In business, such trusts, with corporate entities as the trustees, have sometimes been used to combine several large businesses in order to exert complete control over a market, which is how the narrower sense of the term grew out of the broader sense. The OED dates use of the word "trust" in a financial sense from 1825. Corporate trusts came into use as legal devices to consolidate power in large American corporate enterprises. In January 1882, Samuel C. T. Dodd, Standard Oil's General Solicitor, conceived of the corporate trust to help John D. Rockefeller consolidate his control over the many acquisitions of Standard Oil, which was already the largest corporation in the world.
Aktiebolag (, "stock company") is the Swedish term for "limited company" or "corporation". When used in company names, it is abbreviated AB (in Sweden), Ab (in Finland), or A/B (for some older companies), roughly equivalent to the abbreviations Ltd and PLC. The State authority responsible for registration of aktiebolag in Sweden is called the Swedish Companies Registration Office. All aktiebolag are divided into two categories: private limited companies and public limited companies. The name of a private limited company may not contain the word publikt ("public") and the name of a public limited company may not contain the word privat or pvt ("private").
Information CommissionerInformation Commissioner's Office (ICO)Information Commissioner’s Office
Elizabeth Denham has welcomed the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that came into effect in May 2018, as well as the Data Protection Act 2018. In October 2018 she was elected Chair of the International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners (ICDPPC), the leading global forum of data protection and privacy authorities, encompassing more than 120 members across all continents that works throughout the year on global data protection policy issues. During his time as Information Commissioner, Christopher Graham was noted for gaining new powers to issue monetary penalties to those who breach the Data Protection Act 1998.
Business. Capitalism. Commercial law. Distribution (business). Wholesale. Retailing. Cargo. Eco commerce. Economy. Electronic commerce. Export. Fair. Finance. Fishery. Harvest. Industry. BBA. Import. Laissez-faire. Manufacturing. Marketing. Marketplace. Mass production. Master of Commerce. Merchandising. Trade.
Privacy Preferences Project
Currently, the United States has no federal law protecting the privacy of personal information shared online. However, there are some sectoral laws at the federal and state level that offer some protection for certain types of information collected about individuals. For example, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) of 1970 makes it legal for consumer reporting agencies to disclose personal information only under three specified circumstances: credit, employment or insurance evaluation; government grant or license; or a “legitimate business need” that involves the consumer. A list of other sectoral privacy laws in the United States can be viewed at the Consumer Privacy Guide's website.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to business: Business – organization of one or more individuals, engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers, and the activity of such organizations, also known as "doing business". Types of business entity Sole proprietorship. Partnership. Corporation. Accounting. Commerce. Finance. Industrial and labour relations. Management (outline). Manufacturing. Marketing. Research and development. Advertising. Banking. Barter. Big business. Business acumen. Business broker. Business ethics. Business hours. Business intelligence. Business mediator. Business model design. Business plan.
equityshareholders' equityequity capital
Alternatively, equity can also refer to a corporation's share capital (capital stock in American English). The value of the share capital depends on the corporation's future economic prospects. For a company in liquidation proceedings, the equity is that which remains after all liabilities have been paid. When starting a business, the owners fund the business to finance various operations. Under the model of a private limited company, the business and its owners are separate entities, so the business is considered to owe these funds to its owners as a liability in the form of share capital.
statement of financial positionbalance sheetsbalance-sheet
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity are listed as of a specific date, such as the end of its financial year. A balance sheet is often described as a "snapshot of a company's financial condition". Of the four basic financial statements, the balance sheet is the only statement which applies to a single point in time of a business' calendar year.
Privacyprivacy lawprivacy laws
Privacy and Data Protection Act 2014. Health Records Act 2001. The Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006. Freedom of Information Act 1982. Public Records Act 1973. Surveillance Devices Act 1999. Telecommunications (Interception) (State Provisions) Act 1988. Information Privacy Act 2009. Right to Information Act 2009. Public Records Act 2002. Criminal Law (Rehabilitation of Offenders) Act 1986. Invasion of Privacy Act 1971. Whistleblowers Protection Act 1994. Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000. Private Employment Agents (Code of Conduct) Regulation 2005. Freedom of Information Act 1991. State Records Act 1997. Surveillance Devices Act 2016.
