Adam Film World

Adam Film World Guide AwardAFWG AwardAdam Film World Guide Awards
The Internet Adult Film Database owes its start to Peter Van Aarle, who began keeping notes on index cards on adult movies he had seen or were reviewed in Adam Film World starting in 1982. Adam Film World was called "one of the industry's leading trade publications" in 1994 by the Associated Press. In his 2001 book Pornography and Sexual Representation, Joseph Slade states, "Extremely valuable are the reports, reviews and gossip of Adam Film World and Adult Video Guide, the oldest American monthly devoted to explicit cinema and generally more reliable than similar magazines, though the information on actors and actresses should be approached with caution.


CzechCzech peopleBohemian
List of Czechs. The Greatest Czech. List of Bohemian monarchs. List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic. List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia. List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia. List of Presidents of the Czech Republic.

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

Tomáš MasarykT. G. MasarykThomas Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, sometimes anglicised Thomas Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was a Czechoslovak politician, statesman, sociologist and philosopher. Until 1914, he advocated restructuring the Austro-Hungarian Empire into a federal state. With the help of the Allied Powers, Masaryk gained independence for a Czechoslovak Republic as World War I ended in 1918. He founded Czechoslovakia and served as its first president, and so is called by some Czechs the "President Liberator" .

Czechoslovak Legion

Czechoslovak LegionsCzech LegionCzechoslovaks
Originally an all-volunteer force, these formations were later strengthened by Czech and Slovak prisoners of war or deserters from the Austro-Hungarian Army. The majority of the legionaries were Czechs, with Slovaks making up 7% of the force in Russia, 3% in Italy and 16% in France. The name Czechoslovak Legion preceded and anticipated the creation of a country called Czechoslovakia. As World War I broke out, national societies representing ethnic Czechs and Slovaks residing in the Russian Empire petitioned the Russian government to support the independence of their homelands.

Soviet Union

It was the third-highest in the Eastern Bloc, behind Czechoslovakia and East Germany, and the 25th in the world of 130 countries. The need for fuel declined in the Soviet Union from the 1970s to the 1980s, both per ruble of gross social product and per ruble of industrial product. At the start, this decline grew very rapidly but gradually slowed down between 1970 and 1975. From 1975 and 1980, it grew even slower, only 2.6%. David Wilson, a historian, believed that the gas industry would account for 40% of Soviet fuel production by the end of the century. His theory did not come to fruition because of the USSR's collapse.

Edvard Beneš

BenešEduard BenešEduard Benes
In 1919, his decision to pull demoralized Czechoslovak Legions out of the Russian Civil War was denounced by Kramář as a betrayal. Beneš served in parliament from 1920 to 1925 and from 1929 to 1935. He represented Czechoslovakia at the 1919 peace conference in Paris, which led to the Versailles Treaty. He briefly returned to the academic world as a professor, in 1921. In the early 1920s, Beneš and his mentor President Masaryk viewed Kramář as the principal threat to Czechoslovak democracy, seeing him as a "reactionary" Czech chauvinist who was opposed to their plans for Czechoslovakia as a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic state.

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

expelledexpulsion of Germans after World War IIexpulsion of Germans
During the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, especially after the reprisals for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, most of the Czech resistance groups demanded that the "German problem" be solved by transfer/expulsion. These demands were adopted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile, which sought the support of the Allies for this proposal, beginning in 1943. The final agreement for the transfer of the Germans was not reached until the Potsdam Conference. The expulsion policy was part of a geopolitical and ethnic reconfiguration of postwar Europe.

Republic of German-Austria

German AustriaGerman-AustriaAustria
However, the Allies of World War I opposed such a move and German-Austria was largely powerless to resist the forces of Italy, Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes from seizing some of its territory. Countries on the winning side of the war took many territories with German majorities. The Czechs ignored principles of ethnic borders and insisted on the historic borders of the Kingdom of Bohemia; thus three million Germans became Czechoslovak citizens, an indirect precipitant of the Sudetenland crisis 20 years later. A victor nation, Italy occupied and was awarded Trentino and South Tyrol, of which South Tyrol is still majority German-speaking.

