carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
A 2 ATP investment is required in the early steps of glycolysis to phosphorylate Glucose to Glucose 6-Phosphate (G6P) and Fructose 6-Phosphate (F6P) to Fructose 1,6-biphosphate (FBP), thereby pushing the reaction forward irreversibly. In some cases, as with humans, not all carbohydrate types are usable as the digestive and metabolic enzymes necessary are not present. Carbohydrate chemistry is a large and economically important branch of organic chemistry. Some of the main organic reactions that involve carbohydrates are: Its monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Their ring types: glucose is a pyranose and fructose is a furanose.

Bile acid malabsorption

bile acid diarrheaprimary bile acid diarrheabile salt malabsorption
Type 3: Secondary to various gastrointestinal diseases including cholecystectomy, vagotomy, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, radiation enteropathy, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, etc.

Milk allergy

milk allergiesmilkallergic
These gases are the cause of abdominal pain and other symptoms. Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract. There are four types: primary, secondary, developmental, and congenital. Primary lactose intolerance is when the amount of lactase declines as people age. Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine, such as from infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases. Developmental lactose intolerance may occur in premature babies and usually improves over a short period of time. Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth.

Gluten immunochemistry

Immunochemistry of gluteninnate response to gliadinthis page
In these two ways the innate peptide activation of T-cells in celiac disease is strange. IL-15 appears to induce increases in MICA and NKG2D that may increase brush-border cell killing. In addition, innate immunity to IRP peptide is involved in coeliac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and possibly juvenile diabetes. IRP targets monocytes and increases the production of IL-15 by an HLA-DQ independent pathway, a subsequent study showed that both this region and the "33mer" could create the same response, in cells from both treated coeliacs and non-coeliacs. However, unlike the non-coeliacs, the treated coeliac cells produce the disease marker nitrite.

Tissue transglutaminase

transglutaminase 2
This latter activity is important in the deamidation of gliadin peptides, thus playing important role in the pathology of coeliac disease. tTG is best known for its link with celiac disease. Anti-transglutaminase antibodies result in a form of gluten sensitivity in which a cellular response to Triticeae glutens that are crosslinked to tTG are able to stimulate transglutaminase specific B-cell responses that eventually result in the production of anti-transglutaminase antibodies IgA and IgG. tTG is believed to be involved in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington diseases.


durum wheathard wheatT. durum
The quality of the bread produced depends on the viscoelastic properties of gluten, the protein content and protein composition. Containing about 12% total protein in defatted flour compared to 11% in common wheat, durum wheat yields 27% extractable, wet gluten compared to 24% in common wheat. Because durum wheat contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. * Durum Wheat Research, Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian Grain Commission

Alternative medicine

holistic healthcomplementary and alternative medicineintegrative medicine
Many medications may cause minor but bothersome symptoms such as cough or upset stomach. In all of these cases, patients may be seeking out alternative treatments to avoid the adverse effects of conventional treatments. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been described as a broad domain of healing resources that encompasses all health systems, modalities, and practices and their accompanying theories and beliefs, other than those intrinsic to the politically dominant health system of a particular society or culture in a given historical period.


milletsglutinous milletKodo
People affected by gluten-related disorders, such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, who need a gluten-free diet, can replace gluten-containing cereals in their diets with millet. Nevertheless, while millet does not contain gluten, its grains and flour may be contaminated with gluten-containing cereals. It is a common ingredient in seeded bread. Millets are also used as bird and animal feed. In addition to being used for seed, millet is also used as a grazing forage crop. Instead of letting the plant reach maturity, it can be grazed by stock and is commonly used for sheep and cattle.

Alessio Fasano

Alessio Fasano: Make Gluten-Free Food Safe for Patients and Consumers. Interviews:. Interview by Elaine Wattson: The lowdown on celiac disease, gluten sensitivity and celebrity wheat-bashing: In conversation with Dr Alessio Fasano, 29 January 2014 / 27 February 2014,

Oat milk

Oat milk is highly applicable for diets of individuals who suffer from lactose intolerance (LI), cow's milk allergy (CMA), celiac disease (CD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), radioiodine cancer treatment, eczema, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and possibly other conditions which cause poor reactions to dairy. The worldwide prevalence of lactose intolerance is 75%, and while not all individuals affected by LI may be potential customers for oat milk, the pervasiveness of LI provides a strong future outlook.

