Public relations

PRpublic relationpublic affairs
Sofia: Alma communication. Financial public relations – communicating financial results and business strategy. Consumer/lifestyle public relations – gaining publicity for a particular product or service. Crisis communication – responding in a crisis. Internal communicationscommunicating within the company itself. Government relations – engaging government departments to influence public policy. Media relations – a public relations function that involves building and maintaining close relationships with the news media so that they can sell and promote a business.


sheetpaper manufacturingpaper making
Also, synthetics such as Tyvek and Teslin have been introduced as printing media as a more durable material than paper. * "Document Doubles" in [ ARCHIVED – Introduction – Detecting the Truth.


The term, 'sign' comes from the old French signe (noun), signer (verb), meaning a gesture or a motion of the hand. This, in turn, stems from Latin 'signum' indicating an"identifying mark, token, indication, symbol; proof; military standard, ensign; a signal, an omen; sign in the heavens, constellation." In the English, the term is also associated with a flag or ensign. In France, a banner not infrequently took the place of signs or sign boards in the Middle Ages. Signs, however, are best known in the form of painted or carved advertisements for shops, inns, cinemas, etc. They are one of various emblematic methods for publicly calling attention to the place to which they refer.

Human communication

Human communication can be subdivided into a variety of types: • Colin Cherry • Jacques Derrida • Wendell Johnson • Marshall McLuhan • Albert Mehrabian • Carl Rogers • Norbert Wiener • Communication basic topics • General semantics • History of communication • Language • Mass communication • Mass media • Outline of communication • Pragmatics • Semiotics Intrapersonal communication (communication with oneself). Interpersonal communication (communication between two or more people). Nonverbal communication. Speech. Conversation. Visual communication. Writing. Mail. Mass media. Telecommunication. Organizational communication (communication within organizations). Mass communication.

Paul Watzlawick

WatzlawickIvan Boszormenyi-Nagy, Paul Watzlawick
One cannot not communicate: Every behavior is a form of communication. Because behavior does not have a counterpart (there is no anti-behavior), it is impossible not to communicate. Even if communication is being avoided (such as the unconscious use of non-verbals or symptom strategy), that is a form of communication. "Symptom strategy" is ascribing our silence to something beyond our control and makes no communication impossible. Examples of symptom strategy are sleepiness, headaches, and drunkenness. Even facial expressions, digital communication, and being silent can be analyzed as communication by a receiver.


It would not generally include internet written communication which tends to be asynchronous (not same time – can read and respond later if at all) and does not fit the 'con'='with' in 'conversation'. In face to face conversation it has been suggested that 85% of the communication is non-verbal/body language – a smile, a frown, a shrug, tone of voice conveying much added meaning to the mere words. Short forms of written communication such as sms are thus frequently misunderstood. Yet the convenience and apparent control makes them increasingly popular now that many people seem to prefer to communicate via short text or Facebook post and/or 'like' than actually meeting face to face.

Cellular communication (biology)

cellular communicationcell communicationcell-cell recognition
Cellular communication is an umbrella term used in biology and more in depth in biophysics, biochemistry and biosemiotics to identify different types of communication methods between living cellulites. Some of the methods include cell signaling among others. This process allows millions of cells to communicate and work together to perform important bodily processes that are necessary for survival. Both multicellular and unicellular organisms heavily rely on cell-cell communication. Intercellular communication refers to the communication between cells.


autisticautistic disorderautistic children
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Parents usually notice signs during the first three years of their child's life. These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism experience worsening in their communication and social skills after reaching developmental milestones at a normal pace. Autism is associated with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


paralinguistictone of voicesigh
Some activation was found in lower brain structures such as the pons, perhaps indicating an emotional response. Business communication. Intercultural competence. Kinesics. Meta message. Meta-communication. Metacommunicative competence. Prosody (linguistics). Proxemics. Cook, Guy (2001) The Discourse of Advertising. (second edition) London: Routledge. (chapter 4 on paralanguage and semiotics). Robbins, S. and Langton, N. (2001) Organizational Behaviour: Concepts, Controversies, Applications (2nd Canadian ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

List of symbols

consumer symbol
"Clamp as indicated": a filled-in box with a vertical line and inward-pointing arrow on the right and left. "Do not clamp": the same as "clamp as indicated", crossed out. "Sling here": the silhouette of a chain. A thermometer with a diagonal slash, indicating the maximum and minimum temperature. Ⓧ, Ⓨ - Japanese typographic symbols used under Japan's resale price maintenance system. Various logos. Various trademarks. Ⓧ, Ⓨ - Japanese typographic symbols used under Japan's resale price maintenance system. Various logos. Various trademarks. Media control symbols. Power symbol. Various computer icons. Jolly Roger - "this ship is controlled by pirates". International Code of Signals.

Distributed presence

Distributed Presence is a digital marketing term that means distributing a brand's presence through multiple communications channels to effectively reach target consumers. Brands have an arsenal of tactics today to reach and communicate with consumers, some of which include: video, audio, email, websites and microsites, paid media, search engine optimization and search engine marketing, blogging, social media, social influence programs, web content syndication and distribution, widgets, gadgets, word-of-mouth and viral marketing programs, mobile media, mobile text marketing, mobile applications, convergent media, etc. Digital marketing. Media (communication). Multichannel marketing.

