Laura Angel

Laura Angel (born 16 October 1974) is a Czech singer, model, former pornographic actress and Film Director. Angel did her first hardcore movie in 1998. At the beginning of her career as an actress she also appeared as Lenka Luv, Laura Arnold, Patricia McNail or Penelope . Since then she has played in about 280 films. She performed as a protagonist in Alexia & Cie and Harcèlement au féminin by Marc Dorcel. At the end of the 1990s, she worked mainly with Performances for Private Media and played in movies like Sex Shot and Hell's Belles . In 2003 she withdrew from porn business and now lives. In addition to her work as a model, she also worked as a singer for various Euro-dance projects.

Mili Jay

Mili Jay (born 23 December 1983) is a Slovak pornographic actress. In 2006, she won the "Best Starlette" Ninfa Prize for her performance in Las Perversiones de Silvia Saint.

George Uhl

George Uhl (born Jiří Uhl; 30 November 1970) is a Czech pornographic film actor. George is known for his sexual stamina and rare talent of being able to visibly and strongly ejaculate and then ejaculate again without experiencing a refractory period. Also, he is a winning tennis player.George has 2 sons, both from two different women, Patrick Hudson and Kevin Uhl.

Velvet Revolution

fall of communismfall of the communist regime1989
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989. In June 1990, Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two countries—the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Communist Party seized power on 25 February 1948. No official opposition parties operated thereafter. Dissidents (notably Charter 66, Charter 77 and Civic Forum) created Music Clubs (on a limited basis as only allowed NGO's) and published home-made periodicals (samizdat).


SudetenSudeten crisisSudeten Germans
He also insisted that the German-inhabited regions of West and North Bohemia remain within Czechoslovakia. The American delegation at the Paris talks, with Allen Dulles as the American's chief diplomat in the Czechoslovak Commission who emphasized preserving the unity of the Czech lands, decided not to follow Coolidge's proposal. Four regional governmental units were established: The U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference issued a declaration which gave unanimous support for "unity of Czech lands".

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
The border to Czechoslovakia was opened again on 1 November, but the Czechoslovak authorities soon let all East Germans travel directly to West Germany without further bureaucratic ado, thus lifting their part of the Iron Curtain on 3 November. On 4 November the authorities decided to authorize a demonstration in Berlin and were faced with the Alexanderplatz demonstration where half a million citizens converged on the capital demanding freedom in the biggest protest the GDR ever witnessed.

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Bohemia and MoraviaProtectorateCzech Protectorate
On 10 October 1938, when Czechoslovakia was forced to accept the terms of the Munich Agreement, Germany incorporated the Sudetenland, on the Czechoslovak border with Germany and Austria proper, with its majority of ethnic German inhabitants, directly into the Reich. Five months later, when the Slovak Diet declared the independence of Slovakia, Hitler summoned Czechoslovak President Emil Hácha to Berlin and intimidated him into accepting the German occupation of the Czech rump state and its reorganisation as a German protectorate.

Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
The Czech musical film, Rebelové from Filip Renč, also depicts the events, the invasion and subsequent wave of emigration. The number 68 has become iconic in the former Czechoslovakia. Hockey player Jaromír Jágr, whose grandfather died in prison during the rebellion, wears the number because of the importance of the year in Czechoslovak history. A former publishing house based in Toronto, 68 Publishers, that published books by exiled Czech and Slovak authors, took its name from the event.


Carpathian UkraineRutheniaTranscarpathia
On 26 November this committee, led by Ivan Ivanovich Turyanitsa (a Rusyn who had deserted from the Czechoslovak army) proclaimed the "will of Ukrainian people" to separate from Czechoslovakia and to join the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. After two months of conflict and unsuccessful negotiations the Czechoslovak government delegation departed Khust on 1 February 1945, leaving Carpatho-Ukraine under Soviet control. The Soviet Union exerted pressure on Czechoslovakia, and on 29 June 1945, the two countries signed a treaty, officially ceding Carpatho-Ruthenia to the USSR.

Third Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak government
Consequently, the political and economic organisation of Czechoslovakia became largely a matter of negotiations between Edvard Beneš and Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) exiles living in Moscow. In February 1948, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized full power in a coup d'état. Although the country's official name remained the Czechoslovak Republic until 1960, when it was changed to the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, February 1948 is considered the end of the Third Republic. The Third Republic came into being in April 1945.

