Personally identifiable information

personal datapersonal informationpersonally identifying information
Privacy Act governs the Federal Government agencies. Ontario Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act and similar Provincial legislation governs Provincial Government agencies. Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act governs private corporations, unless there is equivalent Provincial legislation. Ontario Personal Health Information Protection Act and other similar Provincial legislation governs health information. Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The General Data Protection Regulation adopted in April 2016. Effective 25 May 2018. supersedes the Data Protection Directive - 95/46/EC. Directive 2002/58/EC (the E-Privacy Directive).

Privacy Act of 1974

Privacy Act1974 Privacy ActComputer Matching and Privacy Act
Data privacy. Digital identity. Privacy. Civil liberties. Information privacy law. Federal Records Act. Data Act (Sweden). Bundesdatenschutzgesetz. Privacy Act of 1974 (5 USC Sec. 552a). Privacy Office at the Department of Homeland Security. OMB Guidance for Implementing the Privacy Provisions of the E-Government Act of 2002. DOD CIO re Privacy Impact Assessments. US NSF re Privacy Impact Assessments.

Incorporation (business)

This is the most popular form of business entity for foreign investors wanting to set up a company in China; it is a limited liability company. Malaysia uses Sdn. Bhd. (Sendirian Berhad), meaning "private limited", which is the equivalent of an incorporated entity in the US. Singapore uses Pte. Ltd., meaning "private limited", which is the equivalent of an incorporated entity in the US. Dubai uses "LLC" to denote a limited liability company. Listed companies use "PJSC" to denote a public joint stock company. In Turkey, Ltd. Şti. (which stands for Limited Şirketi) is a common form to denote limited liability companies.

Legal person

legal personalitylegal entitybody corporate
Companies, a form of business association that carries on an industrial enterprise, are often corporations, although companies may take other forms, such as trade unions, unlimited companies, trusts, and funds. Limited liability companies—be they a private company limited by guarantee, private company limited by shares, or public limited company—are entities having certain characteristics of both a corporation and a partnership. Different types have a complex variety of advantages and disadvantages. Sovereign states are legal persons. In the international legal system, various organizations possess legal personality.

Joint-stock company

joint stock companyJSCjoint-stock
Other organizations that may carry out activities that are generally considered to be business exist under the laws of various countries: * The History of the Corporate Business Firm ja:ジョイント・ストック・カンパニー National Joint-stock company. Open Joint-stock company. Closed Joint-stock company. Consumers' cooperative. Holding company. Limited company (Ltd). Limited liability company (LLC). Limited liability limited partnership (LLLP). Limited liability partnership (LLP). Limited partnership (LP). Low-profit limited liability company (L3C). Not-for-profit corporation. Open joint-stock company (OJSC). Partnership. Sole proprietorship. Trust company, Trust law. Aktieselskab. Types of business entity.

Data Protection Act 1998

Data Protection Actdata protectionData Protection Act 1988
Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data – basis for Data Protection Act 1998.

European Commission

CommissionECthe European Commission
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be completely independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

HIPAAHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
With an early emphasis on the potentially severe penalties associated with violation, many practices and centers turned to private, for-profit "HIPAA consultants" who were intimately familiar with the details of the legislation and offered their services to ensure that physicians and medical centers were fully "in compliance". In addition to the costs of developing and revamping systems and practices, the increase in paperwork and staff time necessary to meet the legal requirements of HIPAA may impact the finances of medical centers and practices at a time when insurance companies' and Medicare reimbursement is also declining.

Public company

Publicpublicly tradedpublicly traded company
This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; prior to their existence, it was very difficult to obtain large amounts of capital for private enterprises - significant capital could only come from a smaller set of wealthy investors or banks willing to risk typically large investments. The profit on stock is gained in form of dividend or capital gain to the holders.

Privately held company

Privateprivately heldprivate company
In Australia, section 113 of the Corporations Act 2001 limits a privately held company to fifty non-employee shareholders. A privately owned enterprise is a commercial enterprise that is owned by private investors, shareholders or owners (usually collectively, but they can be owned by a single individual), and is in contrast to state institutions, such as publicly owned enterprises and government agencies. Private enterprises comprise the private sector of an economy. An economic system that 1) contains a large private sector where privately run businesses are the backbone of the economy, and 2) business surplus is controlled by the owners, is referred to as capitalism.

Limited liability partnership

LLPlimited liability partnershipsLLPs
This is the most popular business form in Kazakhstan. Almost any private business may be incorporated as an LLP (notable exceptions are banks, airlines, insurance companies, and mortgage companies, which must be incorporated in the form of a joint stock company). An LLP in Kazakhstan is a corporate body, and in fact, is an Limited Liability Corporation (LLC). Partners cannot conduct business on their own, and it is the corporate body that conducts the business. There is also a concept of "simple partnership" in Kazakhstan law, which corresponds more closely to the general concept of partnership, but it is not widely used and is not well developed in Kazakhstan.

