subsidiarieswholly owned subsidiarysubsidiary company
The subsidiary can be a company, corporation, or limited liability company. In some cases it is a government or state-owned enterprise. In some cases, particularly in the music and book publishing industries, subsidiaries are referred to as imprints. In the United States railroad industry, an operating subsidiary is a company that is a subsidiary but operates with its own identity, locomotives and rolling stock. In contrast, a non-operating subsidiary would exist on paper only (i.e., stocks, bonds, articles of incorporation) and would use the identity of the parent company.


self-employedSelf–employedself-employment tax
Furthermore, industries that are not commonly associated as a natural fit for self-employment, such as manufacturing, have in fact been shown to have a large proportion of self-employed individuals and home-based businesses. In the United States, any person is considered self-employed for tax purposes if that person is running a business as a sole proprietorship, independent contractor, as a member of a partnership, or as a member of a limited liability company that does not elect to be treated as a corporation. In addition to income taxes, these individuals must pay Social Security and Medicare taxes in the form of a SECA (Self-Employment Contributions Act) tax.

Data Protection Commissioner

Data Protection CommissionIreland's DPAOffice of the Data Protection Commissioner
The Office of the Data Protection Commissioner (Irish: An Coimisinéir Cosanta Sonraí) is the independent national authority responsible for upholding the EU fundamental right of individuals to data privacy through the enforcement and monitoring of compliance with data protection legislation in Ireland. It was established in 1989. The independent role and powers of the Data Protection Commissioner are as set out in legislation in the Data Protection Acts 1988 and 2003. These Acts transpose the Council of Europe 1981 Data Protection Convention (Convention 108) and the 1995 EU Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC).

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutch East Indies CompanyDutch
One of the most influential and best expertly researched business enterprises in history, the VOC's world has been the subject of a vast amount of literature that includes both fiction and nonfiction works. The company was historically an exemplary company-state rather than a pure for-profit corporation. Originally a government-backed military-commercial enterprise, the VOC was the wartime brainchild of leading Dutch republican statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General.

S.A. (corporation)

Société AnonymeSociedad AnónimaS.A.
It is different from partnerships and private limited companies. Originally, shareholders could be literally anonymous and collect dividends by surrendering coupons attached to their share certificates. Dividends were therefore paid to whoever held the certificate. Share certificates could be transferred privately, and therefore the management of the company would not necessarily know who owned its shares. Like bearer bonds, anonymous unregistered share ownership and dividend collection enabled money laundering, tax evasion, and concealed business transactions in general, so governments passed laws to audit the practice.

Binding corporate rules

BCRs should be seen as a framework for having different elements (internal legal agreement, policies, training, audit, etc.) providing compliance with EU data protection regulations and effective privacy and data protection. It has to be noticed that, while originally designed for providing legal ground to international transfers, BCRs became de facto a corporation demonstration of its capacity to comply "at large" with personal data processing requirements.


Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
. * * List of investments by Microsoft Corporation. List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft. Microsoft engineering groups. Microsoft Enterprise Agreement.

EU–US Privacy Shield

EU-US Privacy ShieldEU-U.S. Privacy ShieldPrivacy Shield
Privacy Shield, which does not rely on the protections under the US Privacy Act. ''The EU–US Umbrella Agreement, which enters into force on 1 February (2017). To finalize this agreement, the US Congress adopted a new law in 2017, the US Judicial Redress Act, which extends the benefits of the US Privacy Act to Europeans and gives them access to US courts." ''. Binding corporate rules. Electronic Communications Privacy Act. FTC fair information practice (FIPP), US. IT risk. Privacy. Safe harbor (law). Stored Communications Act. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2016/1250 of 12 July 2016 on the adequacy of the protection provided by the EU-U.S.


