Orthodontic headgear

headgearDelair Facemaskfacemasks
Orthodontic headgear is a type of orthodontic appliance typically attached to the patient's head or face with a neck strap or a number of straps around the head. The device typically transfers the force to the teeth via a facebow or J hooks to the patient's dental braces or a palatal expander that aids in correcting more severe bite problems or is used in retention of the teeth and jaws of the patient. Headgear is most commonly used to correct anteroposterior discrepancies. The headgear attaches to the braces via metal hooks or a facebow. Straps or a head cap anchor the headgear to the back of the head or neck. In some situations, both are used.


prognathousmandibular prognathismprognathic
Many dog breeds have underbite, particularly those with short faces, like shih tzus and boxers. This too might be due, as in the case of bulldogs, to severe inbreeding. Prior to the development of modern dentistry, there was no treatment for this condition: those who had it simply endured the condition. Today, the most common treatment for mandibular prognathism is a combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. The orthodontics can involve braces, removal of teeth, or a mouthguard. None of this, however, removes the predisposing genetic condition.

Elastics (orthodontics)

ElasticsLigaturesself ligation
Elastics are rubber bands frequently used in the field of orthodontics to correct different type of malocclusions. The elastic wear is prescribed by an orthodontist or a dentist in an orthodontic treatment. The longevity of the elastic wear may vary from two weeks to several months. The elastic wear can be worn from 12 to 23 hours a day, either during the night or throughout the day depending on the requirements for each malocclusion. The many different types of elastics may produce different forces on teeth. Therefore, using elastics with specific forces is critical in achieving a good orthodontic occlusion.

Orthodontic technology

orthodontic applianceorthodontic appliancesFunctional_appliances
Also known as dentofacial orthopaedic appliances, these appliances utilize the muscle action of the patient and responses of nervous system to produce orthodontic or orthopaedic forces. Various functional appliances have been described. There is a List of Orthodontic Functional Appliances. Orthodontic headgear is a type of appliance attached to dental braces that aids in correcting more severe bite problems. Headgear is an orthodontic appliance for the correction of Class II correction, typically used in growing patients to correct overbites by holding back the growth of the upper jaw, allowing the lower jaw to catch up. The headgear can also be used to make more space for teeth to come in.

Orthognathic surgery

Mandibular advancement surgeryorthognatic surgeryjaw realignment surgery
When a patient has a constricted (oval shape) maxilla, but normal mandible, many orthodontists request a rapid palatal expansion. This consists of the surgeon making horizontal cuts on the lateral board of the maxilla, extending anterally to the inferior border of the nasal cavity. At this time, a chisel designed for the nasal septum is utilized to detach the maxilla from the cranial base. Then, a pterygoid chisel, which is a curved chisel, is used on the left and right side of the maxilla to detach the pterygoid palates. Care must be taken as to not injure the inferior palatine artery.

Alveolar cleft grafting

In cleft lip and palate cases, the maxilla is typically narrow compared to the lower jaw and must be expanded outward. An expansion appliance is placed in the maxilla 6–9 months prior to correct any crossbite or upper arch constriction. This will widen the cleft size, and so that parents and patients need to be warned the symptoms such as fluid reflux may worsen, although some centres will expand the jaw after surgery is complete. In the case of double clefts, expansion is typically before surgery because the premaxilla needs to be repositioned forward, which cannot occur until the upper jaw is widened to allow room.

Dental arch

dental archesArcus dentalisArcus dentalis mandibularis
In humans and many other species, the superior (maxillary or upper) dental arch is slightly larger than the inferior (mandibular or lower) arch, so that in the normal condition the teeth in the maxilla (upper jaw) slightly overlap those of the mandible (lower jaw) both in front and at the sides. The way that the jaws, and thus the dental arches, approach each other when the mouth closes, which is called the occlusion, determines the occlusal relationship of opposing teeth, and it is subject to malocclusion (such as crossbite) if facial or dental development was imperfect.

