United States Constitution

ConstitutionU.S. Constitutionconstitutional
The Supreme Court has found that unenumerated rights include such important rights as the right to travel, the right to vote, the right to privacy, and the right to make important decisions about one's health care or body. The Tenth Amendment (1791) was included in the Bill of Rights to further define the balance of power between the federal government and the states. The amendment states that the federal government has only those powers specifically granted by the Constitution. These powers include the power to declare war, to collect taxes, to regulate interstate business activities and others that are listed in the articles or in subsequent constitutional amendments.

Mass surveillance

surveillance statesurveillance societysurveillance
The right to privacy is a highly developed area of law in Europe. The Data Protection Directive regulates the processing of personal data within the European Union. For comparison, the US has no data protection law that is comparable to this; instead, the US regulates data protection on a sectoral basis. Since early 2012, the European Union has been working on a General Data Protection Regulation to replace the Data Protection Directive and harmonise data protection and privacy law.

Corporate tax

corporation taxcorporate income taxcorporate taxes
Corporations property tax, payroll tax, withholding tax, excise tax, customs duties, value added tax, and other common taxes, are generally not referred to as “corporate tax.” Characterization as a corporation for tax purposes is based on the form of organization, with the exception of United States Federal and most states income taxes, under which an entity may elect to be treated as a corporation and taxed at the entity level or taxed only at the member level. See Limited liability company, Partnership taxation, S corporation, Sole proprietorship. Most jurisdictions tax corporations on their income, like the United Kingdom or the United States.

Share capital

capital stockcapitalshares
A corporation's share capital or capital stock (in US English) is the portion of a corporation's equity that has been obtained by the issue of shares in the corporation to a shareholder, usually for cash. "Share capital" may also denote the number and types of shares that compose a corporation's share structure. In a strict accounting sense, share capital is the nominal value of issued shares (that is, the sum of their par values, as indicated on share certificates).

Natural person

naturalnatural personsindividual
., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization. Historically, a human being was not necessarily a natural person in some jurisdictions where slavery existed (subject of a property right) rather than a person. In many cases, fundamental human rights are implicitly granted only to natural persons.

Unlimited company

unlimitedunlimited companiesunlimited liability company
Hoare & Co (UK company number 00240822), England's oldest privately owned bank.


governmentsform of governmentgovernmental
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" (Latin: res publica), not the private concern or property of the rulers, and where offices of states are subsequently directly or indirectly elected or appointed rather than inherited. The people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people. A common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of state is not a monarch.

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act

PIPAPIPEDAfederal level
The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) (the Act) is a Canadian law relating to data privacy. It governs how private sector organizations collect, use and disclose personal information in the course of commercial business. In addition, the Act contains various provisions to facilitate the use of electronic documents. PIPEDA became law on 13 April 2000 to promote consumer trust in electronic commerce. The act was also intended to reassure the European Union that the Canadian privacy law was adequate to protect the personal information of European citizens.


liquidatedvoluntary liquidationliquidate
The company was incorporated as a corporation, and has not been issued with a trading certificate (or equivalent) within 12 months of registration. It is an "old public company" (i.e. one that has not re-registered as a public company or become a private company under more recent companies legislation requiring this). It has not commenced business within the statutorily prescribed time (normally one year) of its incorporation, or has not carried on business for a statutorily prescribed amount of time. The number of members has fallen below the minimum prescribed by statute. The company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due.


e-mailelectronic maile-mails
Business E-Mail Compromise - An Emerging Global Threat, FBI.

Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés

CNILCNIL (FR)National Commission on Informatics and Liberty (CNIL)
General Data Protection Regulation. Official website. La CNIL Detailed analysis of each of the CNIL's powers.

