Arcturus achieved fame when its light was rumored to be the mechanism used to open the 1933 Chicago World's Fair. The star was chosen as it was thought that light from Arcturus had started its journey at about the time of the previous Chicago World's Fair in 1893 (at 36.7 light-years away, the light actually started in 1896). The star is mentioned in the 1977 documentary film Powers of Ten, in which it is seen when a camera zooms from Earth to the whole of the known universe. * Arcturus in fiction * entry - bgcolor="#FFFAFA". Note (category: variability): || H and K emission vary.

Straits of Mackinac

MackinacMackinac straitMackinac Straits
Lighthouses in the Mackinac Strait. Lighthouses of the Straits of Mackinac.

Northern Michigan

NorthernNorthern Lower Michigannorthern part
The largest bridge in Northern Michigan is the Mackinac Bridge connecting Northern Michigan to the Upper Peninsula. The second largest is the Zilwaukee Bridge. On land, Michigan is a unique travel environment. Consequently, drivers should be forewarned: travel distances should not be underestimated. Michigan's overall length is only 456 mi and width 386 mi – but because of the lakes those distances cannot be traveled directly. The distance from northwest to the southeast corner is 456 mi "as the crow flies". However, travelers must go around the Great Lakes.

Hyades (star cluster)

HyadesHyades clusterHyades star cluster
The Hyades (Greek Ὑάδες, also known as Melotte 25 or Collinder 50) is the nearest open cluster and one of the best-studied star clusters. Located about 153 ly away from the Sun, it consists of a roughly spherical group of hundreds of stars sharing the same age, place of origin, chemical characteristics, and motion through space. From the perspective of observers on Earth, the Hyades Cluster appears in the constellation Taurus, where its brightest stars form a "V" shape along with the still brighter Aldebaran. However, Aldebaran is unrelated to the Hyades, as it is located much closer to Earth and merely happens to lie along the same line of sight.

Ursa Major

Great BearOrsa MaggioreBear
Ursa Major is primarily known from the asterism of its main seven relatively bright stars comprising the "Big Dipper", "the Wagon", "Charles's Wain" or "the Plough" (among others), with its stellar configuration mimicking the shape of the "Little Dipper". The general constellation outline often significantly features in numerous world cultures, and frequently is used as a symbol of the north. e.g. as the flag of Alaska. Also the asterism's two brightest stars, named Dubhe and Merak (α Ursae Majoris and β Ursae Majoris), can be used as the navigational pointer towards the place of the current northern pole star, Polaris in Ursa Minor.

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin

Cecilia Payne[14Payne-Gaposchkin Medal and Prize
She found that silicon, carbon, and other common metals seen in the Sun's spectrum were present in about the same relative amounts as on Earth, in agreement with the accepted belief of the time, which held that the stars had approximately the same elemental composition as the Earth. However, she found that helium and particularly hydrogen were vastly more abundant (for hydrogen, by a factor of about one million). Her thesis concluded that hydrogen was the overwhelming constituent of stars (see Metallicity), making it the most abundant element in the Universe.

List of lighthouses in the United States

Wisconsin lighthousesList of lighthouses in the United States, MassachusettsLighthouses in Michigan
Beacons Shining in the Night, Michigan Lighthouse Bibliography, Chronology, History, Keepers Lives, and Photographs, Clarke Historical Library, Central, Michigan University.

Geological history of Earth

geologic historygeological historyEarth's geological history
Ice melt caused world sea levels to rise about 35 m in the early part of the Holocene. In addition, many areas above about 40 degrees north latitude had been depressed by the weight of the Pleistocene glaciers and rose as much as 180 m over the late Pleistocene and Holocene, and are still rising today. The sea level rise and temporary land depression allowed temporary marine incursions into areas that are now far from the sea. Holocene marine fossils are known from Vermont, Quebec, Ontario and Michigan. Other than higher latitude temporary marine incursions associated with glacial depression, Holocene fossils are found primarily in lakebed, floodplain and cave deposits.

