In 1919, his decision to pull demoralized Czechoslovak Legions out of the Russian Civil War was denounced by Kramář as a betrayal. Beneš served in parliament from 1920 to 1925 and from 1929 to 1935. He represented Czechoslovakia at the 1919 peace conference in Paris, which led to the Versailles Treaty. He briefly returned to the academic world as a professor, in 1921. In the early 1920s, Beneš and his mentor President Masaryk viewed Kramář as the principal threat to Czechoslovak democracy, seeing him as a "reactionary" Czech chauvinist who was opposed to their plans for Czechoslovakia as a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic state.
BenešPresident BenešBeneš, Edvard
However, the Allies of World War I opposed such a move and German-Austria was largely powerless to resist the forces of Italy, Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes from seizing some of its territory. Countries on the winning side of the war took many territories with German majorities. The Czechs ignored principles of ethnic borders and insisted on the historic borders of the Kingdom of Bohemia; thus three million Germans became Czechoslovak citizens, an indirect precipitant of the Sudetenland crisis 20 years later. A victor nation, Italy occupied and was awarded Trentino and South Tyrol, of which South Tyrol is still majority German-speaking.
Dr. Karel KramářKarel Kramá
Formerly a close associate of Masaryk, later the first president of Czechoslovakia, the two had been barely on speaking terms by 1914. Kramář, as the most prominent politician in Czechoslovakia, was named the country's first prime minister (14 November 1918 – 8 July 1919), much to the displeasure of Masaryk. In January 1919, the Polish–Czechoslovak War between Poland and Czechoslovakia began over the Duchy of Teschen. The Teschen region which had a Polish majority and a Czech minority was very rich in coal.
The Soviet Union bordered Afghanistan, China, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Hungary, Iran, Mongolia, North Korea, Norway, Poland, Romania, and Turkey from 1945 to 1991. The Soviet Union's highest mountain was Communism Peak (now Ismoil Somoni Peak) in Tajikistan, at 7495 m. The Soviet Union also included most of the world's largest lakes; the Caspian Sea (shared with Iran), and Lake Baikal, the world's largest and deepest freshwater lake that is also an internal body of water in Russia.
Munich CrisisMunichMunich Conference
The Czechoslovaks were dismayed with the Munich settlement. They were not invited to the conference, and felt they had been betrayed by the United Kingdom and France. Czechs and Slovaks call the Munich Agreement the Munich Diktat (Mnichovský diktát; Mníchovský diktát). The phrase "Munich Betrayal" (Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) is also used because the military alliance Czechoslovakia had with France proved useless. The slogan "About us, without us!" (O nás bez nás!) summarizes the feelings of the people of Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia and Czech Republic) towards the Agreement.
Massacre in Ležáky
On the morning of 27 May 1942, Heydrich's car was attacked by Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš, Czech and Slovak soldiers acting for the Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Heydrich died on 4 June 1942. After the assassination, the Nazis imposed martial law. On 10 June, the village of Lidice was razed and all male inhabitants aged over 15 were shot. Lidice was selected because its residents were falsely accused of harbouring local resistance partisans and aiding Operation Anthropoid team members. Thereafter, Gestapo agents found a radio transmitter in Ležáky which belonged to Operation Silver A. Alfréd Bartoš, the leader of resistance group Silver A, committed suicide shortly thereafter.
Beneš decreeDecreesBeneš decrets
Beneš, who was elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1935, resigned after the Munich Agreement in 1938. After the occupation of Czechoslovakia Beneš and other Czechoslovak politicians and officials emigrated to France, establishing the Czechoslovak National Committee, in November 1939, to restore Czechoslovakia. The committee's primary task was to establish a Czechoslovak army in France. After the fall of France the committee moved to London, where it became the Interim Czechoslovak Government.
assassination of Reinhard Heydrichassassinationassassinated
Moravec had personally selected two dozen of the most promising personnel from among the 2,000 exiled Czechoslovak soldiers based in Britain. They were sent to one of SOE's commando training centres at Arisaig in Scotland. Warrant Officer Jozef Gabčík (Slovak) and Staff Sergeant Karel Svoboda (cs) (Czech) were chosen to carry out the operation on 28 October 1941 (Czechoslovakia's Independence Day), but Svoboda was replaced by Jan Kubiš (Czech) after he received a head injury during training. This caused delays in the mission as Kubiš had not completed training, nor had the necessary false documents been prepared for him.
