Věra Čáslavská

Věra Čáslavská (3 May 1942 – 30 August 2016) was a Czechoslovak artistic gymnast and Czech sports official. She won a total of 22 international titles between 1959 and 1968 including seven Olympic gold medals, four world titles and eleven European championships. Čáslavská is the most decorated Czech gymnast in history and is one of only two female gymnasts, along with Soviet Larisa Latynina, to win the all-around gold medal at two consecutive Olympics. In addition to her gymnastics success, Čáslavská was known for her outspoken support of the Czechoslovak democratization movement and her opposition to the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.

Okres

districtadministrative districtcounties
After the creation of Czechoslovakia districts became an administrative unit of the new state with a unified status. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the district system was taken over by the two current successor states. * Obec (subdivisions of an okres) * Map: location of every okres in the Czech Republic Okręg. Okrug. Okruha. Districts of Slovakia (okres). Districts of the Czech Republic (okres). Powiat. Raion. Krai. Kreis. Regions of Slovakia (kraj). Regions of the Czech Republic (kraj).

Generalplan Ost

plannedplans for themSoviet civilians
Parts of Poland were annexed by Germany early in the war (leaving aside the rump German-controlled General Government and the areas previously annexed by the Soviet Union), while the other territories were officially occupied by or allied to Germany (for example, the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia became a theoretically independent puppet state, while the ethnic-Czech parts of the Czech lands (so excluding the Sudetenland) became a "protectorate"). It is unknown to what degree the plan was actually directly connected to the various German war crimes and crimes against humanity in the East, especially in the latter phases of the war.

Peter Bondra

Bondra, PeterBondra
Bondra played one season for HK Poprad in the lower ranks of Czechoslovak league competition, and transferred to VSŽ Košice in the First Division at the age of 18. His older brother Juraj also played there on defense, having already won one championship title with the team the year before. As early as his second season with Košice, Peter was considered one of the top shooters in the Czechoslovak league, and won the league championship together with his brother in 1988. Bondra was drafted by the Washington Capitals in the 1990 NHL Entry Draft, 156th overall. Before joining the Capitals, he played for TJ VSŽ Košice (now called HC Košice) for four seasons from 1986 to 1990 in Czechoslovakia.

Miloslav Mečíř

Mečíř
He reached his first Grand Slam final at the US Open later that year, beating Mats Wilander and Boris Becker along the way to the final, where he faced fellow Czechoslovak, defending champion and World No. 1 Ivan Lendl. The 1986 US Open was notable for the fact that four players from Czechoslovakia competed in the two singles finals for men and women – Mečíř and Lendl, Helena Suková and Martina Navratilova. Lendl won the match in straight sets 6–4, 6–2, 6–0. Mečíř's 1986 US Open final appearance was the last major final to see a player still using a wooden racket.

Hana Mandlíková

Hana MandlikovaMandlikovaMandlíková
She led Czechoslovakia to three consecutive Fed Cup titles from 1983–1985, and was only the third woman to win Grand Slam titles on grass, clay, and hard courts, joining Chris Evert and Martina Navratilova. She defeated both Evert and Navratilova on consecutive days to accomplish this feat at the 1985 US Open. She retired in 1990, and went on to coach Jana Novotná to the 1998 Wimbledon singles title and a career-high ranking of No. 2. She also served as the Czech Republic's Olympic and Fed Cup coach until 1996. Born in Prague, Mandlíková is the daughter of Vilém Mandlík, who was an Olympic 200-meter semifinalist for Czechoslovakia in 1956.

Peter Šťastný

Peter StastnyPeterŠťastný
Ranked number 56 on The Hockey News' list of the 100 Greatest Hockey Players, the highest-ranking Slovak-trained (or Czechoslovak-trained) player – 1998. Inducted into IIHF Hall of Fame – 2000. Inducted into Slovak Hockey Hall of Fame – 2002 – but he voluntarily quit and had his trophies retrieved as a form of protest against Mr Široký. Inducted into Czech Ice Hockey Hall of Fame - 2010. List of NHL statistical leaders. Notable families in the NHL. List of NHL players with 1000 points.

List of pornographic film studios

gay pornographic studioList of gay pornographic movie studiosgay pornographic film studio
List of studios on Internet Adult Film Database. List of studios on Adult Film Database.