Fort Michilimackinac

MichilimackinacFort St. Philippe de Michilimackinac
The fort grounds also contain the foot of the Mackinac Bridge, the Old Mackinac Point Light (an 1892 lighthouse), and a day-use park with a view of the Mackinac Bridge and Mackinac Island. *[ Farmer, Silas. (1884) (Jul 1969) ''The History of Detroit and Michigan, or, The Metropolis Illustrated: A Chronological Cyclopaedia of the Past and Present: including a full record of territorial days in Michigan, and the annuals of Wayne County'', in various formats at] Open Library. Banknote of Fort Michilmackinac. List of National Historic Landmarks in Michigan.

Mission Point Light

Old Mission Point LighthouseOld Mission State Park
Detroit News, Interactive map on Michigan lighthouses. Lighthouse Central, Photographs, History, Directions and Way points for Old Mission Point Light, The Ultimate Guide to West Michigan Lighthouses by Jerry Roach (Publisher: Bugs Publishing LLC – 2005). ISBN: 0-9747977-0-7. Terry Pepper, Mission Point lighthouse at Seeing the Light. Article linking Mama Juda Lighthouse with Old Mission Point. Interactive map of Lights in Northern Lake Michigan, mapped by Google. Interactive map/list/information of lighthouses in northeastern Lake Michigan by LighthousesRus. Map of Michigan Lighthouse in PDF Format. Michigan Lighthouse Conservancy, Old Mission Point Lighthouse.


α VirAlaezelAzimech
In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN; which included Spica for the primary star. It is now so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names. In Chinese, 角宿 (Jiǎo Sù), meaning Horn (asterism), refers to an asterism consisting of Spica and ζ Virginis. Consequently, Spica are known as 角宿一 (Jiǎo Sù yī, the First Star of Horn). In Hindu astronomy, Spica corresponds to the Nakshatra Chitrā.

Isle Royale National Park

Isle RoyaleBeaverBeaver Island
Native copper and chlorastrolite, the official state gem of Michigan, are secondary minerals filling pore spaces formed by vesicles and fractures within the volcanic rocks. Prehnite and agate amygdules are also plentiful island gemstones. The Greenstone Ridge is a high ridge in the center of the island and carries the longest trail in the park, the Greenstone Ridge Trail, which runs 40 mi from one end of the island to the other. This is generally done as a 4 or 5 day hike. A boat shuttle can carry hikers back to their starting port. In total there are 165 mi of hiking trails. There are also canoe/kayak routes, many involving portages, along coastal bays and inland lakes.

45th parallel north

45th parallel45°N45 degrees north
The 45th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 45 degrees north of Earth's equator. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean. The 45th parallel north is often called the halfway point between the Equator and the North Pole, but the true halfway point is actually 16.2 km north of the 45th parallel because Earth is an oblate spheroid; that is, it bulges at the equator and is flattened at the poles. At this latitude, the Sun is visible for 15 hours 37 minutes during the summer solstice, and 8 hours 46 minutes during the winter solstice.

Orion's Belt

Belt of Orionthe Beltbelt
Orion's Belt or the Belt of Orion, also known as the Three Kings or Three Sisters, is an asterism in the constellation Orion. It consists of the three bright stars Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka. Looking for Orion's Belt in the night sky is the easiest way to locate Orion in the sky. The stars are more or less evenly spaced in a straight line, and so can be visualized as the belt of the hunter's clothing. They are best visible in the early night sky during the Northern Winter/Southern Summer, in particular the month of January at around 9:00 pm.

Hiawatha National Forest

HiawathaU.S Forest Service - Hiawatha National Forest
The forest has over 100 mi of shoreline. Both east and west units have shoreline on both Lake Superior and Lake Michigan; the east unit also has shoreline on Lake Huron and includes Round Island and its lighthouse. The west unit borders Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, which is administered by the National Park Service, and the Grand Island National Recreation Area, which is separately administered by the U.S. Forest Service. Several lighthouses are located along the shores. The Point Iroquois Light is operated as a museum. The segment of the 4,600-mile-long North Country Trail passes through the forest.

