The stock of a corporation is partitioned into shares, the total of which are stated at the time of business formation. Additional shares may subsequently be authorized by the existing shareholders and issued by the company. In some jurisdictions, each share of stock has a certain declared par value, which is a nominal accounting value used to represent the equity on the balance sheet of the corporation. In other jurisdictions, however, shares of stock may be issued without associated par value. Shares represent a fraction of ownership in a business. A business may declare different types (or classes) of shares, each having distinctive ownership rules, privileges, or share values.


Registers of beneficial ownership aim at fighting corporate secrecy in that sense. Other laws require organizations to keep certain information secret, such as medical records (HIPAA in the U.S.), or financial reports that are under preparation (to limit insider trading). Europe has particularly strict laws about database privacy. In many countries, neoliberal reforms of government have included expanding the outsourcing of government tasks and functions to private businesses with the aim of improving efficiency and effectiveness in government administration.

The Right to Privacy (article)

The Right to Privacythat titleThe Right to Privacy,
If this conclusion is correct, then existing law does afford "a principle which may be invoked to protect the privacy of the individual from invasion either by the too enterprising press, the photographer, or the possessor of any other modern device for recording or reproducing scenes or sounds." Furthermore, Warren and Brandeis suggest the existence of a right to privacy based on the jurisdictional justifications used by the courts to protect material from publication.

Classified information

classifiedtop secretstate secret
(E.g. privacy, trade secrets etc.) Private corporations often require written confidentiality agreements and conduct background checks on candidates for sensitive positions. In the U.S. the Employee Polygraph Protection Act prohibits private employers from requiring lie detector tests, but there are a few exceptions. Policies dictating methods for marking and safeguarding company-sensitive information (e.g. "IBM Confidential") are common and some companies have more than one level. Such information is protected under trade secret laws.


However, many managers and executives have completed some type of business or management training, such as a Bachelor of Commerce or a Master of Business Administration degree. Some major organizations, including companies, not-for-profit organizations and governments, require applicants to managerial or executive positions to hold at minimum Bachelor's degree in a field related to administration or management, or in the case of business jobs, a Bachelor of Commerce or a similar degree. At the undergraduate level, the most common business program is the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.).

The Naked Society

The Naked Society is a 1964 book on privacy by Vance Packard. The book argues that changes in technology are encroaching on privacy and could create a society in the future with radically different privacy standards. Packard criticized advertisers' unfettered use of private information to create marketing schemes. He compared a recent Great Society initiative by then-president Lyndon B. Johnson, the National Data Bank, to the use of information by advertisers and argued for increased data privacy measures to ensure that information did not find its way into the wrong hands.

Theory of the firm

firmtheory of the functions of firmfirms
Schmitz (2006) has studied a variant of the Grossman-Hart-Moore model in which a party may have or acquire private information about its disagreement payoff, which can explain ex post inefficiencies and ownership by the less important investor. Several variants of the Grossman-Hart-Moore model such as the one with private information can also explain joint ownership. * Kroszner, Randall S.; Putterman, Louis, eds. (2009). The Economic Nature of the Firm: A Reader (3rd ed.) Cambridge University Press. 1) Existence. Why do firms emerge? Why are not all transactions in the economy mediated over the market?. 2) Boundaries.

Data aggregation

aggregationdata aggregatoraggregate
As the sensitivity to data protection considerations grows, it is likely there will be a considerable focus on the extent to which data aggregators may seek to use this data either for their own use or to share it with third parties and operator(s) of the website on which the service is offered.

Canadian privacy law

federal privacy laws
Privacy law. Information Privacy Laws. Law in Canada. R v Cole - privacy for personal use of workplace computers (where permitted or reasonably expected). Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada - Our Top Ten list of Privacy Act fixes.

Constitution of Italy

Italian ConstitutionConstitutionConstitution of the Italian Republic
The Republic protects, promotes and regulates small and medium-sized businesses, cooperatives and handicrafts and recognises the right of workers to collaborate in the management of enterprises, within the limits of the law. Private savings and credit operations are encouraged, protected and overseen. Article 48 of the Constitution recognises the right to vote of every citizen, male or female, at home or abroad, who has attained majority. Voting is also considered a civic duty and the law must guarantee that every citizen is able to fulfill this right, establishing among other things, in 2000, overseas constituencies represented in the Parliament.

Search engine privacy

The privacy policy of Google states that they pass user data on to various affiliates, subsidiaries, and "trusted" business partners. Yahoo, founded in 1995, also collects user data. It is a well known fact that users do not read privacy policies, even for services that they use daily, such as Yahoo! Mail and Gmail. This persistent failure of consumers to read these privacy policies can be disadvantageous to them because while they may not pick up on differences in the language of privacy policies, judges in court cases certainly do.

