group communicationmany to many
Developments such as file sharing, blogs, Wikis, and tagging are media forms that reflect this paradigm; these contrast with both the one-to-one (characterized by e-mail, FTP, and Telnet) and one-to-many (characterized by websites) paradigms. With the evolution to the full "many-to-many" computing paradigm, people can input and receive information to and from the Internet; they will be able to connect and communicate dynamically within a flexibly formed scope; there will be no artificial boundary between information and communication tools, and the definition of "many" will go well beyond people to include entities such as organizations, products, processes, events, and concepts. pt:N para M

Representation (arts)

representationalrepresentationrepresentational art
Consequently, for each of the above definitions there exists a process of communication and message sending and receiving. In such a system of communication and representations it is inevitable that potential problems may arise; misunderstandings, errors, and falsehoods. The accuracy of the representations can by no means be guaranteed, as they operate in a system of signs that can never work in isolation from other signs or cultural factors.

Uncertainty reduction theory

reduce uncertaintyuncertainty
These strategies are meaningful to communication studies in a way that people's "unique capacities for forethought and planning and their ability to monitor carefully ongoing communication episodes" is valued in communicative process. A new strategy for reducing uncertainty was suggested in 2002 by Ramirez, Walther, Burgoon, and Sunnafrank that complements computer mediated communication and the technological advancements. Given the vast amount of information one could find about an individual via online resources a fourth uncertainty reduction strategy that uses online mediums to obtain information was labeled as extractive information seeking.


Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor advertising or direct mail; and new media such as search results, blogs, social media, websites or text messages. The actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.

Interactive design

interactiveDVD menu designermotion graphics
According to Selnow’s (1988) theory, interactivity has three levels: New media has been described as the “mixture between existing cultural conventions and the conventions of software. For instance newspapers and television, they have been produced from traditional outlets to forms of interactive multimedia.” New media can allows audiences access to content anytime, anywhere, on any digital device. In addition, it also promotes interactive feedback, participation, and community creation around the media content. New media is a vague term to mean a whole slew of things. The Internet and social media are both forms of new media.

Media studies

mediamedia theorymedia criticism
The fact that it is the medium that shapes and controls the form of human association and action makes it the message. The electric light is over looked as a communication medium because it doesn't have any content. It is not until the electric light is used to spell a brand name that it is recognized as medium. Similar to radio and other mass media electric light eliminates time and space factors in human association creating deeper involvement. McLuhan compared the “content” to a juicy piece of meat being carried by a burglar to distract the “watchdog of the mind”. The effect of the medium is made strong because it is given another media “content”.

Communicative ecology

The technological layer comprises communication media and technologies. This includes both traditional media, such as newspapers and television, and new media including mobile phones and social networking sites. The devices and applications within this layer are differentiated according to the communication model they facilitate. For example, collective communication is made possible through one-to-many or many-to-many forms of media, such as television or online discussion boards, whereas networked communication can be enabled through one-to-one or peer-to-peer media, including instant messaging or SMS (Foth & Hearn, 2007).


current eventscurrent affairsNews program
International Communications: A Media Literacy Approach. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 2004. ISBN: 0-7656-0974-6. Smith, Anthony. The Newspaper: An International History. London: Thames & Hudson, 1979. Starr, Paul. The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communication. New York: Basic Books, 2004. ISBN: 0-465-08193-2. Stephens, Mitchell. A History of News: From the Drum to the Satellite. New York: Viking, 1988. ISBN: 0-670-81378-8. Straubhaar, Joseph, and Robert LaRose. Communications Media in the Information Society. Updated edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company (Thompson), 1997. ISBN: 0-534-52128-2. Wenzlhuemer, Roland.

Effects of global warming on human health

affects humansclimate challenges in public healthclimate change and health
Some impacts pertaining to mental health are even more gradual and cumulative than the others, like social interaction, media, and communication. The social interaction between communities and within communities is greatly affected by migration. Communities choose to migrate, or are forced to migrate, due to stressors on limited resources. This is worsened by extreme weather events caused by climate change. Common mental health conditions associated indirectly from these extreme weather events include acute traumatic stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, complicated grief, anxiety disorders, sleep difficulties, and sexual dysfunction.

Graphic communication

graphical representationcommunication graphics
Graphic designers use methods of visual communication in their professional practice. Communication design is a mixed discipline between design and information-development which is concerned with how intermission such as printed, crafted, electronic media or presentations communicate with people. A communication design approach is not only concerned with developing the message aside from the aesthetics in media, but also with creating new media channels to ensure the message reaches the target audience.

Rural poverty

rural poorimpoverished rural regionpoverty
Poor infrastructure hinders communication, resulting in social isolation among the rural poor, many of whom have limited access to media and news outlets. Such isolation hinders integration with urban society and established markets, which could result in greater development and economic security. Moreover, poor or nonexistent irrigation systems threaten agricultural yields because of uncertainty in the supply of water for crop production. Many poor rural areas lack any irrigation to store or pump water, resulting in fewer crops, fewer days of employment and less productivity.


Similar to McLuhan's notion of 'the medium is the message', Daft and Lengel argue that different media have varying qualities that make them more or less suited for certain interactions. In a study about the relationship between managerial communication and media selection, Daft and Lengel encourage communication media that emphasizes face-to-face interaction. For example, a relatively complex interaction, such as an important conversation with a new business partner, will likely be carried out with as rich a medium as possible.

