Records management

record keepingrecordkeepingrecords
Corporate records compliance issues including retention period requirements and the need to disclose information as a result of litigation have come to be seen as important. Statutes such as the US Sarbanes-Oxley Act have resulted in greater standardization of records management practices. Since the 1990s the shift towards electronic records has seen a need for close working relations between records managers and IT managers, particularly including the legal aspects, focused on compliance and risk management. ; Security Privacy, data protection, and identity theft have become issues of increasing interest.

Internet privacy

privacyonline privacydata trail
Index of Articles Relating to Terms of Service and Privacy Policies. Internet censorship. Internet censorship circumvention. Internet vigilantism. Privacy-enhancing technologies. Freenet. Friend-to-friend. GNUnet. Metadata Removal Tool. Privacy software. PRISM. Privacy law. Right to be forgotten. Privacy in Australian law. Australian Privacy Act 1988. Canadian privacy law. Canadian Privacy Act. Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act. European Union Data Protection Directive. ePrivacy Regulation (European Union). Privacy in English law. UK Data Protection Act 1998. Privacy laws in Russia. Privacy laws of the United States. Bank secrecy.

Canadian privacy law

federal privacy lawsInformation and Privacy Commissioner for British Columbia
Privacy law. Information Privacy Laws. Law in Canada. R v Cole - privacy for personal use of workplace computers (where permitted or reasonably expected). Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada - Our Top Ten list of Privacy Act fixes.

Mass surveillance

surveillance statesurveillance societysurveillance
The right to privacy is a highly developed area of law in Europe. The Data Protection Directive regulates the processing of personal data within the European Union. For comparison, the US has no data protection law that is comparable to this; instead, the US regulates data protection on a sectoral basis. Since early 2012, the European Union has been working on a General Data Protection Regulation to replace the Data Protection Directive and harmonise data protection and privacy law.

Workplace privacy

employee privacyemployees' privacyprivacy
Courts are finding that disputes between workplace privacy and freedom are being complicated with the advancement of technology as traditional rules that govern areas of privacy law are debatable and becoming less important. The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regards to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data limits and regulates the collection of personal information on individuals, including workers.

Google Street View privacy concerns

privacy concernsGoogle Street View privacy concerns (Switzerland)Privacy and town beauty concerns
The Data Protection Directive says that identifiable people have a right to data protection. According to a Danish media lawyer, Oluf Jørgensen, Google's practice of photographing people on private property is illegal. The Danish data authorities advised people who are photographed by Google, to turn Google in to the police. Since then, Google hasn't had any legal problems and continued filming. In an April 2009 interview for the German magazine Focus, Google's Global Privacy Counsel Peter Fleischer remarked that "public opposition to Google Street View in Germany, though not hysterical, had been tougher than in any other country."

Landmark Worldwide

Landmark EducationLandmark ForumLandmark Education Corporation
The business traded as Landmark Education Corporation from May 1991. In June 2003 it was re-structured as Landmark Education LLC, and in July 2013 renamed Landmark Worldwide LLC. Landmark has stated it never paid royalties to Erhard under the licensing agreement, and that it purchased outright the intellectual property in the Forum and other courses by 2002. Landmark Worldwide's core business operation is the delivery of seminars and training courses which aim to offer improvements in personal productivity, vitality, communication skills, and decision-making.

Records manager

records assistant
Privacy and data protection. Information technology and electronic storage systems. General business principles. Records management. Records management taxonomy. Institute of Certified Records Managers.

Lotus Marketplace

Lotus Marketplace was a database program developed jointly by Lotus Development Corporation (as the software developer) and Equifax (as the information provider), announced on April 10, 1990, but cancelled shortly after on January 23, 1991, mainly due to massive protests and lawsuit threats, citing invasion of privacy. This program was rather large (even by today's standards), as it was supposed to be released on several CD-ROMs. Lotus Marketplace was to be released in two editions, Lotus Marketplace: Business (containing information about businesses) and Lotus Marketplace: Households (containing information about peoples and households).

Architectural firm

architecture firmarchitectural practicearchitecture
Although architects are licensed individually, state laws allow them to join together in various forms of business organisation. All states in the United States allow architects to form partnerships, most allow architects to form corporations or professional corporations, and some allow limited liability partnerships (LLPs) or limited liability companies (LLCs). Some states require the firm to obtain a registration to provide architectural services. Others merely require that the architectural work of the firm be performed under the direct supervision of an architect licensed in the state.

Adobe Inc.

Adobe SystemsAdobeAdobe Systems Incorporated
The company did not make it clear if all the personal information was encrypted, such as email addresses and physical addresses, though data privacy laws in 44 states require this information to be encrypted. A 3.8 GB file stolen from Adobe and containing 152 million usernames, reversibly encrypted passwords and unencrypted password hints was posted on LastPass, a password security firm, said that Adobe failed to use best practices for securing the passwords and has not salted them. Another security firm, Sophos, showed that Adobe used a weak encryption method permitting the recovery of a lot of information with very little effort.

Data sovereignty

Information privacy (data protection). Legal aspects of computing. Privacy.