Beneš decrees

Beneš decreeBenes DecreesDecrees
Beneš, who was elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1935, resigned after the Munich Agreement in 1938. After the occupation of Czechoslovakia Beneš and other Czechoslovak politicians and officials emigrated to France, establishing the Czechoslovak National Committee, in November 1939, to restore Czechoslovakia. The committee's primary task was to establish a Czechoslovak army in France. After the fall of France the committee moved to London, where it became the Interim Czechoslovak Government.


Massacre in Ležáky
On the morning of 27 May 1942, Heydrich's car was attacked by Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš, Czech and Slovak soldiers acting for the Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Heydrich died on 4 June 1942. After the assassination, the Nazis imposed martial law. On 10 June, the village of Lidice was razed and all male inhabitants aged over 15 were shot. Lidice was selected because its residents were falsely accused of harbouring local resistance partisans and aiding Operation Anthropoid team members. Thereafter, Gestapo agents found a radio transmitter in Ležáky which belonged to Operation Silver A. Alfréd Bartoš, the leader of resistance group Silver A, killed himself shortly thereafter.

Operation Anthropoid

assassination of Reinhard Heydrichassassinatedassassination
Moravec had personally selected two dozen of the most promising personnel from among the 2,000 exiled Czechoslovak soldiers based in Britain. They were sent to one of SOE's commando training centres at Arisaig in Scotland. Warrant Officer Jozef Gabčík (Slovak) and Staff Sergeant Karel Svoboda (cs) (Czech) were chosen to carry out the operation on 28 October 1941 (Czechoslovakia's Independence Day), but Svoboda was replaced by Jan Kubiš (Czech) after he received a head injury during training. This caused delays in the mission as Kubiš had not completed training, nor had the necessary false documents been prepared for him.


Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustro-HungarianAustria–Hungary
The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia, where the Czech speakers formed a majority and sought equal status for their language to German. The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century and German immigrants had begun settling the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century. The constitution of 1627 made the German language a second official language and equal to Czech. German speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian Diet in 1880 and became a minority to Czech speakers in the cities of Prague and Pilsen (while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno (Brünn)).

Karel Kramář

Karel KramarDr. Karel KramářKarel Kramá
Formerly a close associate of Masaryk, later the first president of Czechoslovakia, the two had been barely on speaking terms by 1914. Kramář, as the most prominent politician in Czechoslovakia, was named the country's first prime minister (14 November 1918 – 8 July 1919), much to the displeasure of Masaryk. In January 1919, the Polish–Czechoslovak War between Poland and Czechoslovakia began over the Duchy of Teschen. The Teschen region which had a Polish majority and a Czech minority was very rich in coal.

Czech lands

Czechhistorical landRegion
The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918 and the Czech Republic since 1 January 1969, which became independent on 1 January 1993. In a historical context, Czech texts use the term to refer to any territory ruled by the Kings of Bohemia, i.e., the lands of the Bohemian Crown (země Koruny české) as established by Emperor Charles IV in the 14th century. This would include territories like the Lusatias (which in 1635 fell to Saxony) and the whole of Silesia, all ruled from Prague Castle at that time.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
The Czechoslovak Legion fought on the side of the Entente. Its goal was to win support for the independence of Czechoslovakia. The Legion in Russia was established in September 1914, in December 1917 in France (including volunteers from America) and in April 1918 in Italy. Czechoslovak Legion troops defeated the Austro-Hungarian army at the Ukrainian village of Zborov, in July 1917. After this success, the number of Czechoslovak legionaries increased, as well as Czechoslovak military power. In the Battle of Bakhmach, the Legion defeated the Germans and forced them to make a truce.


Germanethnic Germanethnic Germans
German-Austria lost the territories of the Sudetenland and German Bohemia to Czechoslovakia, South Tyrol to Italy, and southern Carinthia and Styria to Yugoslavia and the rump state was renamed "Republic of Austria". With these changes, the era of the First Austrian Republic began. These events are sometimes considered to be a pre-Anschluss attempt. During the 1920s, the constitutions of both the First Austrian Republic and the Weimar Republic included the goal of union between the two countries which was supported by all different political parties.