Message design logic

Northwestern School of Communication: Barbra O'Keefe.

Apache Wave

Google WaveWaveWave-In-A-Box
Wave is a web-based computing platform and communications protocol designed to merge key features of communications media such as email, instant messaging, wikis, and social networking. Communications using the system can be synchronous or asynchronous. Software extensions provide contextual spelling and grammar checking, automated language translation and other features. Initially released only to developers, a preview release of Google Wave was extended to 100,000 users in September 2009, each allowed to invite additional users. Google accepted most requests submitted starting November 29, 2009, soon after the September extended release of the technical preview.

GCA Altium

GCA Savvian
Media, Digital Media & Communications. Healthcare. Financial institutions. Consumer and Retail. Business services. Investment Banking. Financial Services. Capital Markets. Mergers and Acquisitions. Finance.

Women in engineering in the United States

Women Engineerswomen in engineering
The media has also been criticized for giving little representation of prominent female engineers. Instead, some scholars feel the media is guilty of perpetuating gender stereotypes by representing women in traditionally “female occupations” such as nurses, school teachers, housewives, etc. This idea is supported by a study where STEM field applicants were given a first and second choice on their majors. The results showed that women were more likely to pick male dominated fields in their second choice than in their first.

Party finance in Germany

financing politiciansGerman level of regulationGerman party financing
Someone with an inside view of party activity may also think of conventions, meetings, mailings and other communication. In Germany, campaigns at all levels of the federal system (national, state and municipal) are run by parties rather than candidates. Nonetheless, over the whole election cycle campaign spending adds up to less than spending on staff, offices and internal communication. An important impact on this distribution among spending items is certainly caused by the fact that during a campaign for all states, the federal and the European parliaments public networks provide free airtime on radio and TV to all competing parties.


Indications of genre in early modern titles", Modern Language Review 102.3, pp. 641–53. Genres of film at the Internet Movie Database. Helping Children Understand Literary Genres. Rhetorica Genre. Museum of Broadcast Communications.

Media consumption

consumptionmedia dietMedia habits
The power that sign systems have is their role in generating and maintaining shared expectations and shared interpretive frameworks. Signs do not force us to have certain interpretations. They open a door, creating the context for other people's interpretations of us, and even more importantly, our own expectations of what others think. Sign systems are merely tools, but they have become the common currency for communicating. Signs have become something we can accept or criticize, but not ignore. Media consumption has become part of our culture code and has shaped the youth through socialization and how they interpret the signs and world around them.

Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Dubai

Manipal University DubaiManiopal Acdemy of Higher EducationManipal University
School of Media and Communication. School of Arts and Humanities.

Ramón Massó Tarruella

Ramón MassóMassó
His death was acknowledged on few websites related to Partido Carlista, though not by major Spanish media. * Carlism. Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma. Francoism. Communication. Mass media. Models of communication. Popular culture studies. Jacek Bartyzel, Don Carlos Marx, Wroclaw 2011, ISBN: 9788393274116. Josep Carles Clemente, Joaquín Cubero Sánchez, Don Javier: una vida al servicio de la libertad, Barcelona 1997, ISBN: 8401530180, 9788401530180. Josep Carles Clemente, Historia del Carlismo contemporaneo 1935–1972, Barcelona 1977, ISBN: 8425307597, 9788425307591. Francisco Javier Caspistegui Garasurreta, El naufragio de las ortodoxias.

Bashar Masri

Bashar al-Masri
In the past decade, he has launched businesses in financial services, real estate, media and communications, retail businesses, agribusiness and information technology. According to Massar International's website, these companies are either owned by Massar International or Massar International has invested in them: # Al-Ayyam Printing, Press, Publication & Distribution - Palestine Not only was Masri the visionary and founder of Rawabi City, he also oversees the construction and development of the city.

Figurative system of human knowledge

Tree of Diderot and d'Alemberttaxonomic structuretaxonomy of human knowledge
Art of Communication. Science of the Instrument of Discourse. Grammar. Signs. Gesture. Pantomime. Declamation. Characters. Ideograms. Hieroglyphics. Heraldry or Blazonry. Prosody. Construction. Syntax. Philology. Critique. Pedagogy. Choice of Studies. Manner of Teaching. Science of Qualities of Discourse. Rhetoric. Mechanics of Poetry. Ethics. General. General Science of Good and Evil, of duties in general, of Virtue, of the necessity of being Virtuous, etc. Particular. Science of Laws or Jurisprudence. Natural. Economic. (See also commercial law). Political. (See also political law). Internal and External. (See also foreign policy). Commerce on Land and Sea. Science of Nature.

Lara Martin Gillaranz

She later completed a Master in Fashion and Beauty Communication at the San Pablo University of CEU. Subsequently, she got a Master in Digital Marketing and Communication at the School of Business and Management, in order to specialize in the digital communication sector.

Internet activism

online activismInternet activistcyberactivism
Progressively, it is hoped that they will begin signing petitions online and graduating to offline contact as long as the organization provides the citizen with escalating steps of involvement (Vitak et al., 2011). The issue of the mass media's centrality has been highly contested, with some people arguing that it promoted the voices of marginalized groups while others believe it sends forth the messages of the majority alone, leaving minority groups to have their voices robbed. One of the earliest known uses of the Internet as a medium for activism was that around Lotus MarketPlace.