Privacy Act (Canada)

Privacy ActCanadian Privacy Act
Canada (Minister of Finance), [1997] 2 S.C.R. 403 (the first major Supreme Court of Canada decision to consider the Privacy Act). Privacy Act. Supreme Court of Canada decisions on privacy. Federal Court Reports - subject: privacy. The Canadian Privacy Law Blog: A regularly updated blog on issues related to Canadian privacy law written by David T.S. Fraser, a Canadian privacy lawyer. Privacy law. Information Privacy Laws. Data privacy. Access to Information Act. Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act. Info Source - repository of information available through Privacy Act and Access to Information Act.

Public limited company

plcPublicPublic Limited
Private limited company. Public company. S.A. (corporation). Societas Europaea. United Kingdom company law. Unlimited company. Virtual business. Companies Act 2006, Office of Public Sector Information. Companies House guide to company formation.

Data security

securitydata protectiondata-level security
Since the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union (EU) became law on May 25th, 2018, organizations may face significant penalties of up to €20million or 4% of their annual revenue if they do not comply with the regulation. It is intended that GDPR will force organizations to understand their data privacy risks and take the appropriate measures to reduce the risk of unauthorized disclosure of consumers’ private information.

Delaware General Corporation Law

Delaware corporationincorporated in DelawareDelaware
National banks are, however, corporations formed under federal law, not Delaware law. A corporation formed under Delaware state law benefits from the relaxed interest rules to the extent it conducts business in Delaware, but is subject to restrictions of other states' laws if it conducts business in other states. Pursuant to the "internal affairs doctrine", corporations which act in more than one state are subject only to the laws of their state of incorporation with regard to the regulation of the internal affairs of the corporation. As a result, Delaware corporations are subject almost exclusively to Delaware law, even when they do business in other states.


Deadweight loss does not account for the effect taxes have in leveling the business playing field. Businesses that have more money are better suited to fend off competition. It is common that an industry with a small amount of very large corporations has a very high barrier of entry for new entrants coming into the marketplace. This is due to the fact that the larger the corporation, the better its position to negotiate with suppliers. Also, larger companies may be able to operate at low or even negative profits for extended periods of time, thus pushing out competition.

Independent contractor

contractorindependent contractorscontractors
An independent contractor can itself be a business with employees; however, in most cases in the United States independent contractors operate as a sole proprietorship or single-member limited liability company. This means the independent contractor, as a business owner, incurs its own expenses to provide the contracted service, must acquire its own equipment to perform the service, and is responsible for business filings such as income tax returns. Independent contractors are responsible for their own self-employment tax, which consists of both halves of the FICA tax amount. An employee only pays the employee portion of the FICA tax.

S.A. (corporation)

S.A.Sociedad AnónimaSociété Anonyme
S.A. or Société anonyme (Anonymous society) (and variants) designates a type of corporation in countries that mostly employ civil law. Depending on language, it means anonymous company, anonymous partnership, share company, or joint-stock company, roughly equivalent to public limited company in common law jurisdictions. It is different from partnerships and private limited companies. Originally, shareholders could be literally anonymous and collect dividends by surrendering coupons attached to their share certificates. Dividends were therefore paid to whoever held the certificate.


Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
Microsoft Enterprise Agreement.

Binding corporate rules

BCRs should be seen as a framework for having different elements (internal legal agreement, policies, training, audit, etc.) providing compliance with EU data protection regulations and effective privacy and data protection. It has to be noticed that, while originally designed for providing legal ground to international transfers, BCRs became de facto a corporation demonstration of its capacity to comply "at large" with personal data processing requirements.

EU–US Privacy Shield

EU-U.S. Privacy ShieldEU-US Privacy ShieldPrivacy Shield
''The EU–US Privacy Shield, which does not rely on the protections under the US Privacy Act. ''The EU–US Umbrella Agreement, which enters into force on 1 February (2017). To finalize this agreement, the US Congress adopted a new law in 2017, the US Judicial Redress Act, which extends the benefits of the US Privacy Act to Europeans and gives them access to US courts." ''. Binding corporate rules. Electronic Communications Privacy Act. FTC Fair Information Practice (FIPP's), US. International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles. IT risk. Privacy. Safe harbor (law). Stored Communications Act. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).