Prokinetic agent

prokineticgastroprokinetic agentprokinetics
Animal research has found that supplementation with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis enhances the speed and strength of phase III of the migrating motor complex in the small intestine resulting in reduced small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and bacterial translocation. Research in rats has found that supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum increases small intestinal motility with a measurable decrease in the duration of migrating motor complex cycles.


tauroselcholic acid
Bile acid malabsorption can also be secondary to cholecystectomy, vagotomy and other disorders affecting intestinal motility or digestion such as radiation enteritis, celiac disease, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A similar picture of chronic diarrhea, an abnormal SeHCAT retention and a response to bile acid sequestrants, in the absence of other disorders of the intestine, is characteristic of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption – also called primary bile acid diarrhea. These patients are frequently misdiagnosed as having the irritable bowel syndrome, as clinicians fail to recognize the condition, do not think of performing a SeHCAT test, or do not have it available.


communionLord's SupperHoly Communion
The gluten in wheat bread is dangerous to people with celiac disease and other gluten-related disorders, such as non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. For the Catholic Church, this issue was addressed in the 24 July 2003 letter of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which summarized and clarified earlier declarations. The Catholic Church believes that the matter for the Eucharist must be wheaten bread and fermented wine from grapes: it holds that, if the gluten has been entirely removed, the result is not true wheaten bread. For celiacs, but not generally, it allows low-gluten bread.


eczemaallergic dermatitischronic eczema
Eczema occurs about three times more frequently in individuals with celiac disease and about two times more frequently in relatives of those with celiac disease, potentially indicating a genetic link between the conditions. All eczemas are characterized by spongiosis which allows inflammatory mediators to accumulate. Different dendritic cells subtypes, such as Langerhans cells, inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells have a role to play. Diagnosis of eczema is based mostly on the history and physical examination. In uncertain cases, skin biopsy may be useful. Those with eczema may be especially prone to misdiagnosis of food allergies.


paraesthesiatinglingpins and needles
The word paresthesia (British English paraesthesia; plural paraesthesiae or paraesthesias), comes from the Greek para ("beside", i.e., abnormal) and aisthesia ("sensation"). * Clinical and neurological abnormalities in adult celiac disease, G. Cicarelli • G. Della Rocca • M. Amboni • C. Ciacci • G. Mazzacca • A. Filla • P. Barone, Neurol Sci (2003) 24:311–317 DOI 10.1007/s10072-003-0181-4 Anticonvulsant pharmaceutical drugs, such as topiramate, sultiame, and acetazolamide. Anxiety or panic disorder. Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Beta alanine. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Chiari malformation. Coeliac disease (celiac disease). Complex regional pain syndrome.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
A 2016 systematic review found a well established association between ADHD and obesity, asthma and sleep disorders, and tentative evidence for association with celiac disease and migraine, while another 2016 systematic review did not support a clear link between celiac disease and ADHD, and stated that routine screening for celiac disease in people with ADHD is discouraged. 1) ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI) presents with symptoms including being easily distracted, forgetful, daydreaming, disorganization, poor concentration, and difficulty completing tasks. 2) ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type presents with excessive fidgetiness and restlessness, hyperactivity, difficulty


anaphylactic shockanaphylacticanaphylactic reaction
Gastrointestinal symptoms may include crampy abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. There may be confusion, a loss of bladder control or pelvic pain similar to that of uterine cramps. Dilation of blood vessels around the brain may cause headaches. A feeling of anxiety or of "impending doom" has also been described. Anaphylaxis can occur in response to almost any foreign substance. Common triggers include venom from insect bites or stings, foods, and medication. Foods are the most common trigger in children and young adults while medications and insect bites and stings are more common in older adults.


gallstonescholelithiasisgall stones
Cholecystokinin deficiency caused by celiac disease increases risk of gallstone formation, especially when diagnosis of celiac disease is delayed. Pigment gallstones are most commonly seen in the developing world. Risk factors for pigment stones include hemolytic anemias (such as from sickle-cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis), cirrhosis, and biliary tract infections. People with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) are at increased risk to develop gallstones. Additionally, prolonged use of proton pump inhibitors has been shown to decrease gallbladder function, potentially leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol modifying medications can affect gallstone formation.

