Fecal impaction

faecal impactionimpactionfecal loading
Specific diseases or conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome, neurological disorders, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases such as amyloidosis, celiac disease, lupus, and scleroderma can cause constipation. Hypothyroidism can cause chronic constipation because of sluggish, slower, or weaker colon contractions. Iron supplements or increased blood calcium levels are also potential causes. Spinal cord injury is a common cause. Manual removal of a fecal impaction is often required with obese patients in traction, after a barium enema, and in poorly hydrated older adults.

Enteropathy

enteropathiesE''nteropathy
Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (which can progress to coeliac disease). Coeliac disease. A malabsorption syndrome precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing gluten in a predisposed individual. It is characterized by inflammation of the small intestine, loss of microvilli structure, deficient nutrient absorption, and malnutrition. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) HIV Enteropathy. Characterized by chronic diarrhea more than one month in duration with no obvious infectious cause in an HIV-positive individual. Thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked (see FOXP3).

Einkorn wheat

einkornT. monococcumprimitive wheat species
None of the species and hybrids of wheat are suitable for people with gluten-related disorders, as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Australian scientists have succeeded in breeding the salt-tolerance feature of T. monococcum into durum wheat. Ancient Grain Varieties in Archaeology. Wheat evolution: integrating archaeological and biological evidence.

Emmer

emmer wheatdicoccumemmer grain
As with all varieties and hybrids of wheat, emmer is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others. * Oldest domesticated wheat found at Abu Hureyra. Hulled Wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 4. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats 21-22 July 1995, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy[invalid link]. Up-to-date reference to cereals in the Biblical world. Wheat evolution: integrating archaeological and biological evidence. Alternative Wheat Cereals as Food Grains: Einkorn, Emmer, Spelt, Kamut, and Triticale.

Pregnancy

pregnantfirst trimesterpregnant women
Untreated celiac disease can cause spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low birthweight and preterm birth. Often reproductive disorders are the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease and most cases are not recognized. Complications or failures of pregnancy cannot be explained simply by malabsorption, but by the autoimmune response elicited by the exposure to gluten, which causes damage to the placenta. The gluten-free diet avoids or reduces the risk of developing reproductive disorders in pregnant women with celiac disease.

Whole grain

whole wheatwhole-grainwhole grains
In genetically susceptible people, gluten (proteins found in wheat, barley, rye, oat, and related species and hybrids) can trigger coeliac disease. Coeliac disease affects about 1% of the general population in developed countries. There is evidence that most cases remain undiagnosed and untreated. The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. While coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as a wheat allergy. Other diseases triggered by eating gluten are non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, (estimated to affect 0.5% to 13% of the general population), gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Chronic diarrhea of infancy

toddler's diarrhea
Celiac sprue (wheat gluten intolerance). Cystic fibrosis. Sugar malabsorption. Food allergy.

Intolerance

intolerant
Fructose malabsorption. Gluten sensitivity. Heat intolerance. Hereditary fructose intolerance. Lactose intolerance. Lysinuric protein intolerance. Multiple chemical sensitivity. Orthostatic intolerance. Perfume intolerance. Salicylate intolerance, also known as aspirin intolerance. Sucrose intolerance. Lack of social tolerance. Bigotry. Religious intolerance. Ethnic intolerance (disambiguation). Ambiguity intolerance, a tendency to perceive ambiguity as a psychological discomfort. Intolerance (film), a 1916 film by D. W. Griffith. Intolerance, a 1984 album by Tik & Tok. "Intolerance", a song by the band Tool from Undertow (Tool album).

Pasta

pasta saucepastasDry Pasta
To address needs of people affected by gluten-related disorders (such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers), some recipes use rice or maize for making pasta. Grain flours may also be supplemented with cooked potatoes. Other additions to the basic flour-liquid mixture may include vegetable purees such as spinach or tomato, mushrooms, cheeses, herbs, spices and other seasonings. While pastas are, most typically, made from unleavened doughs, the use of yeast-raised doughs are also known for at least nine different pasta forms.