Ivan Lendl

LendlLendl, Ivan
Lendl was part of Czechoslovakia's Davis Cup winning team that year. He was the driving force behind the country's team in the first half of the 1980s, and was also part of the Czechoslovak team that won the World Team Cup in 1981 and was runner-up in 1984 and 1985. However, he stopped playing in these events after he moved to the United States in 1986 because Czechoslovakia's Tennis Association viewed him as an "illegal defector" from their country. The success continued in 1981, as he won ten titles, including his first season-ending Masters Grand Prix tour title, defeating Vitas Gerulaitis in five sets.

Martina Hingis

Hingis
Hingis was born in Košice, Czechoslovakia (now in Slovakia) as Martina Hingisová, to accomplished tennis players Melanie Molitorová and Karol Hingis. Molitorová was a professional tennis player who was once ranked tenth among women in Czechoslovakia, and was determined to develop Hingis into a top player as early as pregnancy. Her father was ranked as high as 19th in the Czechoslovak tennis rankings. Martina Hingis spent her early childhood growing up in the town of Rožnov pod Radhoštěm (now in Czech Republic). Hingis's parents divorced when she was six, and she and her mother defected from Czechoslovakia in 1987 and emigrated to Trübbach (Wartau) in Switzerland when she was seven.

Eastern Bloc

Soviet bloccommunist blocEastern Europe
-style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"| Czechoslovak Socialist Republic/Czech Republic||||||$17,562. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"| Czechoslovak Socialist Republic/🇸🇰 Slovakia||-||-||$16,082. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"| People's Republic of Bulgaria||||||$6,847. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"| People's Socialist Republic of Albania||||||$3,984. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"|🇨🇾 Cyprus||$1,004 ||$9,015||$21,942. -style="text-align:center;". style="text-align:left;"| Polish People's Republic||||||$12,355.

List of Slovaks

SlovakList of Slovak Physicistsprominent Slovak
Bohuslav Fuchs (1895–1972) – architect; a Czech also active in Slovakia. Dušan Jurkovič (1868–1947) – architect. Andrej Bagar (1900–1966) – actor, director. Barbora Bobuľová (1974) – actress. Milan Kňažko (1945) – actor, former Slovak Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of Culture. Jozef Kroner (1924–1998) – actor, starred in the first Czechoslovak, Czech and Slovak film awarded by Oscar: The Shop on Main Street (Obchod na korze, 1965). Juraj Kukura (1947) – well-known Slovak actor (theater, film), who has also been working in Germany. Barbara Nedeljáková (1979) – actress, starred in the Hollywood horror film Hostel.

Martina Navratilova

Martina NavrátilováNavratilovaNavratilova, Martina
Originally from Czechoslovakia, she was stripped of her citizenship when, in 1975 at age 18, she asked the United States for political asylum and was granted temporary residency. At the time, Navratilova was told by the Czechoslovak Sports Federation that she was becoming too americanised, and she should go back to school and make tennis secondary. Navratilova became a US citizen in 1981, and on January 9, 2008, she reacquired Czech citizenship. She stated she has not renounced her U.S. citizenship nor does she plan to do so, and that reclaiming Czech nationality was not politically motivated. Navratilova was born Martina Šubertová in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

Daniela Hantuchová

HantuchováDaniela Hantuchova
Hantuchová was born in Poprad, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia) to father Igor, a computer scientist, and mother Marianna, a toxicologist. She was introduced to tennis by her grandmother Helena, a former Slovak national champion. When her parents split up in 2003, Hantuchová's performances temporarily worsened. At Wimbledon that year, she failed to convert several match points and was seen weeping on court. She also suffered from a weight problem during this period. She was suspected of being anorexic, but denied this, saying that her weight loss was due to over-training and that it had not affected her stamina.

Petra Kvitová

KvitováKvitovaP. Kvitová
Petra Kvitová was born to Jiří Kvita, a school teacher and Pavla Kvitová in Bílovec, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic). She has two elder brothers, Jiří, an engineer, and Libor, a school teacher. Her father Jiří introduced her to tennis. During her childhood, she admired Czech American player Martina Navratilova. Kvitová trained in her hometown Fulnek until the age of 16, and was then encouraged by an instructor to pursue a professional career in tennis. She was coached by David Kotyza, also a Czech, from November 2008 till January 2016. As a junior, Kvitová achieved a career high ranking of world No. 27 on 9 July 2007.

Kurt Daluege

DALUEGE, Kurt
After the end of World War II, he was extradited to Czechoslovakia, tried, convicted and executed in 1946. Daluege, son of a Prussian state official, was born in the small Upper Silesian town of Kreuzburg (now Kluczbork) on 15 September 1897. He entered the Prussian Army in 1916 and served with the 7th Guards Infantry Regiment. He served on the Eastern Front. In October 1917, attended officer training in Doberitz. During his service on the Western Front, he was severely wounded in the head and shoulder. He was hospitalised and declared 25% disabled. Daluege was awarded the Iron Cross, second class (1918) and the Wound Badge in Black (1918).