Habeas data

hábeas data
Information privacy. Privacy. Privacy law. Data Colombia. Latin American Data Protection Law Review - Revista Latinoamericana de Proteccion de Datos Personales. Data Privacy laws blog (data protection in Latin America).

Data localization

Information privacy (data protection). Legal aspects of computing. Privacy. Privacy law.


Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee. Employees work in return for payment, which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the type of work an employee does or which sector they are working in. Employees in some fields or sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payment or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment.

Corporation sole

the Crowncorporations solesole ownership
Conceptually speaking, the person of the monarch (office holder) may hold properties privately, distinct from property he or she possesses corporately, and may act as monarch separate from their personal acts. For example, Elizabeth II as a natural person holds several separate offices, such as Queen of the United Kingdom, Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, etc. which are all distinct corporations sole, and at the same time she may also act as a natural person in a private capacity separate and apart from her role filling these various offices (corporations).


They are sometimes described as a hybrid between traditional co-ops and limited liability companies or public benefit corporations. They were first developed in California and spread and flourished in the US Mid-West in the 1990s. They are now common in Canada where they operate primarily in agriculture and food services, where their primary purpose is to add value to primary products. For example, producing ethanol from corn, pasta from durum wheat, or gourmet cheese from goat's milk. A representative example of an operating NGC is the Fourth Estate (association), a global multi-stakeholder NGC journalism association.

Identity theft

identity thiefidentity thievesfalse identity
In Canada, Privacy Act (federal legislation) covers only federal government, agencies and crown corporations. Each province and territory has its own privacy law and privacy commissioners to limit the storage and use of personal data. For the private sector, the purpose of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act ( 2000, c. 5 ) (known as PIPEDA) is to establish rules to govern the collection, use and disclosure of personal information; except for the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia where provincial laws have been deemed substantially similar.

Nonprofit organization

non-profitnon-profit organizationnonprofit
Most countries have laws that regulate the establishment and management of NPOs and that require compliance with corporate governance regimes. Most larger organizations are required to publish their financial reports detailing their income and expenditure publicly. In many aspects, they are similar to corporate business entities though there are often significant differences. Both not-for-profit and for-profit corporate entities must have board members, steering-committee members, or trustees who owe the organization a fiduciary duty of loyalty and trust. A notable exception to this involves churches, which are often not required to disclose finances to anyone, including church members.

Entrepreneurial company (Germany)

Unternehmergesellschaft (haftungsbeschränkt)mini-GmbH
An entrepreneurial company with limited liability (in German: Unternehmergesellschaft (haftungsbeschränkt)) is a German form of a private limited company, usually established as an alternative to a German corporation or GmbH (limited liability) entity. Companies organized as an entrepreneurial company have the suffix ‘UG (haftungsbeschränkt)’ appended to their names. The German government introduced the UG primarily to act as an alternative to establishing a traditional corporation.


GmbH & Co. KGKGGmbH & Co KG
KG is a limited partnership with, typically, the sole general partner being a limited liability company. It can thus combine the advantages of a partnership with those of the limited liability of a corporation. A Dormant Partnership (Stille Gesellschaft) comes into existence when a person makes a contribution to an existing enterprise (company, partnership, sole proprietorship) and shares in the latter's profits. The dormant partner has no liability for the debts of the enterprise; in case of insolvency of the enterprise he is a creditor with the portion of his contribution not consumed by losses.


jurisdictionsjurisdictionallegal jurisdiction
Private jurisdiction. Rasul v. Bush. State immunity. Universal jurisdiction. Supreme Court Decision on the Guantánamo Bay jurisdiction. Jurisdiction As Property – franchise jurisdiction.


Finance is used by individuals (personal finance), by governments (public finance), by businesses (corporate finance) and by a wide variety of other organizations such as schools and non-profit organizations. In general, the goals of each of the above activities are achieved through the use of appropriate financial instruments and methodologies, with consideration to their institutional setting. Finance is one of the most important aspects of business management and includes analysis related to the use and acquisition of funds for the enterprise. In corporate finance, a company's capital structure is the total mix of financing methods it uses to raise funds.

Articles of incorporation

corporate charterAct of Incorporationarticles of association
Articles of incorporation, also referred to as the certificate of incorporation or the corporate charter, are a document or charter that establishes the existence of a corporation in the United States and Canada. They generally are filed with the Secretary of State or other company registrar. An equivalent term for limited liability companies (LLCs) in the United States is articles of organization. For terms with similar meaning in other countries, see articles of association. The articles of incorporation outline the governance of a corporation along with the corporate bylaws and the corporate statutes in the state where articles of incorporation are filed.


tort lawtortstortfeasor
For example, in the business realm, the auditor has a duty of care to the company they are auditing - that the documents created are a true and reliable representation of the company's financial position. However, as per Esanda Finance Corporation Ltd v. Peat Marwick Hungerfords, such auditors do NOT provide a duty of care to third parties who rely on their reports. An exception is where the auditor provides the third party with a privity letter, explicitly stating the third party can rely on the report for a specific purpose. In such cases, the privity letter establishes a duty of care.