Carpathian Ruthenia

In 1928, Czechoslovakia was divided into four provinces and one of them was Sub-Carpathian Rus. In the period 1918-1938 the Czechoslovak government decided to bring the very undeveloped region (70% of population illiterate, no industry, herdsman way of life) to the level of Czechoslovakia. Thousands of Czech teachers, policemen, clerks and businessmen went to the region. The Czechoslovak government used a lot of money to build thousands of kilometres of railways, roads, airports, hundreds of schools and residential buildings.

Czech and Slovak Federative Republic

CzechoslovakiaCSFRCzechoslovak Federative Republic
After the fall of communism in 1989, Czechoslovakia adopted the official name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (, Česká a Slovenská Federatívna Republika; ČSFR) during the period from 23 April 1990 until 31 December 1992, when the country was dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This period is also referred to as the Fifth Czechoslovak Republic. Since 1960, Czechoslovakia's official name had been the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR). In the aftermath of the Velvet Revolution, newly elected President Václav Havel announced that "Socialist" would be dropped from the country's official name.

Young Czech Party

Young CzechEdvard GrégrJulius Grégr
The Czech political parties that emerged at the turn of the century were essentially those that formed the political, social, and economic base of the First Czechoslovak Republic, Czechoslovakia. The Young Czech Party (National Liberal Party), with its democratic and liberal leadership, successfully helped establish a separate and independent Czech state through leading and democratizing its politics. *Neo-Slavism

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaRomanian communist regime
On 21 August 1965, following the example of Czechoslovakia, the name of the country was changed to "Socialist Republic of Romania" (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) and PMR's old name was restored (Partidul Comunist Român, PCR; "Romanian Communist Party"). In his early years in power, Ceaușescu was genuinely popular, both at home and abroad. Agricultural goods were abundant, consumer goods began to reappear, there was a cultural thaw, and, what was important abroad, he spoke out against the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.

Milan Rastislav Štefánik

Milan ŠtefánikŠtefánikMilan Stefanik
The philosophy lectures were given by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, the future first president of Czechoslovakia, who inspired Štefánik with the idea of co-operation between the Czechs and the Slovaks. Furthermore, Štefánik very actively participated in the work of the Slovak student association, Detvan, (and within Detvan, the so-called Hlasists group); he became acquainted with Vavro Šrobár. His studies were financed largely by Czech associations, including Českoslovanská jednota (Czechoslavic Unity) and Radhošť since he could not afford them himself. In Prague, he wrote political and artistic texts in which he tried to inform the Czechs of the disastrous situation of the Slovaks at that time.


Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland. The remainder of Czech territory became the Second Czechoslovak Republic and was subsequently occupied as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, In 1969, the Czech lands (including Bohemia) were given autonomy within Czechoslovakia as the Czech Socialist Republic. In 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which became a separate state in 1993 with the split of Czechoslovakia. Until 1948, Bohemia was an administrative unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its "lands" ("země").


communistcommunistscommunist ideology
Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II. Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century. The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991.


CzechBohemianCzech people
List of Czechs. The Greatest Czech. List of Bohemian monarchs. List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic. List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia. List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia. List of Presidents of the Czech Republic.

Little Entente

Ententeneighbouring countriesneighbouring states
Czechoslovakia. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Fink, Carole, Axel Frohn, and Jürgen Heideking, 2002. Genoa, Rapallo, and European Reconstruction in 1922. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Gilbert, Felix and David Clay Large, 1991. The End of European Era, 1890 to Present. 4th edition worldwide. 1st edition in the Czech Republic. Prague: Mladá fronta. Glasgow, George, 1926. From Dawes to Locarno; Being a Critical Record of an Important Achievement in European Diplomacy, 1924-1925. Ayer Publishing. Gordon, Craig A. and Felix Gilbert (eds), 1994. The Diplomats, 1919-1939. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Nálevka, Vladimír, 2000.

Adam Film World

Adam Film World Guide AwardAFWG AwardAFW Award
The Internet Adult Film Database owes its start to Peter Van Aarle, who began keeping notes on index cards on adult movies he had seen or were reviewed in Adam Film World starting in 1982. Adam Film World was called "one of the industry's leading trade publications" in 1994 by the Associated Press. In his 2001 book Pornography and Sexual Representation, Joseph Slade states, "Extremely valuable are the reports, reviews and gossip of Adam Film World and Adult Video Guide, the oldest American monthly devoted to explicit cinema and generally more reliable than similar magazines, though the information on actors and actresses should be approached with caution.