Spoken language

oral languagespokenspeech
Deaf children can do the same with Cued Speech or sign language if either visual communication system is used around them. Vocal language are traditionally taught to them in the same way that written language must be taught to hearing children. (See oralism.) Body language. Language acquisition. List of language disorders. Origin of speech. Whistled language. Phonocentrism. Vernacular.


An 8b/10b encoder creates DC balance on a communication transmission line. A rotary encoder converts rotary position to an analog (e.g., analog quadrature) or digital (e.g., digital quadrature, 32-bit parallel, or USB) electronic signal. A linear encoder similarly converts linear position to an electronic signal. A simple encoder assigns a binary code to an active input line. Priority encoders establish the priority of competing inputs (such as interrupt requests) by outputting a binary code representing the highest-priority active input. Decoder. Codec. Line code. Modulation. Redundancy in databases. Television encoding: NTSC, PAL and SECAM. Transcoding.


These fundamental ontological categories provide the basis for communication in an age: a horizon of unspoken and seemingly unquestionable background meanings, such as human beings understood unquestioningly as subjects and other entities understood unquestioningly as objects. Because these basic ontological meanings both generate and are regenerated in everyday interactions, the locus of our way of being in a historical epoch is the communicative event of language in use. For Heidegger, however, communication in the first place is not among human beings, but language itself shapes up in response to questioning (the inexhaustible meaning of) being.

Daniel Chandler

Chandler, DanielDaniel Chandler's inevitability thesis
The Media and Communications Studies site established itself as a premier online academic resource for theoretical and educational material in the fields of rhetoric, communication studies, semiotics, media and contemporary philosophy. In 2011, Chandler and Rod Munday published the Oxford Dictionary of Media and Communication. As a lecturer in media studies at Aberystwyth, Chandler prepared a series of materials on semiotics, written in a language and style that would be comprehensible to his own undergraduate students.

Interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication has been studied as a mediator for information flow from mass media to the wider population. The two-step flow of communication theory proposes that most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders, who in turn are influenced by the mass media. Many studies have repeated this logic in investigating the effects of personal and mass communication, for example in election campaigns and health-related information campaigns. It is not clear whether or how social networking through sites such as Facebook changes this picture.


This is due to the internet, and in particular social media. They rely on word of mouth from consumers using social media, and as products trend online, so sales increase as products effectively promote themselves (Clemons, 2008). Thus, promotion by businesses does not necessarily result in consumer behavior trending towards purchasing products. The way that product influences consumer behavior is through consumer willingness to pay, and consumer preferences (Clemons, 2008).

Interpersonal relationship

relationshiprelationshipsinterpersonal relationships
Those who consume the most romance-related media tend to believe in predestined romance and that those who are destined to be together implicitly understand each other. These beliefs, however, can lead to less communication and problem-solving as well as giving up on relationships more easily when conflict is encountered. Social media has changed the face of interpersonal relationships. Romantic interpersonal relationships are no less impacted. For example, in the United States, Facebook has become an integral part of the dating process for emerging adults. Social media can have both positive and negative impacts on romantic relationships.


As internet access became commonly available, many people adopted it as another medium in which to chronicle their lives with the added dimension of an audience. The first online diary is thought to be Claudio Pinhanez's "Open Diary," published at the MIT Media Lab website from 14 November 1994 until 1996. Other early online diarists include Justin Hall, who began eleven years of personal online diary-writing in 1994, Carolyn Burke, who started publishing "Carolyn's Diary" on 3 January 1995, and Bryon Sutherland, who announced his diary The Semi-Existence of Bryon in a USENET newsgroup on 19 April 1995.


Reciprocal (disambiguation)reciprocallyreciprocation
Reciprocal may refer to:


NP\S is read as "a category that searches to the left (indicated by \) for an NP (the element on the left) and outputs a sentence (the element on the right)." The category of transitive verb is defined as an element that requires two NPs (its subject and its direct object) to form a sentence. This is notated as (NP/(NP\S)) which means "a category that searches to the right (indicated by /) for an NP (the object), and generates a function (equivalent to the VP) which is (NP\S), which in turn represents a function that searches to the left for an NP and produces a sentence." Tree-adjoining grammar is a categorial grammar that adds in partial tree structures to the categories.


pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
"Cultural Communication and Intercultural Contact." LEA. International Pragmatics Association (IPrA). Journal of Pragmatics. "What is Pragmatics?" (eprint) by Shaozhong Liu. European Communicative Strategies (ECSTRA), a (wiki)project in comparative pragmatics directed by Joachim Grzega.


In the DSM-5, the first diagnostic criterion of ASD is "Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts" Thus, disruptions with co-regulation are inherent in the disorder, in that individuals with ASD exhibit difficulties in social-emotional reciprocity and sharing of emotions. Although only a handful of studies have directly examined co-regulation in parent-child with ASD dyads, converging evidence has demonstrated that parents' immediate responses to emotional distress facilitates self-regulation for children with ASD.

Harold Innis

Harold Adams InnisH.A. InnisHarold A. Innis
McLuhan built on Innis's idea that in studying the effects of communications media, technological form mattered more than content. Biographer Paul Heyer writes that Innis's concept of the "bias" of a particular medium of communication can be seen as a "less flamboyant precursor to McLuhan's legendary phrase 'the medium is the message.'" Innis, for example, tried to show how printed media such as books or newspapers were "biased" toward control over space and secular power, while engraved media such as stone or clay tablets were "biased" in favour of continuity in time and metaphysical or religious knowledge.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
The excavation of the workers village of Deir el-Medina has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented accounts of community life in the ancient world, which spans almost four hundred years. There is no comparable site in which the organization, social interactions, working and living conditions of a community have been studied in such detail. Egyptian cuisine remained remarkably stable over time; indeed, the cuisine of modern Egypt retains some striking similarities to the cuisine of the ancients. The staple diet consisted of bread and beer, supplemented with vegetables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates and figs.

