The first crisis for Brezhnev's regime came in 1968, with the attempt by the Communist leadership in Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubček, to liberalise the Communist system (Prague Spring). In July, Brezhnev publicly denounced the Czechoslovak leadership as "revisionist" and "anti-Soviet" before ordering the Warsaw Pact's invasion of Czechoslovakia, and Dubček's removal in August. The invasion led to public protests by dissidents in various Eastern Bloc countries.
federalizationFederalization of Czechoslovakia1968 constitution
The Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation (Ústavní zákon o československé federaci, Ústavný zákon o česko-slovenskej federácii) was a constitutional law in Czechoslovakia adopted on 27 October 1968 and in force from 1969 to 1992, by which the unitary Czechoslovak state was turned into a federation. The promulgation of the Constitutional Law of Federation amended fifty-eight articles of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia concerning the structure of government.
Later, in 1993, the Slovak Republic became an independent state and officially took the name Slovakia as a short form – see dissolution of Czechoslovakia. * Constitutional Law of Federation (in Czech) Slovaks in Czechoslovakia (1960-1990). Constitutional Law of Federation. History of Czechoslovakia. Czech Socialist Republic. Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. Slovak Republic (1939-1945).
Relying on the Convention for the Definition of Aggression, Czechoslovak president Edvard Beneš and the government-in-exile later regarded 17 September 1938 as the beginning of the undeclared German-Czechoslovak war. This understanding has been assumed also by the contemporary Czech Constitutional court. Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938). Poles in Czechoslovakia. Ruthenians and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938). Slovaks in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938). Hungarians in Czechoslovakia (Slovakia). Agnew, Hugh Lecaine. The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Stanford, CA, Hoover Institution Press: Stanford University, 2004). Axworthy, Mark W.A.
Avia (2)Avia MotorsCzech Avia
Avia S-105 Czechoslovak version of Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19S. Avia Trucks official dealer (German version). Avia Trucks official website. Avia Trucks official website Czech version. Avia Propeller official website.
Československá ZbrojovkaBrnoBrno arms factory
Pre-war Československá zbrojovka, akc.spol. and post-war Zbrojovka Brno, n.p. was a maker of small arms, light artillery, and motor vehicles in Brno, Czechoslovakia. It also made other products and tools, such as typewriters and early computers. In 1946, Zbrojovka started making tractors, which it branded "Zetor" ("Z-tractor"). Zetor continues to make tractors in Brno. The firm was established in 1918 after the foundation of Czechoslovakia. The Czech-Slovak investment group J&T bought the remaining Zbrojovka Brno complex in 2007. Zbrojovka built cars and light commercial vehicles with two-stroke engines.
Comparison of eight other Central and Eastern European populations (Belorussian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), showed that the three groups had a greater distance between themselves than these populations, with Boykos showing the greatest distance from all and did not cluster with anyone, Lemkos being closest to the Czech and Romanian (0.17) population, while Hutsuls closest to the Croatian (0.11) and Ukrainian (0.16) population.
In April 1938 Henlein told the foreign minister of Hungary that "whatever the Czech government might offer, he would always raise still higher demands ... he wanted to sabotage an understanding by any means because this was the only method to blow up Czechoslovakia quickly". In private, Hitler considered the Sudeten issue unimportant; his real intention was a war of conquest against Czechoslovakia. In April Hitler ordered the OKW to prepare for Fall Grün (Case Green), the code name for an invasion of Czechoslovakia.
federalfederal governmentfederal state
Czechoslovakia (1969–1992). Republic of Kenya (1963–1964). Federated Dutch Republic (1581–1795). Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1952–1962). French Equatorial Africa (1910–1934). French Indochina (1887–1954). French West Africa (1904–1958). The Holy Roman Empire (800–1806). North German Confederation (1867–1871). German Empire (1871–1918). Weimar Republic (1919–1933). East Germany (1949–1952). Inca Empire (1197–1572). United States of Indonesia (1949–1950). United Kingdom of Libya (1951–1963). Federated Malay States (1896–1946). Federation of Malaya (1948–1963). Malayan Union (1946–1948). Mali Federation (1959–1960).
After several years the Rusyn and Ukrainian speaking areas of eastern Austria-Hungary found themselves divided between the Ukrainian Soviet Republic, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Romania. In the Soviet Union the Rusyns were not officially regarded as an ethnicity distinct from Ukrainians. However, the name Ruthenian (or "Little Ruthenian") was still often applied to the Rusyn minorities of Czechoslovakia and Poland. The Polish census of 1931 listed "Russian", "Ruthenian" and "Ukrainian" (Polish: rossyjski, ruski, ukraiński, respectively) as separate languages.
Helsinki Final ActHelsinki processconference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
Czechoslovakia. 🇩🇰 Denmark. East Germany. 🇫🇮 Finland. 🇫🇷 France. 🇬🇷 Greece. Holy See. 🇭🇺 Hungary. 🇮🇸 Iceland. 🇮🇪 Ireland. 🇮🇹 Italy. 🇱🇮 Liechtenstein. 🇱🇺 Luxembourg. 🇲🇹 Malta. 🇲🇨 Monaco. 🇳🇱 Netherlands. 🇳🇴 Norway. 🇵🇱 Poland. 🇵🇹 Portugal. 🇷🇴 Romania. 🇸🇲 San Marino. Soviet Union. 🇪🇸 Spain. 🇸🇪 Sweden. 🇨🇭 Switzerland. 🇹🇷 Turkey. 🇬🇧 United Kingdom. 🇺🇸 United States. West Germany. Yugoslavia. Helmut Schmidt, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany. Erich Honecker, Chairman of the Council of State of the German Democratic Republic. Bruno Kreisky, Chancellor of Austria. Leo Tindemans, Prime Minister of Belgium.