Dalén light

AGA-lightDalen beacon
Lighthouses using Dalén lighting have included: * Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light – Lighthouses of the Western Great Lakes, Illumination. Barrenjoey Lighthouse, New South Wales (1932–1972). Peninsula Point Light (1922–1936) Upper Peninsula Michigan United States. Point Stephens Light, New South Wales (1922–1960). Celarain Lighthouse, Mexico (1934 – ). Skerryvore Lighthouse, the Hebrides ( –1959). Recalada a Bahía Blanca Light, Argentina (1928–1974).


Lyramong the starsConstellation of Orpheus
Covering 286.5 square degrees, it ranks 52nd of the 88 modern constellations in size. It appears prominently in the northern sky during the Northern Hemisphere's summer, and the whole constellation is visible for at least part of the year to observers north of latitude 42°S. Its main asterism consists of six stars, and 73 stars in total are brighter than magnitude 6.5. The constellation's boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a 17-sided polygon. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 18:14:0 and 19:28:0, while the declination coordinates are between +25.66° and +47.71°.


Alpha Tauribrightest starRohini
Assuming a distance of 20 pc and negligible extinction, it would be a faint 6.3 magnitude star, dimmer than Uranus at maximum brightness from Earth at 5.38. The name Aldebaran or Alpha Tauri has been adopted many times, including The star also appears in works of fiction such as Far From the Madding Crowd and Down and Out in Paris and London. It is frequently seen in science fiction, including the Lensman series and Fallen Dragon. As the brightest star in a Zodiac constellation, it is also given great significance within astrology. The planetary exploration probe Pioneer 10 is no longer powered or in contact with Earth, but its trajectory is taking it in the general direction of Aldebaran.

Delta Cygni

δ Cygδ CygniFawaris
Delta Cygni (δ Cygni, abbreviated Delta Cyg, δ Cyg) is a binary star of a combined third-magnitude in the constellation of Cygnus. It is also part of the Northern Cross asterism whose brightest star is Deneb. Based upon parallax measurements obtained during the Hipparcos mission, Delta Cygni is located roughly 165 ly distant from the Sun. Delta Cygni's two components are designated Delta Cygni A (also named Fawaris ) and B. More widely separated is a faint third component, a 12th magnitude star that is moving along with the others. Together they form a triple star system. δ Cygni (Latinised to Delta Cygni) is the binary's Bayer designation.


AlhaiotAlpha Aurigaealpha Aurigae (Capella)
Its symbolism as a goat dates back to Mesopotamia as a constellation called GAM, representing a scimitar or crook. It may have represented the star alone or the modern constellation as a whole; this figure was alternatively called Gamlum or MUL. GAM in the 7th-century BC document MUL.APIN. The crook of Auriga stood for a goat-herd or shepherd. It was formed from most of the stars of the modern constellation; all of the bright stars were included except for β Tauri (Elnath), traditionally assigned to both Taurus and Auriga. Later, Bedouin astronomers created constellations that were groups of animals, where each star represented one animal.

Omega Carinae

ω Carω CarinaeOmega
Omega Carinae, Latinized from ω Carinae, is a star in the constellation Carina. With a declination greater than 70 degrees south of the celestial equator, it is the most southerly of the bright stars of Carina (third-magnitude or brighter), and it is part of a southern asterism known as the Diamond Cross. This star has an apparent visual magnitude of 3.3 and is located at a distance of about 342 ly from Earth. Omega Carinae has a stellar classification of B8 IIIe, which places it among a category known as Be stars that display emission lines of hydrogen their spectrum. Omega Carinae is a shell star, having a circumstellar disk of gas surrounding its equator.

Age of the universe

13.8 billion years ago13.8 billion yearsage
In the 18th century, the concept that the age of the Earth was millions, if not billions, of years began to appear. However, most scientists throughout the 19th century and into the first decades of the 20th century presumed that the universe itself was Steady State and eternal, with maybe stars coming and going but no changes occurring at the largest scale known at the time. The first scientific theories indicating that the age of the universe might be finite were the studies of thermodynamics, formalized in the mid-19th century.