Speech act

speech actsspeech act theoryIndirect speech act
In the course of performing speech acts we communicate with each other. The content of communication may be identical, or almost identical, with the content intended to be communicated, as when a stranger asks, "What is your name?" However, the meaning of the linguistic means used (if ever there are linguistic means, for at least some so-called "speech acts" can be performed non-verbally) may also be different from the content intended to be communicated. One may, in appropriate circumstances, request Peter to do the dishes by just saying, "Peter ...!", or one can promise to do the dishes by saying, "Me!"


Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications: As discourse, an "enouncement" (statement) is not a unit of semiotic signs, but an abstract construct that allows the semiotic signs to assign meaning, and so communicate specific, repeatable communications to, between, and among objects, subjects, and statements. Therefore, a discourse is composed of semiotic sequences (relations among signs that communicate meaning) between and among objects, subjects, and statements.


statistical datascientific datadatum
Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation. Beynon-Davies uses the concept of a sign to differentiate between data and information; data is a series of symbols, while information occurs when the symbols are used to refer to something. Before the development of computing devices and machines, people had to manually collect data and impose patterns on it. Since the development of computing devices and machines, these devices can also collect data.


Information design concerns the effective communication of information, especially in industrial documents and public signs. Simple textual documents may not require visual design and may be drafted only by an author, clerk, or transcriber. Forms may require a visual design for their initial fields, but not to complete the forms. Traditionally, the medium of a document was paper and the information was applied to it in ink, either by hand writing (to make a manuscript) or by mechanical process (e.g., a printing press or laser printer). Today, some short documents also may consist of sheets of paper stapled together.

Philosophy of language

languagephilosopher of languagetheory of reference
Semiotics is the study of the transmission, reception and meaning of signs and symbols in general. In this field, human language (both natural and artificial) is just one among many ways that humans (and other conscious beings) are able to communicate. It allows them to take advantage of and effectively manipulate the external world in order to create meaning for themselves and transmit this meaning to others. Every object, every person, every event, and every force communicates (or signifies) continuously. The ringing of a telephone for example, is the telephone. The smoke that I see on the horizon is the sign that there is a fire. The smoke signifies.

Sign (semiotics)

In semiotics, a sign is anything that communicates a meaning that is not the sign itself to the interpreter of the sign. The meaning can be intentional such as a word uttered with a specific meaning, or unintentional, such as a symptom being a sign of a particular medical condition. Signs can communicate through any of the senses, visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste. Two major theories describe the way signs acquire the ability to transfer information. Both theories understand the defining property of the sign as a relation between a number of elements.

Communication noise

noiseinformation noiseSemantic noise
Communication noise refers to influences on effective communication that influence the interpretation of conversations. While often looked over, communication noise can have a profound impact both on our perception of [social interaction|interactions] with others and our analysis of our own communication proficiency. Forms of communication noise include psychological noise, physical noise, physiological and semantic noise. All these forms of noise subtly, yet greatly influence our communication with others and are vitally important to anyone’s skills as a competent communicator.


bitsbinary digitbinary digits
In all those systems, the medium (card or tape) conceptually carried an array of hole positions; each position could be either punched through or not, thus carrying one bit of information. The encoding of text by bits was also used in Morse code (1844) and early digital communications machines such as teletypes and stock ticker machines (1870). Ralph Hartley suggested the use of a logarithmic measure of information in 1928. Claude E. Shannon first used the word "bit" in his seminal 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication". He attributed its origin to John W.


The Comcast Corporation is the largest mass media and communications company in the world by revenue. It is the largest cable company and home Internet service provider in the United States, and the nation's third largest home telephone service provider. Comcast has a monopoly in Boston, Philadelphia, and many other small towns across the US. The United Aircraft and Transport Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer holding company that was forced to divest itself of airlines in 1934. Iarnród Éireann, the Irish Railway authority, is a current monopoly as Ireland does not have the size for more companies.

Inoculation theory

inoculationsocial inoculation model
Communication Reports. 25, 1–13. Compton, J., & Kaylor, B. (2013). Inoculating against smallpox inoculation objections in Reverend Cooper's Letter to a Friend in the Country. Journal of Communication and Religion, 36(1), 92-107. Compton, J., & Pfau, M. (2009). Spreading inoculation: Inoculation, resistance to influence, and word-of-mouth communication. Communication Theory, 19, 9-28. Compton, J., & Pfau, M. (2008). Inoculating against pro-plagiarism justifications: Rational and affective strategies. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 36(1), 98-119. Compton, J., & Pfau, M. (2005).


The senary logic is said to explain all modern data sets in empirical research, probability theory, data science and daily routines of human communication. The introduced model referring to 6-kinds of information (i.e. deductive premises and inferences) can be most relevant for explaining data patterns in medical research and in physics, where the Aristotelian logic does not shed enough light on the observed values. The 6-valued logic may be also applicable to studies of communication relying on Claude Shannon's mathematical theory of communication. Its practical assets could be of assistance in mathematics, in science education, and in engineering.