ABlimited company(publ)
Aktiebolag (, "stock company") is the Swedish term for "limited company" or "corporation". When used in company names, it is abbreviated AB (in Sweden), Ab (in Finland), or A/B (for some older companies), roughly equivalent to the abbreviations Ltd and PLC. The state authority responsible for registration of aktiebolag in Sweden is called the Swedish Companies Registration Office. All aktiebolag are divided into two categories: private limited companies and public limited companies. The name of a private limited company may not contain the word publikt ("public") and the name of a public limited company may not contain the word privat or pvt ("private").

Information Commissioner's Office

Information CommissionerData Protection RegistrarInformation Commissioner’s Office
Elizabeth Denham has welcomed the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that came into effect in May 2018, as well as the Data Protection Act 2018. In October 2018 she was elected Chair of the International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners (ICDPPC), the leading global forum of data protection and privacy authorities, encompassing more than 120 members across all continents that works throughout the year on global data protection policy issues. During his time as Information Commissioner, Christopher Graham was noted for gaining new powers to issue monetary penalties to those who breach the Data Protection Act 1998.

Professional corporation

P.C.PCProfessional corporations
In U.S. federal subject matter jurisdiction, professional corporations have two citizenships for purposes of diversity, just like ordinary corporations, namely that they are citizens of (1) the state in which they are incorporated and (2) the state in which they have their principal place of business. This is unlike other, similar organizations that are not technically "corporations," such as trade associations, labor unions, partnerships (including limited partnerships and limited liability partnerships), and limited liability companies, for which citizenship is based on the domicile of each member.

Law of Japan

Japanese lawJapanese Civil CodeCivil Code of Japan
Kabushiki kaisha (K.K.), similar to an Anglo-American corporation. Gōdō kaisha (G.K.), similar to an American limited liability company. Gōmei kaisha, similar to an Anglo-American general partnership. Gōshi kaisha, similar to an Anglo-American limited partnership. Special laws. Includes firearms and sword control law, laws for regulating business that affects public morals, anti-prostitution laws, anti-organized crime laws, and road traffic laws. There are a large number of traffic offenses, indicating serious problems on roads in Japan. Annually, there are 11,000 deaths caused by traffic accidents.


Business. Capitalism. Commercial law. Distribution (business). Wholesale. Retailing. Cargo. Eco commerce. Economy. Electronic commerce. Export. Fair. Finance. Fishery. Harvest. Industry. BBA. Import. Laissez-faire. Manufacturing. Marketing. Marketplace. Mass production. Master of Commerce. Merchandising. Trade.


Privacy Preferences Project
Currently, the United States has no federal law protecting the privacy of personal information shared online. However, there are some sectoral laws at the federal and state level that offer some protection for certain types of information collected about individuals. For example, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) of 1970 makes it legal for consumer reporting agencies to disclose personal information only under three specified circumstances: credit, employment or insurance evaluation; government grant or license; or a “legitimate business need” that involves the consumer. A list of other sectoral privacy laws in the United States can be viewed at the Consumer Privacy Guide's website.

Right to be forgotten

Melvin v. Reidallow users to be forgottendata protection laws of Europe
Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data. EU Directive 1995. European Commission. Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and On the Free Movement of Such Data (General Data Protection Regulation). 2012/0011 (COD). Article 3. "Territorial Scope.". Google's 'Search removal request under European Data Protection law' form. Yahoo's Right to be Forgotten Request page. Bing's European Privacy Request form. List of European Data Protection Authorities (for appeals).


Besides private practice, they can become a prosecutor, government counsel, corporate in-house counsel, administrative law judge, judge, arbitrator, or law professor. There are also many non-legal jobs for which legal training is good preparation, such as politician, corporate executive, government administrator, investment banker, entrepreneur, or journalist. In developing countries like India, a large majority of law students never actually practice, but simply use their law degree as a foundation for careers in other fields.

Outline of business

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to business: Business – organization of one or more individuals, engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers, and the activity of such organizations, also known as "doing business". Types of business entity Sole proprietorship. Partnership. Corporation. Accounting. Commerce. Finance. Industrial and labour relations. Management (outline). Manufacturing. Marketing. Research and development. Advertising. Banking. Barter. Big business. Business acumen. Business broker. Business ethics. Business hours. Business intelligence. Business mediator. Business model design. Business plan.