First World WarGreat WarFirst
The Czechoslovak Legion fought with the Entente; its goal was to win support for the independence of Czechoslovakia. The Legion in Russia was established in September 1914, in December 1917 in France (including volunteers from America) and in April 1918 in Italy. Czechoslovak Legion troops defeated the Austro-Hungarian army at the Ukrainian village of Zborov, in July 1917. After this success, the number of Czechoslovak legionaries increased, as well as Czechoslovak military power. In the Battle of Bakhmach, the Legion defeated the Germans and forced them to make a truce.
The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. On January 1, 2018, according to the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine the population of the country was 42,216,766 permanent residents. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power. The name "Ukraine" (Vkraina) is a subject of debate. It is often perceived as being derived from the Slavic word "okraina", meaning "border land".
The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia, where the Czech speakers formed a majority and sought equal status for their language to German. The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century and German immigrants had begun settling the Bohemian periphery since the 13th century. The constitution of 1627 made the German language a second official language and equal to Czech. German speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian Diet in 1880 and became a minority to Czech speakers in the cities of Prague and Pilsen (while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno (Brünn)).
National FrontCzechoslovak National FrontCzechoslovak People's Party
The National Front (in Czech: Národní fronta, in Slovak: Národný front) was the coalition of parties which headed the re-established Czechoslovakian government from 1945 to 1948. During the Communist era in Czechoslovakia (1948–1989) it was the vehicle for control of all political and social activity by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ). It was also known in English as the National Front of Czechs and Slovaks. As World War II began, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe. The Czech lands became the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under direct Nazi rule, while Slovakia ostensibly became independent.
In November 1990, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia became a federation of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia and the Communist Party of Slovakia. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was declared to be a criminal organisation in the Czech Republic by the 1993 Act on Illegality of the Communist Regime and on Resistance Against It. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was founded at the congress of the Czechoslovak Social-Democratic Party (Left), held in Prague May 14–16, 1921. Rudé právo, previously the organ of the Left Social-Democrats, became the main organ of the new party.
Germanethnic Germanethnic Germans
It had a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual structure, some of the smaller ethnicities and languages used at different times were Dutch, Italian, French, Czech and Polish. By the Middle Ages, large numbers of Jews lived in the Holy Roman Empire and had assimilated into German culture, including many Jews who had previously assimilated into French culture and had spoken a mixed Judeo-French language. Upon assimilating into German culture, the Jewish German peoples incorporated major parts of the German language and elements of other European languages into a mixed language known as Yiddish.
The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918 and the Czech Republic since 1 January 1969, which became independent on 1 January 1993. In a historical context, Czech texts use the term to refer to any territory ruled by the Kings of Bohemia, i.e., the lands of the Bohemian Crown (země Koruny české) as established by Emperor Charles IV in the 14th century. This would include territories like the Lusatias (which in 1635 fell to Saxony) and the whole of Silesia, all ruled from Prague Castle at that time.
1960 Constitutiona new constitutionnew constitution
Chapter 7 concerns National Committees (i. e. local and regional government), 8 judiciary system and 9 general and concluding provisions. * Czech text of the 1960 version (Archived from the original on October 10, 2007). Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Government structure of Communist Czechoslovakia.
