Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency

iga deficiencyselective IgA deficiencyIgA deficiencies
SigAD occurs in 1 of 39 to 57 patients with celiac disease. This is much higher than the prevalence of selective IgA deficiency in the general population. It is also significantly more common in those with type 1 diabetes. It is more common in males than in females. * B cell deficiency


plaque psoriasispsoriasis vulgarispsoriatic
There is a higher rate of celiac disease among people with psoriasis. When adopting a gluten-free diet, disease severity generally decreases in people with celiac disease and those with anti-gliadin antibodies. Most people with psoriasis experience nothing more than mild skin lesions that can be treated effectively with topical therapies. Psoriasis is known to have a negative impact on the quality of life of both the affected person and the individual's family members. Depending on the severity and location of outbreaks, individuals may experience significant physical discomfort and some disability. Itching and pain can interfere with basic functions, such as self-care and sleep.


Probiotics are under study for their potential to affect irritable bowel syndrome, although uncertainty remains around which type of probiotic works best, and around the size of possible effect. Ingestion of certain active strains may help lactose-intolerant individuals tolerate more lactose than they would otherwise have tolerated. Several clinical studies provide evidence for the potential of probiotics to lower the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality in premature infants. One meta-analysis indicated that probiotics reduce these risks by more than 50% compared with controls.


D -glucitolglucitolsorbital
People with untreated celiac disease often present sorbitol malabsorption, as a result of the small bowel damage. Sorbitol malabsorption is an important cause for persisting symptoms in patients already on a gluten-free diet. The sorbitol hydrogen breath test has been suggested as a tool to detect celiac disease because of a strict correlation between cut-off value and intestinal lesions. Nevertheless, although it may be indicated for research purposes, it is not yet recommended as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice.

Iron-deficiency anemia

iron deficiency anemiairon deficiency anaemiairon deficiency
In celiac disease, abnormal changes in the structure of the duodenum can decrease iron absorption. Abnormalities or surgical removal of the stomach can also lead to malabsorption by altering the acidic environment needed for iron to be converted into its absorbable form. If there is insufficient production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, hypochlorhydria/achlorhydria can occur (often due to chronic H. pylori infections or long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy), inhibiting the conversion of ferric iron to the absorbable ferrous iron.

Neurological disorder

neurological disordersneurological diseaseneurological
The National Institutes of Health recommend considering the evaluation of an underlying celiac disease in people with unexplained neurological symptoms, particularly peripheral neuropathy or ataxia. In a substantial minority of cases of neurological symptoms, no neural cause can be identified using current testing procedures, and such "idiopathic" conditions can invite different theories about what is occurring. Neurological disorders can be categorized according to the primary location affected, the primary type of dysfunction involved, or the primary type of cause. The broadest division is between central nervous system disorders and peripheral nervous system disorders.

Failure to thrive

growth failurepoor growthFailure to thrive (FTT)
Lactose intolerance/cow's milk protein allergy – affects 2–3% of infants during the first year of life. Coeliac disease. Short bowel syndrome – necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common cause. Cystic fibrosis. Biliary atresia. Hyperthyroidism. Chronic infections – tuberculosis, HIV. TORCH infections – toxoplasmosis, other (syphilis, varicella zoster, parvovirus B19), rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes. Inflammatory bowel disease. Diabetes mellitus. Congenital heart defects. Chronic lung disease – bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiectasis. Inborn errors of metabolism – galactosemia, glycogen storage diseases. Hospitalism. Stunted growth. Small for gestational age. Malnutrition.


bone lossosteoporoticpostmenopausal osteoporosis
Nutritional and gastrointestinal disorders that can predispose to osteoporosis include undiagnosed and untreated coeliac disease (both symptomatic and asymptomatic people), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, surgery (after gastrectomy, intestinal bypass surgery or bowel resection) and severe liver disease (especially primary biliary cirrhosis). People with lactose intolerance or milk allergy may develop osteoporosis due to restrictions of calcium-containing foods. Individuals with bulimia can also develop osteoporosis. Those with an otherwise adequate calcium intake can develop osteoporosis due to the inability to absorb calcium and/or vitamin D.

Functional gastrointestinal disorder

functional gastrointestinal disordersFunctional bowel disorderFunctional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders
Functional abdominal pain disorders. H2a. Functional dyspepsia. H2a1. Postprandial distress syndrome. H2a2. Epigastric pain syndrome. H2b. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). H2c. Abdominal migraine. H2d. Functional abdominal pain ‒ NOS. H3. Functional defecation disorders. H3a. Functional constipation. H3b. Nonretentive fecal incontinence. Allergy. Food intolerance. Histamine intolerance.


Irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia are not diagnosed with EGD, but EGD may be helpful in excluding other diseases that mimic these common disorders. The tip of the endoscope should be lubricated and checked for critical functions including: tip angulations, air and water suction, and image quality. The patient is kept NPO (Nil per os) or NBM (Nothing By Mouth) that is, told not to eat, for at least 4 hours before the procedure. Most patients tolerate the procedure with only topical anesthesia of the oropharynx using lidocaine spray. However, some patients may need sedation and the very anxious/agitated patient may even need a general anesthetic.


abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
These include stomach disease, liver disease, pancreatic disease, gallbladder and bile duct disease; intestinal diseases include enteritis, coeliac disease, diverticulitis, and IBS. Different medical procedures can be used to examine the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. These include endoscopy, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, enteroscopy, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and virtual colonoscopy. There are also a number of medical imaging techniques that can be used. Surface landmarks are important in the examination of the abdomen. In the mid-line a slight furrow extends from the xiphoid process above to the pubic symphysis below, representing the linea alba in the abdominal wall.

Lactobacillus plantarum

L. plantaruma type of lactobacilliLactobacterium plantarum
L. plantarum has significant antioxidant activities and also helps to maintain the intestinal permeability. It is able to suppress the growth of gas producing bacterium in the intestines and may have benefit in some patients who suffer from IBS. It helps to create microbe balance and stabilize the digestive enzyme patterns. Lactobacillus plantarum has been found in experiments to increase hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor which means L. plantarum may have a beneficial role in the treatment of depression. The ability of L. plantarum to survive in the human gastro-intestinal tract makes it a possible in vivo delivery vehicle for therapeutic compounds or proteins.

Triticeae glutens

Triticeae'' glutensglutenglutens
This renders gluten soluble enough without alcohol to mix with other products like milk. Individuals who suffer from gluten-sensitive enteropathy/coeliac disease have an adverse reaction to the gluten in cultivars of Triticeae when eaten. In addition to bread wheat, rye and barley (which have similar glutens) are known to cause symptoms in coeliacs. Between 2 and 10% of gluten sensitive individuals are also sensitive to oats, but it is not clear how much of this is due to contamination of triticeae seeds in oats or allergic responses (versus intolerance).

Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or D S ) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (410 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas.

Liver function tests

liver enzymeliver enzymesliver function test
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), also referred to as a hepatic panel, are groups of blood tests that provide information about the state of a patient's liver. These tests include prothrombin time (PT/INR), aPTT, albumin, bilirubin (direct and indirect), and others. The liver transaminases aspartate transaminase (AST or SGOT) and alanine transaminase (ALT or SGPT) are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but these diseases must be detected early. Hepatic (liver) involvement in some diseases can be of crucial importance. This testing is performed on a patient's blood sample.


HH 2 hydrogen gas
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1 H), has one proton and no neutrons.


dyspepsiafunctional dyspepsiadyspeptic
Less common causes include peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, coeliac disease, food allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic intestinal ischemia and gastroparesis. These include cholelithiasis, chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Acute, self-limited dyspepsia may be caused by overeating, eating too quickly, eating high-fat foods, eating during stressful situations, or drinking too much alcohol or coffee.


methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
Methane ( or ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane, and is the main constituent of natural gas. The relative abundance of methane on Earth makes it an attractive fuel, though capturing and storing it poses challenges due to its gaseous state under normal conditions for temperature and pressure.

Complete blood count

full blood countCBCwhite blood cell count
A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each blood cell type and the concentrations of hemoglobin. A scientist or lab technician performs the requested testing and provides the requesting medical professional with the results of the CBC.


resolving thyroiditisthyroiditis, suppurativeinflammation of the thyroid
Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located on the front of the neck below the laryngeal prominence, and makes hormones that control metabolism.


farinaceouswhite flourmeal
When gluten-free flours are free from contamination with gluten, they are suitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or wheat allergy sufferers, among others. Contamination with gluten-containing cereals can occur during grain harvesting, transporting, milling, storing, processing, handling and/or cooking. Flour also can be made from soybeans, arrowroot, taro, cattails, acorns, manioc, quinoa, and other non-cereal foodstuffs.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

sclerosing cholangitischolangitis, sclerosingprimary sclerosis cholangitis
Liver enlargement is seen due to portal hypertension caused by compression of portal veins by the proximate sclerosed intrahepatic bile ducts, and leads to right upper quadrant abdominal pain. PSC is generally diagnosed on the basis of having at least two of three clinical criteria after secondary causes of sclerosing cholangitis have been ruled out: Historically, a cholangiogram would be obtained via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which typically reveals "beading" (alternating strictures and dilation) of the bile ducts inside and/or outside the liver.


buckwheat flourLargest buckwheat producerbuck wheat
As buckwheat contains no gluten, it may be eaten by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or dermatitis herpetiformis. Nevertheless, buckwheat may have gluten contamination. Cases of severe allergic reactions to buckwheat and buckwheat-containing products have been reported. Buckwheat contains fluorescent phototoxic fagopyrins. Seeds, flour, and teas are generally safe when consumed in normal amounts, but fagopyrism can appear in people with diets based on high consumption of buckwheat sprouts, and particularly flowers or fagopyrin-rich buckwheat extracts.