluten-free cereals include Kellogg's, General Mills, Nature's Path and Arrowhead Mills. Cereal box prize. Cerealicious. List of breakfast cereal advertising characters. List of breakfast cereals. List of breakfast topics. Anderson, Heather Arndt. Breakfast: A History (2013) excerpt.

List of incurable diseases

It is genetic, and no known cure exists * Irritable bowel syndrome – a very common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, or consitpation besides others. There is no cure for IBS, but symptoms may improve with dietary measures (such as increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term low-FODMAP diet), and certain medications, such as laxatives and antidiarrhoeals. * Joint pain – Joint pain may have multiple causes, and/or be associated with multiple diseases.

List of diets

crash dietDiets (list)invalid cookery
Gluten-free diet: A diet which avoids the protein gluten, which is found in barley, rye and wheat. It is a medical treatment for gluten-related disorders, which include coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis and wheat allergy. Gluten-free, casein-free diet: A gluten-free diet which also avoids casein, a protein commonly found in milk and cheese. Healthy kidney diet: This diet is for those impacted with chronic kidney disease, those with only one kidney who have a kidney infection and those who may be suffering from some other kidney failure. This diet is not the dialysis diet, which is something completely different.


leucodermaleukodermaChemical or drug induced leukoderma
Preliminary evidence suggests a possible association with eating gluten. Variations in genes that are part of the immune system or part of melanocytes have both been associated with vitiligo. It is also thought to be caused by the immune system attacking and destroying the melanocytes of the skin. A genomewide association study found approximately 36 independent susceptibility loci for generalized vitiligo. Vitiligo is sometimes associated with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, psoriasis, Addison's disease, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus, and celiac disease.

Anti-transglutaminase antibodies

anti-tissue transglutaminaseanti-TG2antitransglutaminase antibodies
Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as anti-tTG or anti-TG2) are found in patients with several conditions, including celiac disease, juvenile diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and various forms of arthritis. In celiac disease, ATA are involved in the destruction of the villous extracellular matrix and target the destruction of intestinal villous epithelial cells by killer cells. Deposits of anti-tTG in the intestinal epithelium predict celiac disease. The endomysium is a layer of connective tissue that ensheaths a muscle fiber.

Gut flora

gut microbiotaintestinal floragut bacteria
Irritable bowel syndrome is a result of stress and chronic activation of the HPA axis; its symptoms include abdominal pain, changes in bowel movements, and an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Overall, studies have found that the luminal and mucosal microbiota are changed in irritable bowel syndrome individuals, and these changes can relate to the type of irritation such as diarrhea or constipation. Also, there is a decrease in the diversity of the microbiome with low levels of fecal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, high levels of facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, and increased ratios of Firmicutes: Bacteroidetes.

Ulcerative colitis

Colitiscolitis ulcerosainflammatory colitis
Mild abdominal pain or cramping may occur. Patients may believe they are constipated when in fact they are experiencing tenesmus, which is a constant feeling of the need to empty the bowel accompanied by involuntary straining efforts, pain, and cramping with little or no fecal output. Rectal pain is uncommon. Moderate disease correlates with more than four stools daily, but with minimal signs of toxicity. Patients may display anemia (not requiring transfusions), moderate abdominal pain, and low-grade fever, 38 to 39 C.

Khorasan wheat

kamutKhorasanoriental wheat
As kamut contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others. As Khorasan wheat is an ancient cereal species, the climatic requirements still correspond very well with its region of origin—i.e., the fertile crescent in the Middle East. A temperate continental climate with cold nights in the early spring (see vernalisation), low to moderate precipitation rates (500–1,000 mm per year), and a sunny warm summer for optimal ripening are therefore the typical preferred climatic conditions of Khorasan wheat.


These disorders include certain endocrine diseases (hypo- and hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia), metabolic disorders (diabetes), deficiency states (low levels of vitamin D, B2, B12, folic acid), gastrointestinal diseases (celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease), heart diseases, blood diseases (anemia), cerebral vascular accidents (transient ischemic attack, stroke), and brain degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, dementia, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease), among others. Several drugs can cause or worsen anxiety, whether in intoxication, withdrawal or from chronic use.

Eating disorder

eating disorderseatingalimentary disorders
It has been documented that some people with celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease who are not conscious about the importance of strictly following their diet, choose to consume their trigger foods to promote weight loss. On the other hand, individuals with good dietary management may develop anxiety, food aversion and eating disorders because of concerns around cross contamination of their foods.

