.cs was for several years the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Czechoslovakia. However, the country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993, and the two new countries were soon assigned their own ccTLDs: .cz and .sk respectively. The use of .cs was gradually phased out, and the ccTLD was deleted some time around January 1995. .cs domain first appeared in Internet Assigned Numbers Authority tables in autumn 1990 and in June 1991 in RIPE list. In October 1991 first domain was registered (iac.cs - Institute of Applied Cybernetics in Bratislava), in February 1992 first hosts existed.


In 1918, Slovakia and the regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia and Carpathian Ruthenia formed a common state, Czechoslovakia, with the borders confirmed by the Treaty of Saint Germain and Treaty of Trianon. In 1919, during the chaos following the break-up of Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia was formed with numerous Germans and Hungarians within the newly set borders. A Slovak patriot Milan Rastislav Štefánik (1880–1919), who helped organise Czechoslovak regiments against Austria-Hungary during the First World War, died in a plane crash. In the peace following the World War, Czechoslovakia emerged as a sovereign European state.

Czech Republic

Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference, and Czechs and Slovaks call the Munich Agreement the Munich Betrayal because France (which had an alliance with Czechoslovakia) and Britain gave up Czechoslovakia instead of facing Hitler, which later proved inevitable. Despite the mobilization of 1.2 million-strong Czechoslovak army and the Franco-Czech military alliance, Poland annexed the Zaolzie area around Český Těšín; Hungary gained parts of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus as a result of the First Vienna Award in November 1938. The remainders of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus gained greater autonomy, with the state renamed to "Czecho-Slovakia".

Former countries in Europe after 1815

This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, including puppet states, that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day. Each country has information separated into columns: name of the distinct country, its lifespan, the country or countries that hold all or some of the territory it once did, and further information about it.

Telephone numbers in Slovakia

+421 31+421Telephone area code
Following the break-up of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the successor states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, continued to share the 42 country code, until 28 February 1997, with the Czech Republic adopted 420 while Slovakia adopted 421. The following special telephone numbers are valid across the country: These numbers are toll-free. * Numbering plan published by the Telecommunication Office of the Slovak Republic 112 - General emergency. 150 - Fire brigade. 155 - Ambulance. 158 - Police. 159 - Municipal police.

Karl Hermann Frank

Karl FrankFRANK, Karl HermannK.H.Frank
After the war, he was tried, convicted and executed for his role in organizing the massacres of the people of the Czech villages of Lidice and Ležáky. Born in Karlsbad, Bohemia in Austria-Hungary (present-day Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic), Frank was taught by his father (a proponent of Georg Ritter von Schönerer's policies) about nationalist agitation. Frank attempted to enlist in the Austro-Hungarian Army in World War I, but he was rejected due to blindness in his right eye. He spent a year at the law school of the German language Charles University in Prague and worked as a tutor to make money.

Czechoslovak koruna

The Czechoslovak koruna (in Czech and Slovak: Koruna československá, at times Koruna česko-slovenská; koruna means crown) was the currency of Czechoslovakia from April 10, 1919, to March 14, 1939, and from November 1, 1945, to February 7, 1993. For a brief time in 1939 and again in 1993, it was also the currency in separate Czech and Slovak republics. On February 8, 1993, it was replaced by the Czech koruna and the Slovak koruna, both at par. The (last) ISO 4217 code and the local abbreviations for the koruna were CSK and Kčs. One koruna equalled 100 haléřů (Czech, singular: haléř) or halierov (Slovak, singular: halier). In both languages, the abbreviation h was used.


RusOld RusRus’
Rusyn (the Ruthenian) has been an official self-identification of the Rus' population in Poland (and also in Czechoslovakia). Until 1939, for many Ruthenians and Poles, the word Ukrainiec (Ukrainian) meant a person involved in or friendly to a nationalist movement. The Russians, the most numerous cultural descendants of the ancient Rus', retain the name (russkie) for their ethnicity, while the name of their state, Rus', was gradually replaced by its Greek transliteration Rossia.