Lymphocytic esophagitis

These conditions include other esophageal conditions including gastroesophageal reflux disease and achalasia, as well as other inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease, coeliac disease, and allergic conditions such as eczema and eosinophilic esophagitis. Additionally use of tobacco may associate with lymphocytic esophagitis. Lymphocytic esophagitis does not occur with high frequency in other gastrointestinal conditions where lymphocytosis is found in the mucosa, including lymphocytic colitis and lymphocytic gastritis; however, there is a disease association with coeliac disease wherein lymphocytic inflammation occurs in the small bowel after exposure to gluten.

Atopic dermatitis

atopic eczemaatopiceczema
Atopic dermatitis sometimes appears associated with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and the improvement with a gluten-free diet indicates that gluten is a causative agent in these cases. Colonization of the skin by the bacterium S. aureus is extremely prevalent in those with atopic dermatitis. Studies have found that abnormalities in the skin barrier of persons with AD are exploited by S. aureus to trigger cytokine expression, thus aggravating the condition. Atopic dermatitis in children may be linked to the level of calcium carbonate or "hardness" of household water, when used to drink.

Sjögren syndrome

sjogren's syndromeanti-La antibodiesSjögren's syndrome
However, these prescribed drugs have a range of side effects such as nausea, loss of appetite, dizziness, hair loss, stomach aches/cramps, headache, liver toxicity, and increased risk of infections. Also, people who take drugs to suppress the immune system are more likely to develop cancer later. For systemic symptoms, including fatigue, joint pain, myositis and neuropathy, biologic immunosuppressant drugs such as rituximab and belimumab that work via B-cell pathology are often used and have less toxic profiles than traditional immunosuppressive regimens.

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

spontaneously infected
Although fungi are much larger than bacteria, the increased intestinal permeability resulting from advanced cirrhosis makes their translocation easier. SFP is mostly caused by species of Candida and most commonly by Candida albicans. H2 antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors are medications that decrease or suppress the secretion of acid by the stomach. Their use in treating cirrhosis is associated with the development of SBP. Bacterial translocation is thought to be the key mechanism for the development of SBP. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth which may be implicated in this translocation, is found in a large percentage of those with cirrhosis.

Gastrointestinal disease

gastrointestinal disordersgastrointestinal disordergastrointestinal symptom
Diverticulitis is a common cause of abdominal pain resulting from outpouchings that particularly affects the colon. Functional colonic diseases refer to disorders without a known cause, and include irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal pseudoobstruction. Constipation may result from lifestyle factors, impaction of a rigid stool in the rectum, or in neonates, Hirschprung's disease. Diseases affecting the large intestine may cause blood to be passed with stool, may cause constipation, or may result in abdominal pain or a fever. Tests that specifically examine the function of the large intestine include barium swallows, abdominal x-rays, and colonoscopy.

List of MeSH codes (C06)

C06
disease. --- lactose intolerance. --- short bowel syndrome. --- sprue, tropical. --- steatorrhea. --- whipple disease. --- mesenteric vascular occlusion. --- pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. --- protein-losing enteropathies. --- rectal diseases. --- anus diseases. --- anus neoplasms. --- anal gland neoplasms. --- fissure in ano. --- pruritus ani. --- colorectal neoplasms. --- rectal neoplasms. --- anus neoplasms. --- anal gland neoplasms. --- fecal incontinence. --- hemorrhoids. --- proctitis. --- proctocolitis. --- rectal fistula. --- rectovaginal fistula. --- rectal prolapse. --- rectocele. --- zollinger-ellison syndrome. --- duodenal ulcer. --- esophagitis, peptic. --- peptic ulcer perforation

Fortisip

It does not contain gluten or lactose, making it suitable for people with coeliac disease or lactose intolerance. It is not suitable for people with galactosemia, or as a partial source of nutrition for children under the age of 3. Fortisip is available in neutral, vanilla, strawberry, orange, banana, tropical fruits, chocolate and caramel flavours. It is also offered in a 'Compact Fibre' Version to offer a greater fibre intake across a person's diet. Expanding its range, Nutricia now offer fortisip in pudding formulations (forticreme), Fortisip Yogurt Style & Fortijuice; with some differences to vitamins and fats contained in the different styles.

