Kingdom of Romania

RomaniaRomanian KingdomRomanian
Czechoslovak licence was acquired in 1938 to produce the ZB vz. 30 machine gun, with 5,000 being built at the Cugir gun factory until the start of Operation Barbarossa in June 1941. Romania also acquired the licence to produce the AH-IV tankette, but ultimately only one prototype was built locally. German licence was acquired in 1938 to produce 360 37 mm Rheinmetall anti-aircraft guns, but only 102 were produced until May 1941. British licence was acquired to produce 100 Vickers Model 1931 75 mm anti-aircraft guns at the Reșița works, with the first battery of 6 guns entering service on 1 August 1939, and 100 more guns were built during the war for a total production of 200.

Emil Zátopek

Emil ZatopekEmil
A mere four years later, in 1944, Zátopek broke the Czechoslovak records for 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 metres. At the end of the war he joined the Czechoslovak Army, where he was gradually given more time for his gruelling training regimen. Zátopek was selected for the Czechoslovak national team for the 1946 European Championships in Oslo and finished fifth in the 5,000 m in 14:25.8, breaking his own Czechoslovak record of 14:50.2. At the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, Zátopek won the 10,000 m and finished second behind Gaston Reiff from Belgium during a driving rainstorm in the 5,000 m.

National Front (Czechoslovakia)

National FrontCzechoslovak National FrontCzechoslovakia
The National Front (in Czech: Národní fronta, in Slovak: Národný front) was the coalition of parties which headed the re-established Czechoslovakia from 1945 to 1948. During the Communist era in Czechoslovakia (1948–1989) it was the vehicle for control of all political and social activity by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ). It was also known in English as the National Front of Czechs and Slovaks. As World War II began, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe. The Czech lands became the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under direct Nazi rule, while Slovakia ostensibly became independent.

Věra Čáslavská

Vera CaslavskaVera CáslavskáVera Čáslavska
Věra Čáslavská (3 May 1942 – 30 August 2016) was a Czechoslovak artistic gymnast and Czech sports official. She won a total of 22 international titles between 1959 and 1968 including seven Olympic gold medals, four world titles and eleven European championships. Čáslavská is the most decorated Czech gymnast in history and is one of only two female gymnasts, along with Soviet Larisa Latynina, to win the all-around gold medal at two consecutive Olympics. In addition to her gymnastics success, Čáslavská was known for her outspoken support of the Czechoslovak democratization movement and her opposition to the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.

Nazi Party

By 1941, there were 42 territorial Gaue for Germany, 7 of them for Austria, the Sudetenland (in Czechoslovakia), Danzig and the Territory of the Saar Basin, along with the unincorporated regions under German control known as the Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia and the General Government, established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II. Getting the leadership of the individual Gaue to co-operate with one another proved difficult at times since there was constant administrative and financial jockeying for control going on between them.

Miloslav Mečíř

Miloslav MecirM. MečířMiloslav Mečíř, Sr.
He reached his first Grand Slam final at the US Open later that year, beating Mats Wilander and Boris Becker along the way to the final, where he faced fellow Czechoslovak, defending champion and world No. 1, Ivan Lendl. The 1986 US Open was notable for the fact that four players from Czechoslovakia competed in the two singles finals for men and women – Mečíř and Lendl, Helena Suková and Martina Navratilova. Lendl won the match in straight sets 6–4, 6–2, 6–0. Mečíř's 1986 US Open final appearance was the last major final to see a player still using a wooden racket.

Hana Mandlíková

Hana MandlikovaH. MandlíkováHana Mandliková
She led Czechoslovakia to three consecutive Fed Cup titles from 1983–1985, and was only the third woman to win Grand Slam titles on grass, clay, and hard courts, joining Chris Evert and Martina Navratilova. She defeated both Evert and Navratilova on consecutive days to accomplish this feat at the 1985 US Open. She retired in 1990, and went on to coach Jana Novotná to the 1998 Wimbledon singles title and a career-high ranking of No. 2. She also served as the Czech Republic's Olympic and Fed Cup coach until 1996. Born in Prague, Mandlíková is the daughter of Vilém Mandlík, who was an Olympic 200-meter semifinalist for Czechoslovakia in 1956.