Privacy engineering

privacy protectionprivacy
Privacy Act of 1974. Privacy Protection Act of 1980. Video Privacy Protection Act. Online Privacy Protection Act. Children's Online Privacy Protection Act. Driver's Privacy Protection Act. Intimate Privacy Protection Act. Telephone Records and Privacy Protection Act of 2006. General Data Protection Regulation. Data Protection Directive. Information security. Risk management. Free and open MOOC course module on privacy management with Karlstad University's Privacy by Design on-line course.

Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung

GmbHLimited liability companygGmbH
Since 2007 there has been an internet-based central company register for the whole of Germany, called Unternehmensregister. * Tiede/Ryczewski, "Introduction to the Serbian Law on Limited Liability Companies" in WiRO 2012 (German Law Journal), vol. 5, pp. 140–144 * Anpartsselskab (Denmark) Aktiengesellschaft'' (AG). Besloten vennootschap (bv) (Netherlands). Besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid (bvba) (Belgium). Business organizations. Corporation. Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien (KGaA). Limited liability company. Società a responsabilità limitata (Srl) (Italy).


Most corporations by letters patent are corporations sole and not companies as the term is commonly understood today. Charter corporations. Before the passing of modern companies legislation, these were the only types of companies. Now they are relatively rare, except for very old companies that still survive (of which there are still many, particularly many British banks), or modern societies that fulfill a quasi-regulatory function (for example, the Bank of England is a corporation formed by a modern charter). Statutory companies. Relatively rare today, certain companies have been formed by a private statute passed in the relevant jurisdiction. Corporate personhood.


Take part in the management of the business or have power to bind the firm. Alliance. Consortium. Business partnering. Corporation. General partnership. Joint venture. Keiretsu. Limited liability partnership (LLP). Limited partnership (LP). Partnership accounting. Partnership taxation. Strategic Alliance. Types of business entity. Up or out (aka partnership system).

Information sensitivity

sensitive informationsensitivitysensitive
In the European Union, the Data Protection Directive provides a rigorous standard for privacy protection legislation across all member states. Although the Directive is not legally binding in itself, all member states are expected to enact their own national privacy legislation within three years of the Directive’s adoption that conforms to all of its standards. Since adoption, the Directive has demonstrated significant influence on the privacy legislation of non-EU nations, through its requirements on the privacy laws of non-member nations engaging in transborder flows of private data with EU member nations.

Outline of commercial law

Commercial law
Corporate law in Vietnam. United States corporate law. Legal aspects of computing. Ecommerce Law. Privacy law. Property law. Tax law. History of companies. History of company law in the United Kingdom. Lex mercatoria. Types of business entity. Juristic person. Company (law). Corporate law. Corporation. Incorporation (business). Delaware corporation (U.S.). Limited liability company. Fiduciary. Partnership. Agency. Escrow. Trustee of a trust or executor of an estate; see also trusts and estates. Charitable trust. Foundation. Association. Cooperative. Contract. Consideration. Duress. Warranty. Breach of contract. Remedy. Lien. Types of contracts. Adhesion contract. Intellectual property.

Expectation of privacy

reasonable expectation of privacyinvasion of privacybelieved they could speak freely
Expectation of privacy is a legal test which is crucial in defining the scope of the applicability of the privacy protections of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. It is related to, but is not the same as, a right to privacy, a much broader concept which is found in many legal systems (see privacy law). There are two types of expectations of privacy: Examples of places where a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy are a person's residence or hotel room and public places which have been specifically provided by businesses or the public sector in order to ensure privacy, such as public restrooms, private portions of jailhouses, or a phone booth.

Consumer privacy

customer privacypersonal informationPrivacy
Information privacy. Information technology management. Management information systems. Privacy. Privacy law. Privacy policy. Personally identifiable information. Privacy International. Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change, FTC Staff Report. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse a Consumer Education and Privacy Rights Advocacy organization. Personal Data Ecosystem.

Board of directors

board of trusteesdirectorboard
There are numerous types of business entities available throughout the world such as a corporation, limited liability company, cooperative, business trust, partnership, private limited company, and public limited company. Much of what has been written about boards of directors relates to boards of directors of business entities actively traded on public markets. More recently, however, material is becoming available for boards of private and closely held businesses including family businesses. A board-only organization is one whose board is self-appointed, rather than being accountable to a base of members through elections; or in which the powers of the membership are extremely limited.