International joint venture

joint venture
Many ventures resolve this problem by forming a special purpose entity, usually a limited liability company or a corporation, which then acts as the general partner. A joint venture formed as limited liability company (LLC) offers protection to the partners by providing limited liability to all of its members. Unlike a limited liability partnership (LLP), there is no requirement to have a general partner who has unlimited liability and can be held responsible for all the liabilities. Both limited partnerships and limited companies in the U.S. enjoy the advantage of being pass-through entities for U.S. tax purposes. The limited partnership does not pay taxes.

Freedom of information laws by country

freedom of information legislationFreedom of Information Actsunshine law
Directive 95/46/EC, the Data Protection directive, provides a variety of rights in relation to personal data, including a right of access. This has been transcribed into national legislation through, for example, the Data Protection Act 1998 (United Kingdom) and the Data Protection 2003 (Ireland). In Finland, the (Act on the Openness of Public Documents of 1951) established the openness of all records and documents in the possession of officials of the state, municipalities, and registered religious communities. Exceptions to the basic principle could only be made by law, or by an executive order for specific enumerated reasons such as national security.

Division (business)

Divisiondivisionsbusiness division
Often a division operates under a separate name and is the equivalent of a corporation or limited liability company obtaining a fictitious name or "doing business as" certificate and operating a business under that fictitious name. Companies often set up business units to operate in divisions prior to the legal formation of subsidiaries. Generally, only an "entity", e.g. a corporation, public limited company (plc) or limited liability company, etc. would have a "division"; an individual operating in this manner would simply be "operating under a fictitious name". An example of this would be to look at Hewlett Packard (HP), the computer and printer company.


accountancyaccountantaccounting profession
U.S. tax law covers four basic forms of business ownership: sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and limited liability company. Corporate and personal income are taxed at different rates, both varying according to income levels and including varying marginal rates (taxed on each additional dollar of income) and average rates (set as a percentage of overall income). Forensic accounting is a specialty practice area of accounting that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation. "Forensic" means "suitable for use in a court of law," and it is to that standard and potential outcome that forensic accountants generally have to work.

Balance sheet

statement of financial positionbalance sheetsbalance-sheet
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position or statement of financial condition is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity are listed as of a specific date, such as the end of its financial year. A balance sheet is often described as a "snapshot of a company's financial condition".

Privacy in Australian law

Privacyprivacy lawprivacy laws
Privacy and Data Protection Act 2014. Health Records Act 2001. The Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006. Freedom of Information Act 1982. Public Records Act 1973. Surveillance Devices Act 1999. Telecommunications (Interception) (State Provisions) Act 1988. Information Privacy Act 2009. Right to Information Act 2009. Public Records Act 2002. Criminal Law (Rehabilitation of Offenders) Act 1986. Invasion of Privacy Act 1971. Whistleblowers Protection Act 1994. Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000. Private Employment Agents (Code of Conduct) Regulation 2005. Freedom of Information Act 1991. State Records Act 1997. Surveillance Devices Act 2016.

Cloud computing issues

*Cloud computing reliability. availability of services and data. security. complexity. costs. regulations and legal issues. performance. migration. reversion. the lack of standards. limited customization. issues of privacy. United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires a contingency plan that includes, data backups, data recovery, and data access during emergencies. The privacy laws of Switzerland demand that private data, including emails, be physically stored in Switzerland. In the United Kingdom, the Civil Contingencies Act of 2004 sets forth guidance for a business contingency plan that includes policies for data storage.

Digital privacy

privacyprivacy concerns
Digital Privacy is a collective definition that encompasses three sub-related categories; information privacy, communication privacy, and individual privacy. It is often used in contexts that promote advocacy on behalf of individual and consumer privacy rights in digital spheres, and is typically used in opposition to the business practices of many e-marketers/businesses/companies to collect and use such information and data. We are told our data is exposed and that we lack complete privacy. While our data is exposed through digital mediums, such as social media, we also more sensitized to privacy issues.