Edward Angle

Dental extraction

tooth extractionextractionextracted
In preparation for orthodontic treatment (braces). Teeth which cannot be restored endodontically. Prosthetics; teeth detrimental to the fit or appearance of dentures. Head and neck radiation therapy, to treat and/or manage tumors, may require extraction of teeth, either before or after radiation treatments. Lower cost, compared to other treatments. Deliberate, medically unnecessary, extraction as a form of physical torture. It was once a common practice to remove the front teeth of institutionalized psychiatric patients who had a history of biting. Laceration of blood vessels. Osseous bleeding from nutrients canal/ central vessels. Inflammation. Infection. Traumatic extraction.

Clear aligners

InvisalignInvisalign treatmentOrthoclear
Clear aligners, also known as clear-aligner treatment, are orthodontic devices that are a transparent, plastic form of dental braces used to adjust teeth., there are more than 27 products available including ClearCorrect and Invisalign. Clear aligners have undergone changes, making assessment of effectiveness difficult. A 2014 systematic review concluded that published studies were of insufficient quality to determine effectiveness. Experience suggests they are effective for moderate crowding of the front teeth, but less effective than conventional braces for several other issues and are not recommended for children.

List of orthodontic functional appliances

functional appliancesHerbst, Forsus or MARA
List of palatal expanders. Molar distalization. Palatal expansion. Mandibular expansion or lower jaw expansion. Functional_appliances.


jawsgnathicjaw bone
Most of the upper jaw bones (premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, quadratojugal, and quadrate) have been fused to the braincase, while the lower jaw bones (dentary, splenial, angular, surangular, and articular) have been fused together into a unit called the mandible. The jaw articulates via a hinge joint between the quadrate and articular. The jaws of tetrapods exhibit varying degrees of mobility between jaw bones. Some species have jaw bones completely fused, while others may have joints allowing for mobility of the dentary, quadrate, or maxilla. The snake skull shows the greatest degree of cranial kinesis, which allows the snake to swallow large prey items.


dentarylower jawmandibular
The mandible sits beneath the maxilla. It is the only movable bone of the skull (discounting the ossicles of the middle ear). The bone is formed in the fetus from a fusion of the left and right mandibular prominences, and the point where these sides join, the mandibular symphysis, is still visible as a faint ridge in the midline. Like other symphyses in the body, this is a midline articulation where the bones are joined by fibrocartilage, but this articulation fuses together in early childhood. The word "mandible" derives from the Latin word mandibula, "jawbone" (literally "one used for chewing"), from mandere "to chew" and -bula (instrumental suffix).


dentaldental caredentist
He also introduced dental braces, although they were initially made of gold, he discovered that the teeth position could be corrected as the teeth would follow the pattern of the wires. Waxed linen or silk threads were usually employed to fasten the braces. His contributions to the world of dental science consist primarily of his 1728 publication Le chirurgien dentiste or The Surgeon Dentist. The French text included "basic oral anatomy and function, dental construction, and various operative and restorative techniques, and effectively separated dentistry from the wider category of surgery". After Fauchard, the study of dentistry rapidly expanded.

Facemask (orthodontics)

Orthodontic Facemaskreverse pull facemask
A facemask (also referred to as a protraction facemask, orthopedic facemask, or reverse-pull headgear) is a type of an orthodontic headgear used to treat underbite and other malocclusions where the upper jaw is too far backwards. A metal bar sits in front of the patients face with support from the forehead and chin. Elastics are connected to the metal bar and the teeth - directly through the lips / mouth of the patient. The elastics apply forward and downward pressure on the upper jaw. Thus the force direction is the opposite from a standard headgear which is why this appliance is also known as a reverse-pull-headgear.

Occlusion (dentistry)

occlusionocclusaldental occlusion
Malocclusion. Maximum intercuspation. Mutually protected occlusion. Occlusal trauma.