Ansvarlig selskap

ANSunlimitedunlimited company
An ansvarlig selskap (liable company) is a Norwegian legal form, mainly used in small and medium-sized enterprises, in which the company's individual owners are held personally liable for any outstanding debts acquired by the company. It is similar to a general partnership. If any participant is unable to pay a share of the debt, it can be collected in full from the other participants. The term is usually abbreviated ANS when used in company names. Unlike an aksjeselskap, anyone is eligible to start an ANS, as the model does not require any starting investment capital. It is a widespread form of company in smaller, low-risk business areas.


confidentialconfidential informationmedical confidentiality
Data Protection Act 1998. Fiduciary. Integrity. Mature minor doctrine. Media transparency. Mental reservation (a form of deception that does not involve outright lying). Non-disclosure agreement, also called confidentiality agreement. Physician–patient privilege for Medical confidentiality. Privacy law. Privilege (evidence). Protection of sources, also called confidentiality of (journalistic) sources. Seal of the confessional. Secrecy. Trade secret.

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party

Article 29 Working PartyEU's data protection groupWorking Party ex Article 29
Provide expert advice to the States regarding data protection. Promote the consistent application of the Data Protection Directive in all EU state members, as well as Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland. Give to the Commission an opinion on community laws (first pillar) affecting the right to protection of personal data. Make recommendations to the public on matters relating to the protection of persons with regard to the processing of personal data and privacy in the European Community. Data Protection. European Union. Right to be forgotten. Art.29 Data Protection Working Party. European Union page regarding Data Protection. European Data Protection Supervisor.

Safe harbor (law)

safe harborsafe-harborSafe Harbor laws
There is an example of a safe harbor decision in reference to the EU Data Protection Directive. The Directive sets comparatively strict privacy protections for EU citizens. It prohibits European firms from transferring personal data to overseas jurisdictions with weaker privacy laws. Five years later, a decision created exceptions where foreign recipients of the data voluntarily agreed to meet EU standards under the International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.

Privacy software

Privacyprivacy-enhancing software tools
Information privacy. Internet privacy. Encryption. Privacy. Proxy server. Metadata removal tool. Privacy engineering. Privacy-enhancing technologies. GNU Privacy Guard (GPG). Pretty Easy privacy. Portable Firefox. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). Secure Shell (SSH). I2P. Tor. uProxy. Reset The Net. PRISM Break. Tutorials for privacy tools, by CryptoParty.

Vance Packard

Packard, Vance
In a 1964 essay called "The Naked Society", Packard criticized advertisers' unfettered use of private information to create marketing schemes. He compared a recent Great Society initiative by then-president Lyndon B. Johnson, the National Data Bank, to the use of information by advertisers and argued for increased data privacy measures to ensure that information did not find its way into the wrong hands. The essay led Congress to create the Special Subcommittee on the Invasion of Privacy and inspired privacy advocates such Neil Gallagher and Sam Ervin to fight Johnson's flagrant disregard for consumer privacy. Packard was married to Virginia Matthews; they had two sons and a daughter.

Mass media

mediapressmedia company
Corporations use marketing public relations to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts. Typically, they support sales in the short and long term, establishing and burnishing the corporation's branding for a strong, ongoing market. Corporations also use public relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment, and they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs.


electronic surveillancestakeoutmonitoring
It is also used by criminal organisations to plan and commit crimes, such as robbery and kidnapping, by businesses to gather intelligence, and by private investigators. Surveillance can be viewed as a violation of privacy, and as such is often opposed by various civil liberties groups and activists. Liberal democracies have laws which restrict domestic government and private use of surveillance, usually limiting it to circumstances where public safety is at risk. Authoritarian government seldom have any domestic restrictions, and international espionage is common among all types of countries.

Surveillance capitalism

collected and sold
Zuboff identifies four key features in the logic of surveillance capitalism and explicitly follows the four key features identified by Google's chief economist, Hal Varian: Numerous organizations have been struggling for free speech and privacy rights in the new surveillance capitalism and various national governments have enacted privacy laws. It is also conceivable that new capabilities and uses for mass-surveillance require structural changes towards a new system to prevent misuse.

Privacy-enhancing technologies

Privacy Enhancing Technologies
Enhanced privacy ID (EPID). I2P - The Anonymous Network. Identity management. Information privacy. Information processing. Information security. Privacy. Privacy by design. Privacy Engineering. Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail. Privacy software. Privacy policy. Stanford CIS wiki database of PETs. The EU PRIME research project (2004 to 2008) aiming at studying and developing novel PETs. About PETs from the Center for Democracy and Technology. Annual symposium on PETs. Report about PETs from the META Group, published by the Danish ministry of science. Activities of the EU Commission in the area of PETs broken link. IBM Zürich Research Lab's idemix.

Data Act (Sweden)

Data Act
In October 1970 a data protection law went into effect in the West German state of Hesse − the Hessisches Datenschutzgesetz. Information privacy law. Privacy law. General Data Protection Regulation, 2016 EU law. Privacy Act of 1974. Swedish Data Protection Authority. Ombudsman. Population registration in Sweden.