Effects on the environment in Czechoslovakia from Soviet influence during the Cold War

Under the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia, the state was legally required to protect the quality of the environment as far as necessary to protect human health, but in northern Czechoslovakia, pollution reportedly shortened a person’s life by three to four years. The government even acknowledged these poor living conditions by offering a bonus to people who lived in the area for more than ten years – called burial money by the people in the area. The government faced problems in trying to solve environmental problems because there was no central branch responsible for environmental safety and protection.

Interwar period

interwarinterbelluminterwar years
However, hardly six months after the Munich Agreement, in March 1939, Hitler used the smoldering quarrel between Slovaks and Czechs as a pretext for taking over the rest of Czechoslovakia as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In the same month, he secured the return of Memel from Lithuania to Germany. Chamberlain was forced to acknowledge that his policy of appeasement towards Hitler had failed. In 1922, the leader of the Italian fascist movement, Benito Mussolini, became Prime Minister of Italy after the March on Rome.

Jan Kodeš

KodešKodeš, Jan
In 2013 he received the Czech fair play award from the Czech Olympic Committee. He is an economics graduate of the Prague University. 1 Start of the Open Era. 1968 French Open counts as 0 wins, 0 losses. Fernando Gentil received a walkover in the first round, after Kodeš withdrew, does not count as a Kodeš loss (nor a Gentil win). At results above are not shown wins and runners-up from 1965 to 1969, such as tournaments in Santiago, Viňa del Mar, São Paulo, Lyon, Cannes, Luxemburg, Split, Varna, Plovdiv, Paris (Racing Club) or International championships of Czechoslovakia in Bratislava.

ISO 3166-3

., Czechoslovakia was divided into the Czech Republic and Slovakia), with the exception of Serbia and Montenegro, for which is used to avoid duplicate use of the same ISO 3166-3 code, as the alpha-2 code had twice been deleted from ISO 3166-1, the first time due to the split of Czechoslovakia and the second time due to the split of Serbia and Montenegro. Former country name – English short country name officially used by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency (ISO 3166/MA). Former codes – ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, alpha-3, and numeric codes. Period of validity – Years when codes were officially assigned. ISO 3166-3 code – Four-letter code assigned for former country name.

Alexander Dubček

DubčekAlexander DubcekDubcek
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969. He attempted to reform the communist government during the Prague Spring but was forced to resign following the Warsaw Pact invasion in August 1968. During his leadership, under the slogan of "Socialism with a human face", Czechoslovakia lifted censorship on the media and liberalized Czechoslovak society, fuelling the so-called New Wave in Czechoslovak filmography.

Cold War

the Cold Warcold-warCold War era
The invasion was followed by a wave of emigration, including an estimated 70,000 Czechs and Slovaks initially fleeing, with the total eventually reaching 300,000. The invasion sparked intense protests from Yugoslavia, Romania, China, and from Western European communist parties. In September 1968, during a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party one month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Brezhnev outlined the Brezhnev Doctrine, in which he claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism–Leninism with capitalism.

UEFA European Championship

European ChampionshipEuropean ChampionshipsEuropean Football Championship
Czechoslovakia beat West Germany in the newly introduced penalty shootout. After seven successful conversions, Uli Hoeneß missed, leaving Czechoslovakian Antonín Panenka with the opportunity to score and win the tournament. An "audacious" chipped shot, described by UEFA as "perhaps the most famous spot kick of all time" secured the victory as Czechoslovakia won 5–3 on penalties. The competition was expanded to eight teams in the 1980 tournament, again hosted by Italy. It involved a group stage, with the winners of the groups going on to contest the final, and the runners-up playing in the third place play-off.

Adult Film Database

This was an attempt to fill the void of the temporary absence of the Internet Adult Film Database (IAFD) and as a project in web development. In 1999 its name was changed to the AdultFilmDatabase.com. Today, the AdultFilmDatabase.com is a major competitor to the Internet Adult Film Database. Taking inspiration from both the Internet Adult Film Database and IMDB and forging ties with industry mainstays like Vivid Entertainment, Hustler, Wicked and Digital Playground the AdultFilmDatabase.com features information on over 100,000 adult movies and 55,000 performers (updated October 2018).