*Cloud computing reliability. availability of services and data. security. complexity. costs. regulations and legal issues. performance. migration. reversion. the lack of standards. limited customization. issues of privacy. United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires a contingency plan that includes, data backups, data recovery, and data access during emergencies. The privacy laws of Switzerland demand that private data, including emails, be physically stored in Switzerland. In the United Kingdom, the Civil Contingencies Act of 2004 sets forth guidance for a business contingency plan that includes policies for data storage.
Digital Privacy is a collective definition that encompasses three sub-related categories; information privacy, communication privacy, and individual privacy. It is often used in contexts that promote advocacy on behalf of individual and consumer privacy rights in digital spheres, and is typically used in opposition to the business practices of many e-marketers/businesses/companies to collect and use such information and data.
record keepingrecordkeepingelectronic records
Corporate records compliance issues including retention period requirements and the need to disclose information as a result of litigation have come to be seen as important. Statutes such as the US Sarbanes-Oxley Act have resulted in greater standardization of records management practices. Since the 1990s the shift towards electronic records has seen a need for close working relations between records managers and IT managers, particularly including the legal aspects, focused on compliance and risk management. ; Security Privacy, data protection, and identity theft have become issues of increasing interest.
employee privacyemployees' privacyprivacy
Courts are finding that disputes between workplace privacy and freedom are being complicated with the advancement of technology as traditional rules that govern areas of privacy law are debatable and becoming less important. The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regards to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data limits and regulates the collection of personal information on individuals, including workers.
KolubaraKolubara minesKolubara coal basin
In October 2011 authorities arrested 17 people, including two former directors of the Kolubara mine Dragan Tomic and Vladan Jovicic, eight executive managers and seven owners of private firms with which Kolubara conducted business. The executive managers are suspected of abusing their positions to illegally appropriate up to 2.9 million Euros, while enabling private companies to illegally profit 9.2 million Euros. Pre-trial proceedings were initiated because of suspicion that Kolubara's assets were used illegally through the leasing of construction machinery from privately owned companies, and by enabling other corporations and persons material gain.
Privacy & Data Protection. Private Equity & Venture Capital. Project Development & Finance. Real Estate & Municipal. REITs. Retail. Structured Finance & Financial Products. Tax. Technology. White Collar Crimes & Regulatory Crisis Response. Miller Thomson's website. Miller Thomson's Twitter account. Miller Thomson's LinkedIn profile.
Privacy and data protection. Information technology and electronic storage systems. General business principles.
privacy concernsGoogle Street View privacy concerns (Switzerland)Privacy and town beauty concerns
The Data Protection Directive says that identifiable people have a right to data protection. According to a Danish media lawyer, Oluf Jørgensen, Google's practice of photographing people on private property is illegal. The Danish data authorities advised people who are photographed by Google, to turn Google in to the police. Since then, Google hasn't had any legal problems and continued filming. In an April 2009 interview for the German magazine Focus, Google's Global Privacy Counsel Peter Fleischer remarked that "public opposition to Google Street View in Germany, though not hysterical, had been tougher than in any other country."
AdobeAdobe SystemsAdobe Systems Incorporated
The company did not make it clear if all the personal information was encrypted, such as email addresses and physical addresses, though data privacy laws in 44 states require this information to be encrypted. A 3.8 GB file stolen from Adobe and containing 152 million usernames, reversibly encrypted passwords and unencrypted password hints was posted on AnonNews.org. LastPass, a password security firm, said that Adobe failed to use best practices for securing the passwords and has not salted them. Another security firm, Sophos, showed that Adobe used a weak encryption method permitting the recovery of a lot of information with very little effort.
Information privacy (data protection). Legal aspects of computing. Privacy.
Information Privacy. Privacy. Privacy law. HabeasData.org. Data Colombia. Latin American Data Protection Law Review - Revista Latinoamericana de Proteccion de Datos Personales. Data Privacy laws blog (data protection in Latin America).