Havana has also been a popular health tourism destination for more than 20 years. Foreign patients travel to Cuba, Havana in particular, for a wide range of treatments including eye-surgery, neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and orthopaedics. Many patients are from Latin America, although medical treatment for retinitis pigmentosa, often known as night blindness, has attracted many patients from Europe and North America. Havana has a diversified economy, with traditional sectors, such as manufacturing, construction, transportation and communications, and new or revived ones such as biotechnology and tourism.
Havana, CubaLa HabanaMunicipality
PresidentPresident of the Council of State of CubaCuban President
First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba. Prime Minister of Cuba. List of Presidents of Cuba. Cuba under Fidel Castro. 2006–08 Cuban transfer of presidential duties.
Minister of Communications: Enrique Oltuski Ozacki. Minister of Social Welfare: Elena Mederos. Minister of National Economic Council: Regino Boti Leon. President of the National Bank of Cuba: Felipe Pazos Roque. Secretary to the President and Council of Ministers: Luis M. Buch Rodríguez. Chief of the Navy: Gasper Brooks Avella. Army Chief of Staff: Colonel Jose M. Rego Rubido. National Police Chief: Efigenio Ameijeiras. President of the Supreme Court: Emilio Menéndez Menéndez. Supreme Court Prosecutor: Felipe Luaces Sebrago. Ambassador to the United Nations: Adis C. Garcia. Ambassador to the United States: Ernesto Dihigo.
Cuba has opened four additional embassies in the Caribbean Community including: Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Suriname, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. This development makes Cuba the only country to have embassies in all independent countries of the Caribbean Community. In contrast to the improved relations between Cuba and a number of leftist Latin American states, in 2004 it broke off diplomatic ties with Panama after centrist President Mireya Moscoso pardoned four Cuban exiles accused of attempting to assassinate Castro in 2000. Diplomatic ties were reinstalled in 2005 following the election of leftist President Martín Torrijos.
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the socialist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011. He has also been a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Cuba, the highest decision-making body since 1975. In February 2008, he was appointed the President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers. He stepped down as President on 19 April 2018. Previous to being appointed acting President of Cuba in July 2006, he served as the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces from 1959 to 2008.
President Díaz announced in 1908 that he would retire in 1911, resulting in the development of new coalitions. But then he ran for reelection anyway and in a show of U.S. support, Díaz and William Howard Taft planned a summit in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, for October 16, 1909, an historic first meeting between a Mexican and a U.S. president and also the first time an American president would cross the border into Mexico.
In 1962, he precipitated a crisis with the United States over the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. An agreement was made between the Soviet Union and the United States to remove enemy nuclear missiles from both Cuba and Turkey, concluding the crisis. This event caused Khrushchev much embarrassment and loss of prestige, resulting in his removal from power in 1964. The Era of Stagnation was a period of negative economic, political, and social effects in the Soviet Union, which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev and continued under Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko.
Christianity in Cuba. Episcopal Church of Cuba. Protestantism in Cuba. Roman Catholicism in Cuba. Hinduism in Cuba. Islam in Cuba. Judaism in Cuba. Cuba at the Olympics. Cuban Olympic Committee. List of Olympic medalists for Cuba. Cuban athletes. Cuban records in athletics. Cuba at the Pan American Games. Baseball in Cuba. Cuban national baseball system. Basketball in Cuba. Cuba national basketball team. Cuba women's national basketball team. Cricket in Cuba. Cuba national cricket team. Football in Cuba. Asociación de Fútbol de Cuba. Cuba national football team. Handball in Cuba. Cuba national handball team. Rugby in Cuba. Rugby union in Cuba. Volleyball in Cuba.
ConservativesDon Tomas Estrada PalmaEstrada Palma
During his presidency his major accomplishments include improving Cuba's infrastructure, communication, and public health. He is remembered in Cuba for allowing the Platt Amendment to be enacted, which ensured American political and economic dominance over Cuba. He was born in Bayamo, Spanish Cuba, around July 9, 1835 to Andrés María Estrada y Oduardo and María Candelaria Palma Tamayo. His exact birth date is not known because of a fire in Bayamo Town Hall on January 19, 1869 that destroyed his birth records.
Special Period in Time of PeacePeríodo Especial1991–1999
Cuba in the Special Period. Culture and Ideology in the 1990s. New York: Palgrave -Mac Millan. Lopez, M. Vigil. (1999). Cuba; Neither Heaven Nor Hell. Washington, D.C.: The Ecumenical Program of Central America and the Caribbean (EPICA). Pineiro-Hall, E. (2003) Seattle Delegation US Women and Cuba@ 5th International Women’s Conference, University of Havana. Sierra, J.A. Time Table of Cuba 1980–2005, Retrieved December 12, 2006. Zuckerman, S. (2003). Lessons From Cuba: What Can We Learn From Cuba's Two-Tier Tourism Economy?, Retrieved November 26, 2006. Cuba: Life After Oil. Journeyman Pictures documentary Cuba - Seeds in the City - 22 min 47 sec (27 June 2003).
Council of StateVice President of Council of StateCouncil of State of Cuba
List of Presidents of Cuba. Similar institutions:. Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China. List of current Vice Presidents. 8th Council of State of Cuba.
GrauGrau San MartínRamon Grau
Ramón Grau San Martín (September 13, 1881, La Palma, Pinar del Río Province, Spanish Cuba – July 28, 1969, Havana, Cuba) was a Cuban physician and President of Cuba (1933–1934, 1944–1948). He was the last president other than an interim president, Carlos Manuel Piedra, to be born during Spanish rule. He is sometimes called Raymond Grau San Martin in English. Grau's father, a rich tobacco grower, wanted Ramón to continue in his footsteps, but Ramón himself wanted to be a doctor. He studied at the University of Havana and graduated in 1908 with a Doctor of Medicine degree, then expatriated to Europe in order to expand his medical knowledge.