1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia

1960 Constitutiona new constitutionnew constitution
Chapter 7 concerns National Committees (i. e. local and regional government), 8 judiciary system and 9 general and concluding provisions. * Government structure of Communist Czechoslovakia * Czech text of the 1960 version (Archived from the original on October 10, 2007).

Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920

1920 ConstitutionConstitutionCzechoslovak Constitution
These local governments from that point forward would control Slovakia, with the government established by the constitution ruling over the more basic common matters as well as the Czech half of the nation. The 1920 constitution was replaced on 9 May 1948 by the Ninth-of-May Constitution, following the Communist takeover in February 1948. * The constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic (1920), Internet Archive, Cornell University Library A History of the Czechs and Slovaks, RW Seton-Watson, London, 1943. Taborsky, Ed. 1944. Czechoslovakia’s Experience with P.R. Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, vol. 26: 49-51. (accessed September 9, 2007).

Communist state

Communist regimecommunist countriescommunist
Czechoslovakia. Slovak Soviet Republic (1919). Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia (1944–1948). Fourth Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960). Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1990). Hungary. Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919). Soviet occupation of Hungary (1944–1946). Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957).svg Second Hungarian Republic (1946–1949). 🇭🇺 Hungarian People's Republic (1949–1989). Germany. [[German Revolution of 1918–19#Saturday, 9 November 1918: two proclamations of a republic|Free Socialist Republic of Germany]] (1918–1919). Saxony Soviet (1918–1919). Socialist red flag.svg Bavarian Soviet Republic (1919). Soviet occupation of Germany (1945–1949).

Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation

Constitutional Law of Federationfederalizationfederalization of Czechoslovakia
The promulgation of the Constitutional Law of Federation amended fifty-eight articles of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia concerning the structure of government. The Czechoslovak state was declared to be a federation of "two equal fraternal nations," the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic, each with its own national administration paralleling and, at least in theory, equal in status to the federal government.


Prague, Czech RepublicPrague, CzechoslovakiaPraha
In the following years, the Czech National Revival began its rise, until it gained the majority in the town council in 1861. Prague had a German-speaking majority in 1848, but by 1880 the number of German speakers had decreased to 14% (42,000), and by 1910 to 6.7% (37,000), due to a massive increase of the city's overall population caused by the influx of Czechs from the rest of Bohemia and Moravia and also due to return of social status importance of the Czech language. World War I ended with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the creation of Czechoslovakia. Prague was chosen as its capital and Prague Castle as the seat of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk.

Aero Vodochody

AeroAero (2)Aero Letňany
Aero S-102 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevish MiG-15 fighter. Aero CS-102 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15UTI trainer. Aero S-103 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15bis fighter. Aero S-104 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17PF fighter. Aero S-105 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19S fighter. Aero S-106 (1960s) Czech production version of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21F-13 fighter. Aero L-39 Albatros (1970–1997, military jet trainer). Aero L-270 (1990, single engine utility aircraft). Aero L-59 Super Albatros (1992–96, military jet trainer).

Ninth-of-May Constitution

1948 Constitution of Czechoslovakia1948 Constitution of the Czechoslovak Republica new constitution
*History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989)

List of prime ministers of Czechoslovakia

Prime Minister of CzechoslovakiaPrime MinisterPrime Minister of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
The Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia (Předseda vlády Československa, Predseda vlády Česko-Slovenska) was the head of government of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992. In periods when the post of the President of Czechoslovakia was vacant, some presidential duties were carried out by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions do not define anything like a post of acting president., there are two living former Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia: Lubomír Štrougal & Marián Čalfa.

Tatra (company)

TatraNesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft A.G.Tatra trucks
Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice. It is owned by the Tatra Trucks company, based in Ostrava, and is the third oldest company in the world producing cars with an unbroken history. The company was founded in 1850 as Ignatz Schustala & Comp., in 1890 renamed Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft when it became a wagon and carriage manufacturer. In 1897, Tatra produced the first motor car in central Europe, the Präsident automobile. In 1918, it changed its name to Kopřivnická vozovka a.s., and in 1919 changed from the Nesselsdorfer marque to the Tatra badge, named after the nearby Tatra Mountains on the Czechoslovak-Polish border (now on the Slovak-Polish border).