Bacteriotherapy

Minor side effects have been reported as mild diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain, changes in bowel movements, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, IBS symptoms (infectious or not), constipation, and irritable colon. There is little known about the possible long-term risk of transmitting an autoimmune disease. Protocols vary with regard to quantity of stool being transplanted and method of infusion. Fresh unfrozen stool samples are more commonly used than frozen samples. The transplant of unfrozen sample is preferably completed within 6 hours. Resolution and relapse rates also differ based on the diluents used to make FMT solutions (water, saline, yogurt, milk or saline with psyllium).

Commercial sorghum

sorghummilokaoliang
Sorghum is used in the same way as barley to produce a "malt" that can form the basis of a mash that will brew a beer without gliadin or hordein (together "gluten") and therefore can be suitable for coeliacs or others sensitive to certain glycoproteins. In November 2006, Lakefront Brewery of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, launched its "New Grist" gluten-free beer, brewed with sorghum and rice. It is one of its most successful lines. It is aimed at those with coeliac disease, although its low-carb content also makes it popular with health-minded drinkers. In December 2006, Anheuser-Busch of St. Louis, Missouri, introduced their new "Redbridge" beer.

Sucrose intolerance

Fructose malabsorption. Gastroenterology. Lactose intolerance.

Fish protein powder

Individuals who have lactose intolerance, milk allergy, gluten intolerance or coeliac disease (aka Celiac's) require alternate protein sources. The hydrolyzed nature of fish protein powder (low molecular weight profile) leads it to be used in hypoallergenic applications such as infant formulas. There is no evidence that infants who have a high risk of having an allergy to cows milk should be fed hydrolyzed infant formula instead of breast milk for allergy prevention.

Encephalopathy

encephalomyopathyencephalopathiesstatic encephalopathy
When the encephalopathy is caused by untreated celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity, the gluten-free diet stops the progression of brain damage and improves the headaches. Treating the underlying cause of the disorder may improve or reverse symptoms. However, in some cases, the encephalopathy may cause permanent structural changes and irreversible damage to the brain. These permanent deficits can be considered a form of stable dementia. Some encephalopathies can be fatal. * Adapted from: * The Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma by Plum and Posner, ISBN: 0-19-513898-8, remains one of the best detailed observational references to the condition.

Steatorrhea

steatorrhoeafatty stoolfatty feces
These include celiac disease, bacterial overgrowth, tropical sprue, Giardiasis (a protozoan parasite infection), Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, short bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and abetalipoproteinemia. Other causes. Drugs that can produce steatorrhea include orlistat, a slimming pill, or as adverse effect of octreotide or lanreotide, used to treat acromegaly or other neuroendocrine tumors. It can be found in Graves' disease / hyperthyroidism. Rectal discharge. Keriorrhea. Fecal leakage.

Miscarriage

miscarriedspontaneous abortionmiscarriages
Signs of a miscarriage include vaginal spotting, abdominal pain, cramping, and fluid, blood clots, and tissue passing from the vagina. Bleeding can be a symptom of miscarriage, but many women also have bleeding in early pregnancy and don't miscarry. Bleeding during pregnancy may be referred to as a threatened miscarriage. Of those who seek clinical treatment for bleeding during pregnancy, about half will miscarry. Miscarriage may be detected during an ultrasound exam, or through serial human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) testing. Miscarriage may occur for many reasons, not all of which can be identified.

Oat

oatsaveninAvena sativa
Use of pure oat products is an option, with the assessment of a health professional, when the celiac person has been on a gluten-free diet for at least 6 months and all celiac symptoms have disappeared clinically. Celiac disease may relapse in few cases with the consumption of pure oats. Screening with serum antibodies for celiac disease is not sensitive enough to detect people who react to pure oats and the absence of digestive symptoms is not an accurate indicator of intestinal recovery because up to 50% of people with active celiac disease have no digestive symptoms.

Secalin

Secalin is one of the forms of gluten proteins that people with coeliac disease cannot tolerate, and thus rye should be avoided by people with this disease. It is generally recommended that such people follow a gluten free diet. In bread making with rye flour, this protein requires exposure to an acid such as lactic acid to make the bread rise. This is usually achieved with a sourdough ferment.