Cuban officials estimate roughly 1.6 million tourists visited Cuba in 1999 yielding about $1.9 billion in gross revenues. In 2000, 1,773,986 foreign visitors arrived in Cuba. Revenue from tourism reached US $1.7 billion. By 2012, some 3 million visitors brought nearly £2 billion yearly. The growth of tourism has had social and economic repercussions. This led to speculation of the emergence of a two-tier economy and the fostering of a state of tourist apartheid. This situation was exacerbated by the influx of dollars during the 1990s, potentially creating a dual economy based on the dollar (the currency of tourists) on the one hand and the peso on the other.
BatistaBatista regimeBatista Dictatorship
He maintained this control through a string of puppet presidents until 1940, when he was himself elected President of Cuba on a populist platform. He then instated the 1940 Constitution of Cuba and served until 1944. After finishing his term he lived in Florida, returning to Cuba to run for president in 1952. Facing certain electoral defeat, he led a military coup against President Carlos Prío Socarrás that preempted the election. Back in power, and receiving financial, military, and logistical support from the United States government, Batista suspended the 1940 Constitution and revoked most political liberties, including the right to strike.
socialist republicsocialistsocialist countries
In the Western world, particularly in mass media, journalism and politics, these states and countries are often called "Communist states" (though they do not use this term to refer to themselves), despite the fact that these countries never claimed to have achieved communism in their countries—rather, they claim to be building and working toward the establishment of socialism (and the development towards communism thereafter) in their countries. Karl Marx and subsequent thinkers in the Marxist tradition conceive of the state as representing the interests of the ruling class, partially out of material necessity for the smooth operation of the modes of production it presides over.
In 2014, Obama announced a restoration of full diplomatic relations with Cuba for the first time since 1961. The next year, the United States as a member of the P5+1 countries signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement aimed to slow the development of Iran's nuclear program, though the U.S. withdrew from the deal in May 2018. In the United States presidential election of 2016, Republican Donald Trump was elected as the 45th president of the United States. Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history.
Canada's official website for travel and tourism. Official website of Destination Canada. Studies. A Guide to the Sources from International Council for Canadian Studies.
West Indiesthe CaribbeanWest Indian
For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is also in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) consists of almost every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies solely on the Pacific Ocean.
In the Special Period of Cuba, the time after the Soviet Union collapsed and was no longer able to support Cuba financially, leading the small communist nation to seek more tourism. As tourism increased, there followed an increase in prostitution in Cuba. A dance style recently emerged, which involves fast and suggestive shaking of the women's lower torso section, simulating sexual activity. With this type of dance, the woman's body is seen as more "solo", with moves such as the despelote (all-over-the-place) and tembleque (shake-shudder) and the subasta de la cintura (waist auction).
Cuban ConstitutionConstitution1940 Constitution
On December 21, 2018, the Cuba National Assembly approved the amended Constitution, thus completing the final step for a referendum es:Historia del constitucionalismo cubano The recognition of private property, and the creation of a freer market. The restoration of the positions of President and Prime Minister of Cuba as a post separate from President of the Council of State. The creation of a two consecutive five-year term limit imposed on the president. Banning discrimination based on gender, ethnic origin, or disability, (formerly included leading to the possible legalization of same-sex marriage).
The World Tourism Organization reports the following destinations as the top six tourism earners for the year 2017: Mexico, with US$21,333 million; the Dominican Republic, with US$7,178 million; Brazil, with US$6,024 million; Colombia, with US$4,773 million; Argentina, with US$4,687 million; and Panama, with US$4,258 million.
Charles E. MagoonMagoonsecond U.S. military intervention
Other Cuban historians point to the fiscal wastefulness of Magoon's tenure, which "left a bad memory and a bad example to the country" and returned Cuba to the corrupt practices of colonial times. On January 29, 1909, the sovereign government of Cuba was restored, and José Miguel Gómez became president. No explicit evidence of Magoon's corruption ever surfaced, but his parting gesture of issuing lucrative Cuban contracts to U.S. firms was a continued point of contention. Several months later, Magoon received an official commendation from President Taft for his excellent service in Cuba.
Jose Miguel GomezPresident Gómez
He was married to América Arias y López, and their son, Miguel Mariano Gómez, served as the sixth President of Cuba. (Spanish). Cuba, The Pursuit of Freedom (Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd., 1971).
embargoembargo against CubaCuban embargo
While restrictions on travel for missionary work and education have been loosened, visits for tourism remain banned. President Obama and President Raúl Castro of Cuba met on April 11, 2015, which was the first meeting between distinct leaders of the two countries in over fifty years. In May 2015, several American companies reported they had been granted licenses to establish ferry travel between Florida and Cuba, with a U.S. Department of Treasury spokeswoman confirming they had begun issuing licenses. So far the general ban on travel to Cuba remains in effect for Americans, so the ferry service will not be accessible to Americans who have not received special approval for travel to Cuba.
Presidency of the Dominican Republic. Official country website. Dominican Republic at UCB Libraries GovPubs. Dominican Republic profile from the BBC News. Official Website of the Ministry of Tourism of the Dominican Republic. Official Commercial Website Ministry of Tourism of the Dominican Republic. Official Website of the IDDI, Instituto Dominicano de Desarrollo Integral. Caribbean Connections: Dominican Republic teaching guide for middle and high school students.