General Data Protection Regulation

GDPRGeneral Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)data protection
Superseding the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC, the regulation contains provisions and requirements pertaining to the processing of personal data of individuals (formally called data subjects in the GDPR) inside the EEA, and applies to an enterprise established in the EEA or—regardless of its location and the data subjects' citizenship—that is processing the personal information of data subjects inside the EEA. Controllers of personal data must put in place appropriate technical and organisational measures to implement the data protection principles.

Corporate law

business lawcompany lawcorporate
In some cases, this may include matters relating to corporate governance or financial law. When used as a substitute for corporate law, business law means the law relating to the business corporation (or business enterprises), i.e. capital raising (through equity or debt), company formation, registration, etc. Academics identify four legal characteristics universal to business enterprises. These are: Widely available and user-friendly corporate law enables business participants to possess these four legal characteristics and thus transact as businesses.

Information privacy law

Data Privacy & Securitydata privacy lawsdata protection law
Information privacy law or data protection laws prohibit the disclosure or misuse of information about private individuals. Over 80 countries and independent territories, including nearly every country in Europe and many in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa, have now adopted comprehensive data protection laws. The European Union has the General Data Protection Regulation, in force since May 25, 2018. The United States is notable for not having adopted a comprehensive information privacy law, but rather having adopted limited sectoral laws in some areas.

Limited company

LimitedLtdlimited companies
(instead of the usual Inc.) to signify their corporate status. A Limited company must file annual tax returns ("corporation" tax returns) with the Securities and Exchange Commission. In Zimbabwe the term "(Pvt) Ltd" refers to a private company limited by share capital. All private entities are regulated by the Registrar of Companies in Harare. * Limited liability company UK Business Link ja:株式会社 Company formation (UK). Limited liability partnership (LLP). Share capital. Types of business entity. Unlimited company. Yūgen gaisha.


A shareholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation. Shareholders may be referred to as members of a corporation. Legally, a person is not a shareholder in a corporation until their name and other details are entered in the corporation‘s register of shareholders or members. A beneficial shareholder is the person that has the economic benefit of ownership of the shares, while a nominee shareholder is the person who is on the corporation’s register as the owner while being in fact acting for the benefit and at the direction of the beneficiary, whether disclosed or not.

Limited liability

unlimited liabilitylimitedliability
The development of limited liability facilitated the move to large-scale industrial enterprise, by removing the threat that an individual's total wealth would be confiscated if invested in an unsuccessful company. Large sums of personal financial capital became available, and the transferability of shares permitted a degree of business continuity not possible in other forms of enterprise. In the UK there was initially a widespread belief that a corporation needed to demonstrate its creditworthiness by having its shares only partly paid, as where shares are partly paid, the investor would be liable for the remainder of the nominal value in the event that the company could not pay its debts.

Sole proprietorship

sole proprietorsole traderproprietorship
Sole proprietors, as employers, are responsible to:- In 2016, the SSM took legal action against 478 online businesses who fail to register their businesses whether as sole proprietors, partnerships, or private limited companies. As at May 12 2017, a total of 50,882 online businesses have registered with the SSM since 2015. Sole traders in New Zealand must notify the Inland Revenue Department that they are trading and must register for Goods and Services Tax purposes if their income exceeds $60,000 per year.

FTC fair information practice

Code of Fair Information PracticeFTCFair Information Practice Principles
Data Protection Directive. FTC 2000 Privacy Report. FTC Privacy Online: A Report to Congress. OECD Fair Information Practices. OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data. The Privacy Act of 1974,.

Société à responsabilité limitée

However, the limited liability company is not dissolved by the death of a partner (or his disability, his personal bankruptcy, etc.). The limited liability company is dissolved when it includes more than 100 partners and that the situation could not be corrected within the period of 1 year or if the partners could not validly deliberate on the decision to be taken following the loss of half the capital or were unable to regularize the situation within 1 year. A Luxembourgois société à responsibilité limitée (SARL) is a corporate form in Luxembourg with limited and closed owner participation.

National data protection authority

data protection authorityNational data protection authoritiesList of data protection authorities by country
National data protection authorities are authorities tasked with information privacy. In the European Union and the EFTA member countries their status was formalized by the Data Protection Directive and they were involved in the Madrid Resolution. * 🇲🇦 Morocco: [[Commission nationale de contrôle de la protection des données à caractère personnel]] (lit.