1968 Red Square demonstration

demonstration on Red Square1968 Red Square protesta demonstration on Moscow's Red Square
The protest began at noon as eight protesters (Larisa Bogoraz, Konstantin Babitsky, Vadim Delaunay, Vladimir Dremliuga, Pavel Litvinov, Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Viktor Fainberg, and Tatiana Baeva) sat at the Lobnoye Mesto and held a small Czechoslovak flag and banners with various slogans, including: Within a few minutes, seven protesters were assaulted, brutally beaten and loaded into cars by KGB operatives. The Czechoslovak flag was broken, and the banners were confiscated. Since Natalya Gorbanevskaya had recently given birth, she was not made to stand trial.

List of Czechs

Czechsfamous CzechsList of Czech photographers
List of Czech Jews. List of people by nationality. List of people on stamps of the Czech Republic (including non-Czech people). Famous Czechs from history. Famous Czechs of the past century.

Jim Holliday

Jim Holliday (1948 – December 15, 2004) was an American pornographic film director, critic, and historian. He was a founder and previously the honorary historian of the X-Rated Critics Organization.

Kingdom of Bohemia

BohemiaBohemianBohemian Crown
The Bohemian Kingdom officially ceased to exist in 1918 by transformation into the Czechoslovak Republic. The current Czech Republic consisting of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia still uses most of the symbols of the Kingdom of Bohemia: a two-tailed lion in its coat-of-arms, red-white strips in the state flag and the royal castle as the president's office. Bohemia was among the first countries in Europe to become industrialized. Mining of tin and silver began in Ore mountains in early 12th century. Bohemia proper (Čechy) with the County of Kladsko (Hrabství kladské) was the main area of the Kingdom of Bohemia.

Slovak language

Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia it has been permitted to use Czech in TV broadcasting and—like any other language of the world—during court proceedings (Administration Procedure Act 99/1963 Zb.).

Marián Hossa

Marian HossaHossa, MarianMarian
Hossa was born in Stará Ľubovňa, Czechoslovakia, to František Hossa, a professional hockey player, and Mária Hossová, a clothing designer. His younger brother by two years, Marcel Hossa, drafted by the Montreal Canadiens in 2000, followed in his footsteps playing for both of Marián's previous junior teams, Dukla Trenčín and the Portland Winter Hawks, while the two have played together for Mora IK of the Elitserien during the 2004–05 NHL lockout and on the Slovak national team in the World Championships and Winter Olympics.

Pavel Nedvěd

Furthermore, Nedvěd helped his team qualify for the FIFA World Cup for the first time since the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Due to his performances, as well as his quick and energetic runs during matches, Nedvěd was nicknamed "Furia Ceca" ("Czech Fury") by Italian fans and "The Czech cannon" in English-language media. His nickname in Czech is Méďa ("Little Bear"), stemming from the similarity between his surname and the Czech word for bear, Medvěd. Winning the Ballon d'Or as European Footballer of the Year in 2003, Nedvěd was the second Czech player to receive the honour and the first since the breakup of Czechoslovakia.

Milan Baroš

In 1998, he made his debut for the club in the Czech First League, the top division of Czech football, becoming a regular over the next few seasons. In 2000, he won the Talent of the Year award at the Czech Footballer of the Year awards. He was described by the Czech News Agency in the 2000–01 season as "perhaps the biggest star of the [Czech] football league". He played his last game for the club on 2 December 2001, in a 1–0 loss at Viktoria Žižkov. During his time in Ostrava, he scored 23 league goals in 76 appearances. Baroš joined Liverpool in 2002 in a transfer worth £3.2 million, although he did not move straight away due to delays in obtaining a work permit for him.

Tomáš Rosický

RosickýTomášT. Rosický
Golden Ball (Czech Republic): 2002. Czech Talent of the Year: 1999. kicker Bundesliga Team of the Season: 2001–02.