Strata Title was developed in Australia and by-laws of body corporate are also empowered by state legislation. These are the main type of by-law most people come into contact with on a regular basis as they control what people in Strata title housing can do in their own homes. The most well known of these is the "no pets in flats" rule. Articles of association. Articles of organization. Constitutional documents. Memorandum of association. Municipal charter. Private governance.

Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive 2002

Directive on Privacy and Electronic CommunicationsE-Privacy DirectiveePrivacy Directive
Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive 2002/58/EC on Privacy and Electronic Communications, otherwise known as ePrivacy Directive (ePD), is an EU directive on data protection and privacy in the digital age. It presents a continuation of earlier efforts, most directly the Data Protection Directive. It deals with the regulation of a number of important issues such as confidentiality of information, treatment of traffic data, spam and cookies. This Directive has been amended by Directive 2009/136, which introduces several changes, especially in what concerns cookies, that are now subject to prior consent.

Supervisory board

Aufsichtsratsupervisory committeeChairman of the Supervisory Board
Another example of a two-tier board system: Mainland China In China's corporation law, the so-called, it stipulates a limited liability company to have: a board of directors and a board of supervisors . Regarding the Chinese requirements of a board of supervisors, under Articles 52 to 57 of the Company Law of the People's Republic of China: a limited liability company requires to set up a board of supervisors, which shall comprise at least 3 persons. A limited liability company, which has relatively less shareholders or is relatively small in scale, may have 1 or 2 supervisors, and does not have to establish a board of supervisors.

Foreign corporation

domestic corporationforeigndomestic
Foreign corporation is a term used in the United States to describe an existing corporation (or other type of corporate entity, such as a limited liability company or LLC) that conducts business in a state or jurisdiction other than where it was originally incorporated. The term applies both to domestic corporations that are incorporated in another state and to corporations that are incorporated in a nation other than the United States. All states require that foreign corporations register with the state before conducting business in the state. For U.S. federal tax purposes, where "foreign corporation" means a corporation that is not created or organized in the United States.

Maurya Empire

Mauryan EmpireMauryanMaurya
Both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to corporations. While Rome had organizational entities which were largely used for public state-driven projects, Mauryan India had numerous private commercial entities. These existed purely for private commerce and developed before the Mauryan Empire itself. Chandragupta Maurya embraced Jainism after retiring, when he renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering group of Jain monks. Chandragupta was a disciple of the Jain monk Acharya Bhadrabahu. It is said that in his last days, he observed the rigorous but self-purifying Jain ritual of santhara (fast unto death), at Shravana Belgola in Karnataka.


A financier is a person whose primary occupation is either facilitating or directly providing investments to up-and-coming or established companies and businesses, typically involving large sums of money and usually involving private equity and venture capital, mergers and acquisitions, leveraged buyouts, corporate finance, investment banking, or large-scale asset management. A financier makes money through this process when his or her investment is paid back with interest, from part of the company's equity awarded to them as specified by the business deal, or a financier can generate income through commission, performance, and management fees.

Targeted advertising

behavioral targetingtargetingbehavioral advertising
Web services are continually generating new business ventures and revenue opportunities for internet corporations. Companies have rapidly developing technological capabilities that allow them to gather information about web users. By tracking and monitoring what websites users visit, internet service providers can directly show ads that are relative to the consumer's preferences. Most of today's websites are using these targeting technologies to track users' internet behavior and there is much debate over the privacy issues present. Search engine marketing uses search engines to reach target audiences.

Samuel D. Warren

Samuel WarrenSamuel Dennis Warren IIWarren
At the end of 1890 they published their famous law review article "The Right to Privacy" in the Harvard Law Review. It is "one of the most influential essays in the history of American law" and is widely regarded as the first publication in the United States to advocate a right to privacy, articulating that right primarily as a "right to be let alone". Brandeis later acknowledged that the idea for the essay originated with Warren's "deep-seated abhorrance of the invasions of social privacy" on the part of the press. In 1899, he left law to oversee the family's paper production business.

Trust law

trusttrust fundtrusts
In a relevant sense, a trust can be viewed as a generic form of a corporation where the settlors (investors) are also the beneficiaries. This is particularly evident in the Delaware business trust, which could theoretically, with the language in the "governing instrument", be organized as a cooperative corporation or a limited liability corporation, although traditionally the Massachusetts business trust has been commonly used in the US.

General partnership

General PartnerG.P.general partners
Journal of Corporation Law, 26, 879–895. Must be created by agreement, proof of existence and estoppel. Formed by two or more persons. The owners are jointly and severally liable for any legal actions and debts the company may face, unless otherwise provided by law or in the agreement. Articles of partnership. Investment clubs. Types of business entity (listed by country).

Series LLC

A series limited liability company, commonly known as a series LLC and sometimes abbreviated as SLLC, is a form of a limited liability company that provides liability protection across multiple "series" each of which is theoretically protected from liabilities arising from the other series. In overall structure, the series LLC has been described as a master LLC that has separate divisions, which is similar to an S corporation with Q-subs. The utility of a Series LLC may be explained by a comparison to the alternative. Many form an LLC in order to protect personal assets from a legal claim relating to their real estate investment or business liabilities.


insurance companyinsurance companiesinsurance industry
Insurance as a financial intermediary is a commercial enterprise and a major part of the financial services industry, but individual entities can also self-insure through saving money for possible future losses. Risk which can be insured by private companies typically shares seven common characteristics: When a company insures an individual entity, there are basic legal requirements and regulations. Several commonly cited legal principles of insurance include: To "indemnify" means to make whole again, or to be reinstated to the position that one was in, to the extent possible, prior to the happening of a specified event or peril.