Meaning (semiotics)

The connotative relation is the relation between signs and their interpretant signs. The denotative relation is the relation between signs and objects. An arbitrary association exists between the signified and the signifier. For example, a US salesperson doing business in Japan might interpret silence following an offer as rejection, while to Japanese negotiators silence means the offer is being considered. This difference in interpretations represents a difference in: semiotics The triadic (three part) model of the sign separates the meaning of a sign into three distinct components: 1. The representamen, which is the medium, or ‘sign vehicle’, through which the sign is represented.

Physical object

physical bodyobjectbody
Examples of models of physical bodies include, but are not limited to a particle, several interacting smaller bodies (particles or other), and continuous media. The common conception of physical objects includes that they have extension in the physical world, although there do exist theories of quantum physics and cosmology which may challenge this. In modern physics, "extension" is understood in terms of the spacetime: roughly speaking, it means that for a given moment of time the body has some location in the space, although not necessarily a point.

Subject (philosophy)

A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").

Conceptual model

Conceptual modeling is the activity of formally describing some aspects of the physical and social world around us for the purposes of understanding and communication." A conceptual model's primary objective is to convey the fundamental principles and basic functionality of the system which it represents. Also, a conceptual model must be developed in such a way as to provide an easily understood system interpretation for the model's users. A conceptual model, when implemented properly, should satisfy four fundamental objectives. The conceptual model plays an important role in the overall system development life cycle.

Quality (philosophy)

A quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object in philosophy. In contemporary philosophy the idea of qualities, and especially how to distinguish certain kinds of qualities from one another, remains controversial.

Non-physical entity

entitysupernatural beingentities
In ontology and the philosophy of mind, a non-physical entity is a spirit or being that exists outside physical reality. Their existence divides the philosophical school of physicalism from the schools of idealism and dualism; with the latter schools holding that they can exist and the former holding that they cannot. If one posits that non-physical entities can exist, there exist further debates as to their inherent natures and their position relative to physical entities.


Blue ThunderlightningRaigel
A very bright flash of lightning and an almost simultaneous sharp "crack" of thunder, a thundercrack, therefore indicates that the lightning strike was very near. Close-in lightning has been described first as a clicking or cloth-tearing sound, then a cannon shot sound or loud crack/snap, followed by continuous rumbling. The early sounds are from the leader parts of lightning, then the near parts of the return stroke, then the distant parts of the return stroke. thunder * ja:雷#雷鳴 sv:Åska diq:Gumlerz Thunderbolt. Thunderstorm. Brontophobia (fear of thunder). Castle Thunder sound effect. Lightning. List of thunder gods. Mistpouffers. The science of thunder. Thunder: A Child of Lightning.


symptomsnon-specific symptomssymptomatic
Medical sign.

Visual system

visualvisionhuman visual system
The functioning of a camera is often compared with the workings of the eye, mostly since both focus light from external objects in the field of view onto a light-sensitive medium. In the case of the camera, this medium is film or an electronic sensor; in the case of the eye, it is an array of visual receptors. With this simple geometrical similarity, based on the laws of optics, the eye functions as a transducer, as does a CCD camera. In the visual system, retinal, technically called retinene 1 or "retinaldehyde", is a light-sensitive molecule found in the rods and cones of the retina.


audiosound wavesound waves
Although sounds of such low frequency are too low for humans to hear, whales, elephants and other animals can detect infrasound and use it to communicate. It can be used to detect volcanic eruptions and is used in some types of music. * More Sounds Amazing; a sixth-form learning resource about sound waves A complex relationship between the density and pressure of the medium. This relationship, affected by temperature, determines the speed of sound within the medium. Motion of the medium itself. If the medium is moving, this movement may increase or decrease the absolute speed of the sound wave depending on the direction of the movement.

Convention (norm)

Often the word refers to unwritten customs shared throughout a community. For instance, it is conventional in many societies that strangers being introduced shake hands. Some conventions are explicitly legislated; for example, it is conventional in the United States and in Germany that motorists drive on the right side of the road, whereas in New Zealand and the United Kingdom motorists drive on the left. The standardization of time is a human convention based on the solar cycle or calendar. The extent to which justice is conventional (as opposed to natural or objective) is historically an important debate among philosophers.

Somatosensory system

Haptic communication. Haptic perception. Muscle spindle. Molecular cellular cognition. Phantom limb. Sensory maps. Somatosensory Rehabilitation of Pain. Special senses. Supramarginal gyrus. Tactile illusion. Vibratese, method of communication through touch. Tactile imaging. Flanagan, J.R., Lederman, S.J. Neurobiology: Feeling bumps and holes, News and Views, Nature, 2001 Jul. 26;412(6845):389-91. Grunwald, M. (Ed.) Human Haptic Perception – Basics and Applications. Boston/Basel/Berlin: Birkhäuser, 2008, ISBN: 978-3-7643-7611-6. Encyclopedia of Touch Scholarpedia Expert articles. Grunwald, M. (Ed.) Human Haptic Perception – Basics and Applications.