Breakfast cereal

cerealbreakfast cerealscereals
Breakfast cereal companies make gluten-free cereals which are free of any gluten-containing grains. These cereals are targeted for consumers who suffer from gluten-related disorders, as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy, among others. Some companies that produce gluten-free cereals include Kellogg's, General Mills, Nature's Path and Arrowhead Mills. Cereal box prize. Cerealicious. List of breakfast cereal advertising characters. List of breakfast cereals. List of breakfast topics. Anderson, Heather Arndt. Breakfast: A History (2013) excerpt.

Eucharist

communionLord's SupperHoly Communion
The gluten in wheat bread is dangerous to people with celiac disease and other gluten-related disorders, such as non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. For the Catholic Church, this issue was addressed in the 24 July 2003 letter of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which summarized and clarified earlier declarations. The Catholic Church believes that the matter for the Eucharist must be wheaten bread and fermented wine from grapes: it holds that, if the gluten has been entirely removed, the result is not true wheaten bread. For celiacs, but not generally, it allows low-gluten bread.

SeHCAT

tauroselcholic acid
Bile acid malabsorption can also be secondary to cholecystectomy, vagotomy and other disorders affecting intestinal motility or digestion such as radiation enteritis, celiac disease, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A similar picture of chronic diarrhea, an abnormal SeHCAT retention and a response to bile acid sequestrants, in the absence of other disorders of the intestine, is characteristic of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption – also called primary bile acid diarrhea. These patients are frequently misdiagnosed as having the irritable bowel syndrome, as clinicians fail to recognize the condition, do not think of performing a SeHCAT test, or do not have it available.

Oat

oatsAvena sativaoat fiber
Globulins are characterised by solubility in dilute saline as opposed to the more typical cereal proteins, such as gluten and zein, the prolamines (prolamins). The minor protein of oat is a prolamine, avenin. Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which World Health Organization research has shown to be equal to meat, milk and egg protein. The protein content of the hull-less oat kernel (groat) ranges from 12 to 24%, the highest among cereals. Celiac disease (coeliac disease) is a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins in genetically predisposed people, having a prevalence of about 1% in the developed world.

Miscarriage

miscarriedspontaneous abortionmiscarriages
Signs of a miscarriage include vaginal spotting, abdominal pain, cramping, and fluid, blood clots, and tissue passing from the vagina. Bleeding can be a symptom of miscarriage, but many women also have bleeding in early pregnancy and don't miscarry. Bleeding during pregnancy may be referred to as a threatened miscarriage. Of those who seek clinical treatment for bleeding during pregnancy, about half will miscarry. Miscarriage may be detected during an ultrasound exam, or through serial human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) testing. Miscarriage may occur for many reasons, not all of which can be identified.

Failure to thrive

growth failurepoor growthpoor weight gain
Lactose intolerance/cow's milk protein allergy – affects 2–3% of infants during the first year of life. Coeliac disease. Short bowel syndrome – necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common cause. Cystic fibrosis. Biliary atresia. Hyperthyroidism. Chronic infections – tuberculosis, HIV. TORCH infections. Inflammatory bowel disease. Diabetes mellitus. Congenital heart defects. Chronic lung disease – bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiectasis. Inborn errors of metabolism – galactosemia, glycogen storage diseases. Hospitalism. Stunted growth.

Steatorrhea

steatorrhoeafatty stoolfatty feces
These include celiac disease, bacterial overgrowth, tropical sprue, Giardiasis (a protozoan parasite infection), Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, short bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and abetalipoproteinemia. Other causes. Drugs that can produce steatorrhea include orlistat, a slimming pill, or as adverse effect of octreotide or lanreotide, used to treat acromegaly or other neuroendocrine tumors. It can be found in Graves' disease / hyperthyroidism. Rectal discharge. Keriorrhea. Fecal leakage.