Peter Bondra

Bondra, PeterBondraPeter
Bondra played one season for HK Poprad in the lower ranks of Czechoslovak league competition, and transferred to VSŽ Košice in the First Division at the age of 18. His older brother Juraj also played there on defense, having already won one championship title with the team the year before. As early as his second season with Košice, Peter was considered one of the top shooters in the Czechoslovak league, and won the league championship together with his brother in 1988. Bondra was drafted by the Washington Capitals in the 1990 NHL Entry Draft, 156th overall. Before joining the Capitals, he played for TJ VSŽ Košice (now called HC Košice) for four seasons from 1986 to 1990 in Czechoslovakia.


districtadministrative districtcounties
After the creation of Czechoslovakia districts became an administrative unit of the new state with a unified status. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the district system was taken over by the two current successor states. * Obec (subdivisions of an okres) * Map: location of every okres in the Czech Republic Okręg. Okrug. Okruha. Districts of Slovakia (okres). Districts of the Czech Republic (okres). Powiat. Raion. Krai. Kreis. Regions of Slovakia (kraj). Regions of the Czech Republic (kraj).

Ivan Lendl

LendlLendl, Ivan
Lendl was part of Czechoslovakia's Davis Cup winning team that year. He was the driving force behind the country's team in the first half of the 1980s, and was also part of the Czechoslovak team that won the World Team Cup in 1981 and was runner-up in 1984 and 1985. However, he stopped playing in these events after he moved to the United States in 1986 because Czechoslovakia's Tennis Association viewed him as an "illegal defector" from their country. The success continued in 1981, as he won ten titles, including his first season-ending Masters Grand Prix tour title, defeating Vitas Gerulaitis in five sets.

Peter Šťastný

Peter StastnyPeterŠťastný
Ranked number 56 on The Hockey News' list of the 100 Greatest Hockey Players, the highest-ranking Slovak-trained (or Czechoslovak-trained) player – 1998. Inducted into IIHF Hall of Fame – 2000. Inducted into Slovak Hockey Hall of Fame – 2002 – but he voluntarily quit and had his trophies retrieved as a form of protest against Mr Široký. Inducted into Czech Ice Hockey Hall of Fame - 2010. List of NHL statistical leaders. Notable families in the NHL. List of NHL players with 1000 points. 2003 NHL Official Guide & Record Book, pages 167, 196, 200. Dan Diamond and Associates, Inc. ISBN: 0-920445-79-9 (Canada), ISBN: 1-57243-500-3 (United States). Profile at the European Parliament Website.

List of pornographic film studios

List of pornographic movie studiosList of gay pornographic movie studiosgay pornographic studio
List of studios on Internet Adult Film Database. List of studios on Adult Film Database.

Martina Hingis

Hingis was born in Košice, Czechoslovakia (now in Slovakia) as Martina Hingisová, to accomplished tennis players Melanie Molitorová and Karol Hingis. Molitorová was a professional tennis player who was once ranked tenth among women in Czechoslovakia, and was determined to develop Hingis into a top player as early as pregnancy. Her father was ranked as high as 19th in the Czechoslovak tennis rankings. Martina Hingis spent her early childhood growing up in the town of Rožnov pod Radhoštěm (now in Czech Republic). Hingis's parents divorced when she was six, and she and her mother defected from Czechoslovakia in 1987 and emigrated to Trübbach (Wartau) in Switzerland when she was seven.

List of Slovaks

SlovakList of Slovak Physicistsprominent Slovak
Alexander Dubček (1921–1992) – First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and architect of the Prague Spring, later after Velvet Rovolution Chairman of Federal Assembly of Czechoslovakia. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937) – First President of Czechoslovakia; son of a Slovak father and Moravian mother. Milan Rastislav Štefánik (1880–1919) – Astronomer, scientist, politician, and general; one of the founders of Czechoslovakia. Gustáv Husák (1913–1991) –First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and President of Czechoslovakia in the 1970s and 1980s.

Martina Navratilova

Martina NavrátilováNavratilovaNavratilova, Martina
Originally from Czechoslovakia, she was stripped of her citizenship when, in 1975 at age 18, she asked the United States for political asylum and was granted temporary residence. At the time, Navratilova was told by the Czechoslovak Sports Federation that she was becoming too Americanized, and she should go back to school and make tennis secondary. Navratilova became a US citizen in 1981, and on January 9, 2008, she reacquired Czech citizenship. She stated she has not renounced her U.S. citizenship nor does she plan to do so, and that reclaiming Czech nationality was not politically motivated. Navratilova was born Martina Šubertová in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

Generalplan Ost

General Plan Eastplannedplans for them
Parts of Poland were annexed by Germany early in the war (leaving aside the rump German-controlled General Government and the areas previously annexed by the Soviet Union), while the other territories were officially occupied by or allied to Germany (for example, the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia became a theoretically independent puppet state, while the ethnic-Czech parts of the Czech lands (so excluding the Sudetenland) became a "protectorate"). The plan was partially attempted during the war, resulting indirectly and directly in millions of deaths of ethnic Slavs by starvation, disease, or extermination through labor.