However, prolonged use of a pacifier or other non-nutritive sucking habit (such as finger or blanket sucking) has been found to lead to malocclusion of the teeth, that is teeth sticking out or not meeting properly when they bite together. This is a common problem and the dental (orthodontic) treatment to correct it can take a long time and can be expensive. A Cochrane Review of the evidence found that orthodontic braces or psychological intervention (such as positive or negative reinforcement) were effective in helping children stop sucking habits where that was necessary. An orthodontic brace that used a palatal crib design seems to have been more effective than a palatal arch design.


buck teethoverbitesbuckteeth
This is where the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar is situated anterior to the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar; in other words, the mandible (lower jaw) appears too far behind the maxilla. A person presenting with Class II malocclusion may exhibit excessive overbite as well, or may have the opposite problem, which is referred to as openbite (or apertognathia). In the case of apertognathia, the teeth do not overlap enough or at all—the upper teeth protrude past the lower teeth. American anthropologist C.


teethdentalmaxillary teeth
Among primary teeth, 10 of them are usually found in the maxilla (i.e. upper jaw) and the other 10 in the mandible (i.e. lower jaw). Among permanent teeth, 16 are found in the maxilla and the other 16 in the mandible. Most of the teeth have uniquely distinguishing features. An adult horse has between 36 and 44 teeth. The enamel and dentin layers of horse teeth are intertwined. All horses have 12 premolars, 12 molars, and 12 incisors. Generally, all male equines also have four canine teeth (called tushes) between the molars and incisors. However, few female horses (less than 28%) have canines, and those that do usually have only one or two, which many times are only partially erupted.

Quad helix

A quad helix expander is usually given to those who have a narrow top jaw, a cross bite and/or crowded teeth.

Maxillary hypoplasia

hypoplastic maxilla
It involves the repositioning of the upper jaw to align with the lower jaw, to provide symmetry. It is best performed during childhood, if possible, to allow the jaw to recover and develop. The surgery may be performed in consultation with an Orthodontist who works on repositioning the teeth in the mouth. The recovery time after the surgery depends on the extent of the surgery itself. Patients are usually advised to eat soft foods for days, or sometimes weeks, to allow their jaw time to heal. They also require regular checkups with the doctor to monitor bone displacement, signs of infection, or other issues.

Thumb sucking

thumb-suckingFinger suckingsucking his thumb
This results in narrowing of the upper arch and a posterior crossbite. Thumbsucking can also cause the maxillary central incisors to tip labially and the mandibular incisors to tip lingually, resulting in an increased overjet and anterior open bite malocclusion, as the thumb rests on them during the course of sucking. In addition to proclination of the maxillary incisors, mandibular incisors retrusion will also happen. Transverse maxillary deficiency gives rise to posterior crossbite, ultimately leading to a Class II malocclusion. Children may experience difficulty in swallowing and speech patterns due to the adverse changes.

Maximum intercuspation

This is an important jaw position, as it defines both the anterior-posterior and lateral relationships of the mandible and the maxilla, as well as the superior-inferior relationship known as the vertical dimension of occlusion. These are important considerations when evaluating a patient orthodontically, as well as restoring them prosthodontically. * Occlusion (dentistry) * Ash, Major M.; Nelson, Stanley. WHEELER'S DENTAL ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND OCCLUSION, 8th edition.

Veterinary dentistry

Rostral cross bite (RXB) - one or more of the upper incisors are displaced so they rest behind the lower incisors, rather than in front. May be caused by retained deciduous (baby) upper incisors, preventing normal eruption of adult incisors. Caudal cross bite (CXB) - the mandible is wider than the maxilla in the area of the premolars. Instead of the upper fourth premolar resting against the inner cheek (buccal occlusion) and the lower first molar resting against the tongue (lingual occlusion), the positional relationship is reversed. This is commonly observed in dolichocephalic head types (having a long skull).