Rifaximin

These properties make it efficacious in relieving chronic functional symptoms of non-constipation type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It appears to retain its therapeutic properties for this indication, even after repeated courses. Rifaximin is particularly indicated where small intestine bacterial overgrowth is suspected of involvement in a person's IBS. Symptom relief or improvement can be obtained for global IBS symptoms including: abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating, and stool consistency. A drawback is that repeated courses may be necessary for relapse of symptoms. There is evidence that rifaximin can be curative in some people with IBS.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

myalgic encephalomyelitisMEchronic fatigue
Irritable bowel syndrome. Night sweats. Sensitivities to foods, odors, chemicals, or noise. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition (1994), the most widely used clinical and research description of CFS, is also called the Fukuda definition and is a revision of the Holmes or CDC 1988 scoring system. The 1994 criteria require the presence of four or more symptoms beyond fatigue, while the 1988 criteria require six to eight.

Secalin

Secalin is one of the forms of gluten proteins that people with coeliac disease cannot tolerate, and thus rye should be avoided by people with this disease. It is generally recommended that such people follow a gluten free diet. In bread making with rye flour, this protein requires exposure to an acid such as lactic acid to make the bread rise. This is usually achieved with a sourdough ferment.

Osteoporosis

bone lossosteoporoticpostmenopausal osteoporosis
Nutritional and gastrointestinal disorders that can predispose to osteoporosis include undiagnosed and untreated coeliac disease (both symptomatic and asymptomatic people), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, surgery (after gastrectomy, intestinal bypass surgery or bowel resection) and severe liver disease (especially primary biliary cirrhosis). People with lactose intolerance or milk allergy may develop osteoporosis due to restrictions of calcium-containing foods. Individuals with bulimia can also develop osteoporosis. Those with an otherwise adequate calcium intake can develop osteoporosis due to the inability to absorb calcium and/or vitamin D.

Fatty liver disease

fatty liverhepatic steatosissteatosis
Other: celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, HIV, hepatitis C (especially genotype 3), and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Photo at Atlas of Pathology. Healthdirect.

Functional gastrointestinal disorder

functional gastrointestinal disordersFunctional bowel disordergastrointestinal discomfort
Functional abdominal pain disorders. H2a. Functional dyspepsia. H2a1. Postprandial distress syndrome. H2a2. Epigastric pain syndrome. H2b. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). H2c. Abdominal migraine. H2d. Functional abdominal pain ‒ NOS. H3. Functional defecation disorders. H3a. Functional constipation. H3b. Nonretentive fecal incontinence. Allergy. Food intolerance. Histamine intolerance.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy

gastroscopygastroscopeupper endoscopy
Irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia are not diagnosed with EGD, but EGD may be helpful in excluding other diseases that mimic these common disorders. The tip of the endoscope should be lubricated and checked for critical functions including: tip angulations, air and water suction, and image quality. The patient is kept NPO (Nil per os) or NBM (Nothing By Mouth) that is, told not to eat, for at least 4 hours before the procedure. Most patients tolerate the procedure with only topical anesthesia of the oropharynx using lidocaine spray. However, some patients may need sedation and the very anxious/agitated patient may even need a general anesthetic.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
These include stomach disease, liver disease, pancreatic disease, gallbladder and bile duct disease; intestinal diseases include enteritis, coeliac disease, diverticulitis, and IBS. Different medical procedures can be used to examine the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. These include endoscopy, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, enteroscopy, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and virtual colonoscopy. There are also a number of medical imaging techniques that can be used. Surface landmarks are important in the examination of the abdomen. In the mid-line a slight furrow extends from the xiphoid process above to the pubic symphysis below, representing the linea alba in the abdominal wall.

Hordein

Hordein is a prolamin glycoprotein, present in barley and some other cereals, together with gliadin and other glycoproteins (such as glutelins) coming under the general name of gluten. Some people are sensitive to hordein due to disorders such as celiac disease or gluten intolerance. Along with gliadin (the prolamin gluten found in wheat), hordein is present in many foods and also may be found in beer. Hordein is usually the main problem for coeliacs wishing to drink beer.

Zonulin

As the mammalian analogue of zonula occludens toxin, secreted by cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae, zonulin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. Gliadin (glycoprotein present in wheat) activates zonulin signaling irrespective of the genetic expression of autoimmunity, leading to increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Zonula occludens toxin is being studied as an adjuvant to improve absorption of drugs and vaccines. In 2014 a zonulin receptor antagonist, larazotide acetate (formerly known as AT-1001), completed a phase 2b clinical trial.