HTTP cookie

cookiescookieHTTP cookies
Directive 95/46/EC defines "the data subject's consent" as "any freely given specific and informed indication of his wishes by which the data subject signifies his agreement to personal data relating to him being processed." Consent must involve some form of communication where individuals knowingly indicate their acceptance. In 2009, the policy was amended by Directive 2009/136/EC, which included a change to Article 5, Paragraph 3. Instead of having an option for users to opt out of cookie storage, the revised Directive requires consent to be obtained for cookie storage.


Finally, there is the threat du jour: corporations and the technologies they promote." (pp. 56–57.). Wright, R.T. (2008). Technology. Goodheart-Wilcox Company, 5th edition, ISBN: 1-59070-718-4.

Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise

Wholly Foreign Owned Enterpriseforeign enterpriseWFOE
A Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise (WFOE, sometimes incorrectly WOFE) is a common investment vehicle for mainland China-based business wherein foreign parties (individuals or corporate entities) can incorporate a foreign-owned limited liability company. The unique feature of a WFOE is that involvement of a mainland Chinese investor is not required, unlike most other investment vehicles (most notably, a sino-foreign joint venture). WFOEs may be limited-liability companies, as distinct from corporations, partnerships (limited or general), and proprietorships organized by foreign nationals and capitalized with foreign funds.


accountantspublic accountingtax accountant
Chartered Professional Accountants of Canada (CPA Canada) was established by CICA and CMA Canada on January 1, 2013, under the Canada Not-for-profit Corporations Act, to support Canadian provincial accounting bodies that were unifying under the CPA banner. CGA-Canada integrated with CPA Canada on October 1, 2014, completing the unification of Canada's accounting profession at the national level. All recognized national and provincial accounting bodies in Canada have now unified under the CPA banner. The Canadian CPA designation is held by more than 200,000 members in Canada and around the world.


A person who owns a percentage of the share has the ownership of the corporation proportional to his share. The shares form stock. The stock of a corporation is partitioned into shares, the total of which are stated at the time of business formation. Additional shares may subsequently be authorized by the existing shareholders and issued by the company. In some jurisdictions, each share of stock has a certain declared par value, which is a nominal accounting value used to represent the equity on the balance sheet of the corporation. In other jurisdictions, however, shares of stock may be issued without associated par value. Shares represent a fraction of ownership in a business.

Classified information

classifiedtop secretstate secret
A distinction is often made between formal security classification and privacy markings such as "commercial in confidence". Classifications can be used with additional keywords that give more detailed instructions on how data should be used or protected. Some corporations and non-government organizations also assign levels of protection to their private information, either from a desire to protect trade secrets, or because of laws and regulations governing various matters such as personal privacy, sealed legal proceedings and the timing of financial information releases.

The Right to Privacy (article)

The Right to Privacythat titleThe Right to Privacy,
If this conclusion is correct, then existing law does afford "a principle which may be invoked to protect the privacy of the individual from invasion either by the too enterprising press, the photographer, or the possessor of any other modern device for recording or reproducing scenes or sounds." Furthermore, Warren and Brandeis suggest the existence of a right to privacy based on the jurisdictional justifications used by the courts to protect material from publication.

FTC fair information practice

Fair Information Practice PrinciplesFTC Fair Information PracticesCode of Fair Information Practice
Data Protection Directive. FTC 2000 Privacy Report. FTC Privacy Online: A Report to Congress. OECD Fair Information Practices. OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data. The Privacy Act of 1974,.

Spoločnosť s ručením obmedzeným

''; literal translation: "company with limited liability") is a Slovak law business entity, the legal structure for a private limited liability company. It is the rough equivalent of United States LLC and United Kingdom (and certain Commonwealth countries) Ltd. It is regulated under § 105 – 153 of Act. No 513/1991 Coll. (Commercial Code as amended). It is very popular form of business organization due to ensurance of limited liability in exchange for a relatively small investment into the registered capital.


managerBusiness Managementmanagers
However, many managers and executives have completed some type of business or management training, such as a Bachelor of Commerce or a Master of Business Administration degree. Some major organizations, including companies, not-for-profit organizations and governments, require applicants to managerial or executive positions to hold at minimum bachelor's degree in a field related to administration or management, or in the case of business jobs, a Bachelor of Commerce or a similar degree. At the undergraduate level, the most common business program is the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.)

Data aggregation

data aggregatoraggregationaggregate
As the sensitivity to data protection considerations grows, it is likely there will be a considerable focus on the extent to which data aggregators may seek to use this data either for their own use or to share it with third parties and operator(s) of the website on which the service is offered.

The Naked Society

The Naked Society is a 1964 book on privacy by Vance Packard. The book argues that changes in technology are encroaching on privacy and could create a society in the future with radically different privacy standards. Packard criticized advertisers' unfettered use of private information to create marketing schemes. He compared a recent Great Society initiative by then-president Lyndon B. Johnson, the National Data Bank, to the use of information by advertisers and argued for increased data privacy measures to ensure that information did not find its way into the wrong hands.

Theory of the firm

firmtheory of the functions of firmfirms
Schmitz (2006) has studied a variant of the Grossman–Hart–Moore model in which a party may have or acquire private information about its disagreement payoff, which can explain ex post inefficiencies and ownership by the less important investor. Several variants of the Grossman–Hart–Moore model such as the one with private information can also explain joint ownership. * Kroszner, Randall S.; Putterman, Louis, eds. (2009). The Economic Nature of the Firm: A Reader (3rd ed.) Cambridge University Press. 1) Existence. Why do firms emerge? Why are not all transactions in the economy mediated over the market?. 2) Boundaries.