Convention for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data

Convention 108 Consultative Committee
The Convention for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data is a 1981 Council of Europe treaty that protects the right to privacy of individuals, taking account of the increasing flow across frontiers of personal data undergoing automatic processing. All members of the Council of Europe have ratified the treaty. Being non–Council of Europe states, Cabo Verde, Mauritius, Mexico, Senegal, Tunisia, and Uruguay have acceded to the treaty. General Data Protection Regulation. Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data. Data privacy. Data Privacy Day. Information privacy.

European Convention on Human Rights

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental FreedomsConventionEuropean Convention
Appleby v United Kingdom (2003) 37 EHRR 38, protests in a private shopping mall. Vogt v Germany (1995).

European Court of Human Rights

ECHRPresident of the European Court of Human RightsEuropean Court for Human Rights
The European Convention on Human Rights requires all hearings to be in public, unless there are exceptional circumstances justifying the holding of a private hearing. In practice the majority of cases are heard in private following written pleadings. In confidential proceedings the Court may assist both parties in securing a settlement, in which case the Court monitors the compliance of the agreement with the Convention. However, in many cases, a hearing is not held. The judgment of the Grand Chamber is final. Judgments by the Chamber of the Court becomes final three months after they are issued, unless a reference to the Grand Chamber for review or appeal has been made.


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs. Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation. Economics Department. Environment Directorate. Public Governance Directorate. Statistics Directorate. Trade and Agriculture Directorate. General Secretariat. Executive Directorate. Public Affairs and Communication Directorate. Africa Partnership Forum. Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC). Development Assistance Committee. OECD Development Centre. International Transport Forum (ITF) (formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport). International Energy Agency. Nuclear Energy Agency. Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN).

Internet privacy

privacyonline privacyelectronic privacy
Index of Articles Relating to Terms of Service and Privacy Policies. Internet censorship. Internet censorship circumvention. Internet vigilantism. Privacy-enhancing technologies. Freenet. Friend-to-friend. GNUnet. Metadata Removal Tool. Privacy software. PRISM. Privacy law. Right to be forgotten. Privacy in Australian law. Australian Privacy Act 1988. Canadian privacy law. Canadian Privacy Act. Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act. European Union Data Protection Directive. ePrivacy Regulation (European Union). Privacy in English law. UK Data Protection Act 1998. Privacy laws in Russia. Privacy laws of the United States. Bank secrecy.

Czech Republic

Czech Republic ranks 24th in both the Index of Economic Freedom (ranked behind Norway) and the Global Innovation Index (ranked behind Australia ), 29th in the Global Competitiveness Report 30th in the ease of doing business index and 25th in the Global Enabling Trade Report (ranked behind Canada). The Czech Republic has a highly diverse economy that ranks 7th in the 2016 Economic Complexity Index. The industry sector accounts for 37.5% of the economy, while services for 60% and agriculture for 2.5%. The largest trading partner for both export and import is Germany and the EU in general.

United States

In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the economy, with federal government activity accounting for 4.3% and state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the remaining 9.3%. The number of employees at all levels of government outnumber those in manufacturing by 1.7 to 1. While its economy has reached a postindustrial level of development and its service sector constitutes 67.8% of GDP, the United States remains an industrial power. The leading business field by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net income it is manufacturing.


The main reason for the creation of the SEC was to regulate the stock market and prevent corporate abuses relating to the offering and sale of securities and corporate reporting. The SEC was given the power to license and regulate stock exchanges, the companies whose securities traded on them, and the brokers and dealers who conducted the trading. For detection of fraudulent activities on the large scale, massive use of (online) data analysis is required, in particular predictive analytics or forensic analytics. Forensic analytics is the use of electronic data to reconstruct or detect financial fraud.

Credit union

credit unionscaisse populairecaisses populaires
"Natural-person credit unions" (also called "retail credit unions" or "consumer credit unions") serve individuals, as distinguished from "corporate credit unions", which serve other credit unions. Credit unions in the US had five times lower failure rate than other banks during the financial crisis of 2007-2008 and more than doubled lending to small businesses between 2008 and 2016, from $30 billion to $60 billion, while lending to small businesses overall during the same period declined by around $100 billion. .

List of company registers

commercial registerbusiness registercompany registrar
Australian Business Register – Australian Business Number Lookup. Office of the Registrar of Indigenous Corporations – Search Corporations. Firmenbuch Information on accessing the official corporate registry. Wiener Zeitung – Firmenmonitor (company notices). Financial Market Authority – Supervised Companies. Ministry of Taxes – State Register of Business Entities. Ministry of Taxes – Businesses engaged in production. Ministry of Industry & Commerce. Bahrain Chamber of Commerce & Industry – Members Search. Central Bank of Bahrain – CBB Register. Crossroads Bank for Enterprises. Federal Public Service Justice – Enterprise Search.