Larazotide

larazotide acetate
This complex then initiates a signalling pathway that eventually results in tight junction disassembly and increased intestinal permeability. Larazotide acetate intervenes in the middle of this pathway by blocking zonulin receptors, thereby preventing tight junction disassembly and associated increase in intestinal permeability. Larazotide acetate is a synthetic peptide based on a Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin called zonula occludens toxin that increases intestinal permeability. An investigation was carried out to discover which specific part of this toxin was responsible for this activity.

Lactobacillus plantarum

L. plantarumLb. plantarumLactobacterium plantarum
L. plantarum has significant antioxidant activities and also helps to maintain the intestinal permeability. It is able to suppress the growth of gas producing bacterium in the intestines and may have benefit in some patients who suffer from IBS. It helps to create microbe balance and stabilize the digestive enzyme patterns. Lactobacillus plantarum has been found in experiments to increase hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor which means L. plantarum may have a beneficial role in the treatment of depression. The ability of L. plantarum to survive in the human gastro-intestinal tract makes it a possible in vivo delivery vehicle for therapeutic compounds or proteins.

Whole grain

whole wheatwhole-grainwhole grains
In genetically susceptible people, gluten (proteins found in wheat, barley, rye, oat, and related species and hybrids) can trigger coeliac disease. Coeliac disease affects about 1% of the general population in developed countries. There is evidence that most cases remain undiagnosed and untreated. The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. While coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as a wheat allergy. Other diseases triggered by eating gluten are non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, (estimated to affect 0.5% to 13% of the general population), gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Chronic diarrhea of infancy

toddler's diarrhea
The condition may be related to irritable bowel syndrome. Before a diagnosis of toddler's diarrhea is made, the following conditions should be ruled out: Treatment is primarily through diet. Dietary fiber and fat can be increased and fluid intake, especially fruit juice intake, decreased. With these considerations, the patient should consume a normal balanced diet to avoid malnutrition or growth restriction. Medications such as loperamide should not be used. Studies have shown that certain probiotic preparations such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus (a bacterium) and Saccharomyces boulardii (a yeast) may be effective at reducing symptoms. Celiac sprue (wheat gluten intolerance). Cystic fibrosis.

Intolerance

intolerant
Fructose malabsorption. Gluten sensitivity. Heat intolerance. Hereditary fructose intolerance. Lactose intolerance. Lysinuric protein intolerance. Multiple chemical sensitivity. Orthostatic intolerance. Perfume intolerance. Salicylate intolerance, also known as aspirin intolerance. Sucrose intolerance. Lack of social tolerance. Bigotry. Religious intolerance. Ethnic intolerance (disambiguation). Ambiguity intolerance, a tendency to perceive ambiguity as a psychological discomfort. Intolerance (film), a 1916 film by D. W. Griffith. Intolerance, a 1984 album by Tik & Tok. "Intolerance", a song by the band Tool from Undertow (Tool album).

Pasta

pasta saucepastaspasta maker
To address needs of people affected by gluten-related disorders (such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers), some recipes use rice or maize for making pasta. Grain flours may also be supplemented with cooked potatoes. Other additions to the basic flour-liquid mixture may include vegetable purees such as spinach or tomato, mushrooms, cheeses, herbs, spices and other seasonings. While pastas are, most typically, made from unleavened doughs, the use of yeast-raised doughs are also known for at least nine different pasta forms.

Endoscopy

endoscopicendoscopeendoscopes
. * investigation of symptoms, such as symptoms in the digestive system including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, difficulty swallowing, and gastrointestinal bleeding. confirmation of a diagnosis, most commonly by performing a biopsy to check for conditions such as anemia, bleeding, inflammation, and cancers of the digestive system. giving treatment, such as cauterization of a bleeding vessel, widening a narrow esophagus, clipping off a polyp or removing a foreign object. The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract):. hagus, stomach and duodenum (esophagogastroduodenoscopy). small intestine (enteroscopy). large intestine/colon (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy).

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
There is an association between celiac disease and an increased risk of all cancers. People with untreated celiac disease have a higher risk, but this risk decreases with time after diagnosis and strict treatment, probably due to the adoption of a gluten-free diet, which seems to have a protective role against development of malignancy in people with celiac disease. However, the delay in diagnosis and initiation of a gluten-free diet seems to increase the risk of malignancies. Rates of gastrointestinal cancers are increased in people with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, due to chronic inflammation.