Daniela Hantuchová

Daniela HantuchovaHantuchová
Hantuchová was born in Poprad, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia) to father Igor, a computer scientist, and mother Marianna, a toxicologist. She was introduced to tennis by her grandmother Helena, a former Slovak national champion. When her parents split up in 2003, Hantuchová's performances temporarily worsened. At Wimbledon that year, she failed to convert several match points and was seen weeping on court. She also suffered from a weight problem during this period. She was suspected of being anorexic, but denied this, saying that her weight loss was due to over-training and that it had not affected her stamina.

Petra Kvitová

Petra KvitovaKvitováKvitova
Petra Kvitová was born to Jiří Kvita, a vice mayor and former school teacher, and Pavla Kvitová in Bílovec, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic). She has two elder brothers, Jiří, an engineer, and Libor, a school teacher. Her father Jiří introduced her to tennis. During her childhood, she admired Czech American player Martina Navratilova. Kvitová trained in her Moravian hometown, Fulnek, until the age of 16, and was then encouraged by an instructor to pursue a professional career in tennis. She was coached by David Kotyza, also a Czech, from November 2008 till January 2016. As a junior, Kvitová achieved a career high ranking of world No. 27 on 9 July 2007.


Ukraine receives further support and assistance for its EU-accession aspirations from the International Visegrád Fund of the Visegrád Group that consists of Central European EU members the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia. The system of Ukrainian subdivisions reflects the country's status as a unitary state (as stated in the country's constitution) with unified legal and administrative regimes for each unit.

Eastern Bloc

Soviet blocCommunist BlocSocialist Bloc
-style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"|Czechoslovak Socialist Republic/Czech Republic||||||$17,562. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"|Czechoslovak Socialist Republic/Slovakia||-||-||$16,082. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"|People's Republic of Bulgaria||||||$6,847. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"|People's Socialist Republic of Albania||||||$3,984. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"|Cyprus||$1,004 ||$9,015||$21,942. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"|Polish People's Republic||||||$12,355. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"|Portugal||$935||$6,129||$19,239.

Kurt Daluege

After the end of World War II, he was extradited to Czechoslovakia, tried, convicted and executed in 1946. Daluege, son of a Prussian state official, was born in the small Upper Silesian town of Kreuzburg (now Kluczbork) on 15 September 1897. He entered the Prussian Army in 1916 and served with the 7th Guards Infantry Regiment. He served on the Eastern Front. In October 1917, attended officer training in Doberitz. During his service on the Western Front, he was severely wounded in the head and shoulder. He was hospitalised and declared 25% disabled. Daluege was awarded the Iron Cross, second class (1918) and the Wound Badge in Black (1918).

First Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak
The First Czechoslovak Republic (První československá republika, Prvá česko-slovenská republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic (První Republika), was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938, dominated by ethnic Czechs and Slovaks, the country was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Československo), a compound of Czech and Slovak; which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states.

Klement Gottwald

GottwaldPresident GottwaldGottwalda
A Czechoslovak 100 Koruna banknote issued on 1 October 1989 as part of the 1985–89 banknote series included a portrait of Gottwald. This note was so poorly received by Czechoslovaks that it was removed from official circulation on 31 December 1990 and was promptly replaced with the previous banknote issue of the same denomination. All Czechoslovak banknotes were removed from circulation in 1993 and replaced by separate Czech and Slovak notes. In 2005 he was voted the "Worst Czech" in a ČT poll (a program under the BBC licence 100 Greatest Britons). He received 26% of the votes. * Taborsky, Edward.

Tomáš Baťa

Tomas BataThomas BataBaťa
Bata anticipating the Second World War along with over 100 families from Czechoslovakia moved to Canada in 1939 to develop the Bata Shoe Company of Canada centered in a town that still bears his name, Batawa, Ontario. The Second World War saw many Bata businesses in Europe and the Far East destroyed. After the Second World War, the core business enterprise in Czechoslovakia and other major enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe were nationalized by the Communist governments. Thomas devoted himself to the rebuilding and growth of the Bata Shoe Organization together with his wife and partner Sonja.

List of presidents of Czechoslovakia

President of CzechoslovakiaPresidentPresident of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
The President of Czechoslovakia (Prezident Československa, Prezident Česko-Slovenska) was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992. Vaclav Havel 1990-2003 In periods when the presidency was vacant, most presidential duties were assumed by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions never defined anything like a post of acting president. The second section lists the General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) in 1945–1989. After the 1948 coup d'état, the General Secretary was the country's de facto chief executive.