Glutamic acid

glutamateGluglutamate metabolism
The substance was discovered and identified in the year 1866, by the German chemist Karl Heinrich Ritthausen who treated wheat gluten (for which it was named) with sulfuric acid. In 1908 Japanese researcher Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University identified brown crystals left behind after the evaporation of a large amount of kombu broth as glutamic acid. These crystals, when tasted, reproduced the ineffable but undeniable flavor he detected in many foods, most especially in seaweed. Professor Ikeda termed this flavor umami. He then patented a method of mass-producing a crystalline salt of glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate.


yeastsbrewer's yeastbudding yeast
S. boulardii has been shown to reduce the symptoms of acute diarrhea, reduce the chance of infection by Clostridium difficile (often identified simply as C. difficile or C. diff), reduce bowel movements in diarrhea-predominant IBS patients, and reduce the incidence of antibiotic-, traveler's-, and HIV/AIDS-associated diarrheas. Yeast is often used by aquarium hobbyists to generate carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to nourish plants in planted aquaria. CO 2 levels from yeast are more difficult to regulate than those from pressurized CO 2 systems. However, the low cost of yeast makes it a widely used alternative.

Aphthous stomatitis

aphthous ulceraphthous ulcerscanker sores
Gastrointestinal disorders are sometimes associated with aphthous-like stomatitis, e.g. most commonly Celiac disease, but also inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The link between gastrointestinal disorders and aphthous stomatitis is probably related to nutritional deficiencies caused by malabsorption. Less than 5% of people with RAS have Celiac disease, which usually presents with severe malnutrition, anemia, abdominal pain, diarrhea and glossitis (inflammation of the tongue). Sometimes aphthous-like ulcerations can be the only sign of celiac disease. Despite this association, a gluten-free diet does not usually improve the oral ulceration.

Radiation enteropathy

radiation enteritispelvic radiation disease
It has been estimated there are 1.6 million people in the US with post-radiation intestinal dysfunction, a greater number than those with inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. New agents have been identified in animal studies that may have effects on intestinal radiation injury. The research approach in humans has been reviewed. rectal bleeding. diarrhea and steatorrhea. other defecation disorders including fecal urgency and incontinence. nutritional deficiencies and weight loss. abdominal pain and bloating. nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Bile acid diarrhea. Urinary urgency.

Anxiety disorder

anxiety disordersanxietynervous disorder
Diseases that may present similar to an anxiety disorder, including certain endocrine diseases (hypo- and hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia), metabolic disorders (diabetes), deficiency states (low levels of vitamin D, B2, B12, folic acid), gastrointestinal diseases (celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease), heart diseases, blood diseases (anemia), and brain degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, dementia, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease). Also, several drugs can cause or worsen anxiety, whether in intoxication, withdrawal, or from chronic use.

Stomach rumble

borborygmiborborygmusbowel sounds
In humans, this can be due to incomplete digestion of carbohydrate-containing foods, including milk and other dairy products (lactose intolerance or the use of α-glucosidase inhibitors by diabetics), gluten (protein in wheat, barley, and rye) (coeliac disease), fruit, vegetables, beans, legumes, and high-fiber whole grains. In rare instances, excessive abdominal noise may be a sign of digestive disease, especially when accompanied by abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation. Some examples of diseases that may be associated with this symptom include carcinoid neoplasm and coeliac sprue. Louder rumbles may occur when one is hungry.

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

eosinophilic enteritis
Coeliac disease. Protein losing enteropathy from intolerance to cow's milk protein. Infantile formula protein intolerance. Aeroallergen. Allergy. Gastroenteritis. Malabsorption.