Gluten challenge test

gluten challengerechallenge
There are indications that patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity show a reappearance of symptoms in far shorter time than is the case for coeliac disease: in non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, symptoms usually relapse in a few hours or days of gluten challenge. In cases of suspected coeliac disease, a gastrointernal biopsy is performed at the end of the gluten challenge. For an alternative diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, the reappearance of symptoms is assessed. However, there is no agreement so far as to how to perform a non-coeliac gluten sensitivity symptom evaluation after a gluten challenge.


Largest triticale producerquadrotriticaletriticale (× ''Triticosecale'')
Like both its hybrid parents – wheat and rye – triticale contains gluten and is therefore unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others. An episode of the popular TV series Star Trek, "The Trouble With Tribbles", revolved around the protection of a grain developed from triticale, which writer David Gerrold called "quadro-triticale" at producer Gene Coon's suggestion, and to which he ascribed four distinct lobes per kernel.

Anti-gliadin antibodies

AGAanti-gliadin IgGAntibodies to α-gliadin
It is also associated with coeliac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Anti-gliadin antibodies are frequently found with anti-transglutaminase antibodies. The IgE antibodies are more typically found in allergy-related conditions such as urticaria, asthma, and wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. The target of the most allergenic antibodies is ω-5 gliadin, which is encoded by the Gli-1B gene found on the B haplome (Aegilops speltoides derived) of wheat. What is the relationship of gluten and anti-gliadin antibodies?. In gluten-sensitive individuals AGA testing is a routinely used blood test for possible presence of coeliac disease, allergies or idiopathic phenomena.

Intestinal mucosal barrier

barrier function of the intestinal mucosaGI mucosaGut permeability
Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence that implicates increased intestinal permeability as a primary etiologic factor of inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Altered intestinal barrier function may play a role in the development of celiac disease. By allowing gliadin, the causative agent of celiac disease, to cross the intestinal barrier, inappropriate activation of the immune system can occur. Celiac disease sufferers have been shown to have elevated intestinal permeability and altered tight junctions. Moreover, these disruptions persist in patients who successfully maintain a gluten-free diet.


There is an association between celiac disease and an increased risk of all cancers. People with untreated celiac disease have a higher risk, but this risk decreases with time after diagnosis and strict treatment, probably due to the adoption of a gluten-free diet, which seems to have a protective role against development of malignancy in people with celiac disease. However, the delay in diagnosis and initiation of a gluten-free diet seems to increase the risk of malignancies. Rates of gastrointestinal cancers are increased in people with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, due to chronic inflammation.


Endoscopy may be used to investigate symptoms in the digestive system including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, difficulty swallowing, and gastrointestinal bleeding. It is also used in diagnosis, most commonly by performing a biopsy to check for conditions such as anemia, bleeding, inflammation, and cancers of the digestive system. The procedure may also be used for treatment such as cauterization of a bleeding vessel, widening a narrow esophagus, clipping off a polyp or removing a foreign object. Specialty professional organizations which specialize in digestive problems advise that many patients with Barrett's esophagus are too frequently receiving endoscopies.


corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Maize is also a major source of cooking oil (corn oil) and of maize gluten. Maize starch can be hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener; and also fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol. Grain alcohol from maize is traditionally the source of Bourbon whiskey. Maize is sometimes used as the starch source for beer. Within the United States, the usage of maize for human consumption constitutes about 1/40th of the amount grown in the country. In the United States and Canada, maize is mostly grown to feed livestock, as forage, silage (made by fermentation of chopped green cornstalks), or grain.


malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
People may become malnourished due to abnormal nutrient loss (due to diarrhea or chronic illness affecting the small bowel). This conditions may include Crohn's disease or untreated coeliac disease. Malnutrition may also occur due to increased energy expenditure (secondary malnutrition). A lack of adequate breastfeeding leads to malnutrition in infants and children, associated with the deaths of an estimated one million children annually. Illegal advertising of breast milk substitutes contributed to malnutrition and continued three decades after its 1981 prohibition under the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes.

Autoimmune hepatitis

autoimmune liver diseaseautoimmune active chronic hepatitisautoimmune chronic hepatitis
Common initial symptoms include fatigue or muscle aches or signs of acute liver inflammation including fever, jaundice, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Individuals with autoimmune hepatitis often have no initial symptoms and the disease is detected by abnormal liver function tests. Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute liver infection, causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's own liver, resulting in autoimmune hepatitis. This abnormal immune response results in inflammation of the liver, which can lead to further symptoms and complications such as fatigue and cirrhosis.