Czech RepublicČSRCzech SR
The Czech Socialist Republic (Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was a republic within the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic that is now the independent Czech Republic. The name was used from 1 January 1969 to March 1990. After the occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968, liberalisation reforms were stopped and reverted. The only exception was the federalization of the country. The former centralist state Czechoslovakia was divided in two parts: the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic by the Constitutional Law of Federation of 28 October 1968, which went into effect on 1 January 1969.
HeydrichR. HeydrichReinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich
In March 1942, further sweeps against Czech cultural and patriotic organisations, the military, and the intelligentsia resulted in the practical paralysis of the London-based Czech resistance. Almost all avenues by which Czechs could express the Czech culture in public were closed. Although small disorganised cells of [[Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia#Consolidation of resistance groups: ÚVOD|Central Leadership of Home Resistance (Ústřední vedení odboje domácího, ÚVOD)]] survived, only the communist resistance was able to function in a coordinated manner (although it also suffered arrests).
After World War I and the formation of Czechoslovakia on October 28, 1918, the city was incorporated into the new state despite its representatives' reluctance. The dominant Hungarian and German population tried to prevent annexation of the city to Czechoslovakia and declared it a free city. However, the Czechoslovak Legions occupied the city on January 1, 1919, and made it part of Czechoslovakia. The city became the seat of Slovakia's political organs and organizations and became Slovakia's capital on 4 February.
a part of CzechoslovakiaAnnexation of Zaolzieannexed by Poland
Percentage-wise, Zaolzie suffered the worst human loss from the whole of Czechoslovakia – about 2.6% of the total population. Immediately after World War II, Zaolzie was returned to Czechoslovakia within its 1920 borders, although local Poles hoped it would again be given to Poland. While most Czechoslovaks of German ethnicity were expelled, the local Polish population again suffered discrimination, as many Czechs blamed them for the discrimination by the Polish authorities in 1938–1939. Polish organizations were banned, and the Czechoslovak authorities carried out many arrests and dismissed many Poles from work.
Second World WarwarWWII
Encouraged, Hitler began pressing German claims on the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia with a predominantly ethnic German population. Soon the United Kingdom and France followed the counsel of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and conceded this territory to Germany in the Munich Agreement, which was made against the wishes of the Czechoslovak government, in exchange for a promise of no further territorial demands. Soon afterwards, Germany and Italy forced Czechoslovakia to cede additional territory to Hungary, and Poland annexed Czechoslovakia's Zaolzie region.
BataBata Shoe CompanyBaťa
After the war ended, the Czechoslovak authorities tried Baťa as a traitor, saying he had failed to support the anti-Nazi resistance. In 1947 he was sentenced in absentia to 15 years in prison. The company's Czechoslovak assets were also seized by the state – several months before the Communists came to power. He tried to save as much as possible of the business, submitting to the plans of Germany as well as financially supporting the Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile led by Edvard Beneš. In occupied Europe a Bata shoe factory was connected to the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. The first slave labour efforts in Auschwitz involved the Bata shoe factory.
CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak national teamCzechoslovak
After the arrival of the Soviet Union on the international hockey scene in the 1950s, the Czechoslovaks regularly fought Sweden and Canada for silver and bronze medals, and sometimes beat the Soviets. In total, they won the gold medal six times. Due to the split of the country Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the team was replaced in 1993 with the Czech and the Slovak national teams.
The Germans in Czechoslovakia, known as Sudeten Germans but also Carpathian Germans, were expelled from the Sudetenland region where they formed a majority, from linguistic enclaves in central Bohemia and Moravia, as well as from the city of Prague. Though the Potsdam Agreement only refers to Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, expulsions also occurred in Romania, where the Transylvanian Saxons were deported and their property disseized, and in Yugoslavia.
History of Czechoslovakia. Husakism. Husák's Children. MACHÁČEK, Michal. Gustáv Husák. Prague : Vyšehrad 2017, 632 pp. ISBN: 978-80-7429-388-7. MACHÁČEK, Michal. The Strange Unity. Gustáv Husák and Power and Political Fights Inside the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia as Exemplified by Presidency Issue (1969-1975), in: Czech Journal of Contemporary History'', 2016, vol. 4, 104–128 pp..
A mere four years later, in 1944, Zátopek broke the Czechoslovak records for 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 metres. At the end of the war he joined the Czechoslovak Army, where he was gradually given more time for his gruelling training regimen. Zátopek was selected for the Czechoslovak national team for the 1946 European Championships in Oslo and finished fifth in the 5,000 m in 14:25.8, breaking his own Czechoslovak record of 14:50.2. At the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, Zátopek won the 10,000 m and finished second behind Gaston Reiff from Belgium during a driving rainstorm in the 5,000 m.