Coat of arms of Czechoslovakia

Coat of armsGreater coat of armsCzechoslovakia
These arms were valid until Czechoslovakia was dissolved during the new year period of 1992/93. Vexilolognet.cz - History of the symbols of Czechoslovakia. Vlastenci.cz. Senate:The Czech national emblem.

First Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak
The First Czechoslovak Republic (První československá republika, Prvá česko-slovenská republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938. The state was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Československo). It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia, Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia. After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only functioning democracy in Central Europe. Under pressure from its Sudeten German minority, supported by neighbouring Nazi Germany, Czechoslovakia was forced to cede its Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938 as part of the Munich Agreement.

Tomáš Baťa

Thomas BataBaťaBaťa Prize for Journalism
Bata anticipating the Second World War along with over 100 families from Czechoslovakia moved to Canada in 1939 to develop the Bata Shoe Company of Canada centered in a town that still bears his name, Batawa, Ontario. The Second World War saw many Bata businesses in Europe and the Far East destroyed. After the Second World War, the core business enterprise in Czechoslovakia and other major enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe were nationalized by the Communist governments. Thomas devoted himself to the rebuilding and growth of the Bata Shoe Organization together with his wife and partner Sonja.

List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia

PresidentPresident of CzechoslovakiaPresidents
The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992. In periods when the presidency was vacant, most presidential duties were assumed by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions never defined anything like a post of acting president. The second section lists the General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) in 1945–1989. After the 1948 coup d'état, the General Secretary was the country's de facto chief executive.

German occupation of Czechoslovakia

occupation of CzechoslovakiaGerman occupationNazi occupation
Negotiations between the Czechoslovak government and Moscow ensued. Both Czech and Slovak communists encouraged Beneš to cede Subcarpathian Ruthenia. The Soviet Union agreed to postpone annexation until the postwar period to avoid compromising Beneš's policy based on the pre-Munich frontiers. The treaty ceding Carpathian Ruthenia to the Soviet Union was signed in June 1945. Czechs and Slovaks living in Subcarpathian Ruthenia and Ruthenians (Rusyns) living in Czechoslovakia were given the choice of Czechoslovak or Soviet citizenship. In May 1945, Czechoslovak troops took possession of the borderland. A Czechoslovak administrative commission composed exclusively of Czechs was established.

1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

Communist coupcoup d'état1948 coup d'état
The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Únor 1948, Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in Marxist historiography known as "Victorious February" (Vítězný únor, Víťazný február) – was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country. The coup’s significance extended well beyond the country’s boundaries as it was a clear marker along the already well-advanced road to full-fledged Cold War.

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

MasarykTomáš MasarykT. G. Masaryk
Under his watch, Czechoslovakia became the strongest democracy in central Europe. Masaryk died less than two years after leaving office, at the age of 87, in Lány, Czechoslovakia, now the Czech Republic. He died before the Munich Agreement and the Nazi occupation of his country. He was known as "The Great Old Man of Europe". Commemorations of Masaryk, state institutions and democratic societies have taken place annually in Lány cemetery on March 7 and September 14, since 1989.

Škoda Works

ŠkodaSkodaŠkoda Transportation
These tanks were originally produced for the Czechoslovak army and were used extensively by the Wehrmacht in the Polish campaign, the Battle of France, and the German invasion of the Soviet Union. In July 1944 Škoda started production of the Jagdpanzer 38(t). In 1924, Škoda Works acquired the Laurin-Klement car manufacturer, later known as Škoda Auto. The companies were separated after 1945, when the entire Czechoslovak economy came under government control. After World War II, in 1945 (the year when nationalisation efforts began in Czechoslovakia) Škoda was nationalized and many sections were split from the company.

Jazz in Czechoslovakia

The Jazz Section
Though the real causes for the light sentences are unknown, Škvorecký speculates “you cannot really hold such things in Czechoslovakia when Gorbachev is in Moscow releasing Andrei Sakharov and other people. So the trial was really a compromise between the hard-liners in the Czechoslovak party leadership who wanted to make it a warning to anyone who dared to do something not fully endorsed by the party, on the one hand, and the opportunists who smell a new wind from Moscow, on the other, who were against the trial. It reflects a split in the ruling party.”