1920 ConstitutionconstitutionConstitution of 1920
These local governments from that point forward would control Slovakia, with the government established by the constitution ruling over the more basic common matters as well as the Czech half of the nation. The 1920 constitution was replaced on 9 May 1948 by the Ninth-of-May Constitution, following the Communist takeover in February 1948. * The constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic (1920), Internet Archive, Cornell University Library A History of the Czechs and Slovaks, RW Seton-Watson, London, 1943. Taborsky, Ed. 1944. Czechoslovakia’s Experience with P.R. Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, vol. 26: 49-51. http://jstor.org/ (accessed September 9, 2007).
The opposite theory, supporting the supposed former common past of the Czech and Slovak nations, thus also legitimizing the creation of the united Czechoslovak nation, gained political support in the inter-war Czechoslovakia. Like Karácsonyi, Czech historian Václav Chaloupecký assumed that northern and central parts of Slovakia remained uninhabited until the 13th century and the south-western part was inhabited by Czechs. Yet in 1946, Chaloupecký assumed that the Slovak nation emerged from neighboring Slavs and had been formed only in the 17th century.
Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Czechoslovakiacomplete list
The Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia was the head of government of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992. In periods when the post of the President of Czechoslovakia was vacant, some presidential duties were carried out by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions do not define anything like a post of acting president., there are three living former Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia: Lubomír Štrougal, Marián Čalfa and Jan Stráský. Czechoslovakia, Prime Ministers List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia. List of Bohemian monarchs. President of the Czech Republic.
PrahaPrague, Czech RepublicPrag
The other Warsaw Pact member countries, except Romania and Albania, reacted with the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the capital on 21 August 1968 by tanks, suppressing any attempt at reform. Jan Palach and Jan Zajíc committed suicide by self-immolation in January and February 1969 to protest against the "normalization" of the country. In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague, and the Czechoslovak capital benefited greatly from the new mood. In 1993, after the split of Czechoslovakia, Prague became the capital city of the new Czech Republic.
AeroAero (2)AERO Vodochody AEROSPACE a.s. (Aero Vodochody)
Aero S-102 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevish MiG-15 fighter. Aero CS-102 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15UTI trainer. Aero S-103 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15bis fighter. Aero S-104 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17PF fighter. Aero S-105 Czech licensed production of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19S fighter. Aero S-106 (1960s) Czech production version of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21F-13 fighter. Aero L-39 Albatros (1970–1997, military jet trainer). Aero L-59 Super Albatros (1992–96, military jet trainer).
1948 Constitution of Czechoslovakia1948 Constitution of the Czechoslovak Republica new constitution
*History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989)
Soviet blocWarsaw TreatyEastern Bloc
On 1 July 1991, in Prague, the Czechoslovak President Václav Havel formally ended the 1955 Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance and so disestablished the Warsaw Treaty after 36 years of military alliance with the USSR. The USSR disestablished itself in December 1991. On 12 March 1999, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland joined NATO; Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia joined in March 2004; Albania joined on 1 April 2009.
After the fall of the Soviet Union and the whole Eastern Block, the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly condemned the cancellation of Moravian-Silesian land and expressed "firm conviction that this injustice will be corrected" in 1990. However, after the breakup of Czechoslovakia into Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993, Moravian area remained integral to the Czech territory, and the latest administrative division of Czech Republic (introduced in 2000) is similar to the administrative division of 1949. Nevertheless, the federalist or separatist movement in Moravia is completely marginal.
TatraNesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft A.G.Tatra Trucks
., and in 1919 changed from the Nesselsdorfer marque to the Tatra badge, named after the nearby Tatra Mountains on the Czechoslovak-Polish border (now on the Slovak-Polish border). During World War II Tatra was instrumental in the production of trucks and tank engines for the German war effort. Production of passenger cars ceased in 1999, but the company still produces a range of primarily all-wheel-drive trucks, from 4×4 to 18x18. The brand is also known as a result of Czech truck racer Karel Loprais: in 1988–2001 he won the off-road race Dakar Rally six times with a Tatra 815.