Marián Hossa

Marian HossaHossa, MarianMarian
Hossa was born in Stará Ľubovňa, Czechoslovakia, to František Hossa, a professional hockey player, and Mária Hossová, a clothing designer. His younger brother by two years, Marcel Hossa, drafted by the Montreal Canadiens in 2000, followed in his footsteps playing for both of Marián's previous junior teams, Dukla Trenčín and the Portland Winter Hawks, while the two have played together for Mora IK of the Elitserien during the 2004–05 NHL lockout and on the Slovak national team in the World Championships and Winter Olympics.

Slovak language

Standard Slovak in relation to Standard Czech and Common Czech]. In Gladkova, H. and Cvrček, V. (eds.) Sociální aspekty spisovných jazyků slovanských. Praha: Euroslavica, pp. 93–106. Nábělková, M. (2007) Closely related languages in contact: Czech, Slovak, "Czechoslovak". International Journal of the Sociology of Language 183, pp. 53–73. Nábělková, M. (2008) Slovenčina a čeština v kontakte: Pokračovanie príbehu. [Slovak and Czech in Contact: Continuation of the Story]. Bratislava/Praha: Veda/Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy. 364 pp., ISBN: 978-80-224-1060-1.

Pavel Nedvěd

NedvědPavel NedvedNedved
Furthermore, Nedvěd helped his team qualify for the FIFA World Cup for the first time since the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Due to his performances, as well as his quick and energetic runs during matches, Nedvěd was nicknamed "Furia Ceca" ("Czech Fury") by Italian fans and "The Czech cannon" in English-language media. His nickname in Czech is Méďa ("Little Bear"), stemming from the similarity between his surname and the Czech word for bear, Medvěd. Winning the Ballon d'Or as European Footballer of the Year in 2003, Nedvěd was the second Czech player to receive the honour and the first since the breakup of Czechoslovakia.

Milan Baroš

Milan Baroš Official Czech First League statistics. Milan Baroš Official Czech First League statistics. Milan Baroš Official Czech First League statistics. Milan Baroš Official Czech First League statistics. Milan Baroš Official Czech First League statistics.

Tomáš Rosický

RosickýTomášT. Rosický
Golden Ball (Czech Republic): 2002. Czech Talent of the Year: 1999. kicker Bundesliga Team of the Season: 2001–02.

Vladimír Šmicer

ŠmicerVladimir Smicer
He also has one cap for the Representation of Czechs and Slovaks team (the combined team of the Czech Republic and Slovakia after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, as the nations started the 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification as the unified country). Šmicer was part of the Czech Republic squad for Euro 1996. The then 22-year-old midfielder started the country's stunning campaign in England. The Czechs were down 3–2 in a game against Russia and needed to draw in order to qualify for the play-off rounds. Šmicer scored the all important equalizer two minutes before the end of the game.

Jaromír Jágr

Jaromir JagrJagr, JaromirJágr
At age 15, he was playing at the highest level of competition in Czechoslovakia for HC Kladno, and when he was 17, he became the youngest member of the Czechoslovakia national team. As a youth in his native country, he kept a photograph of American president Ronald Reagan in his school gradebook, in detest of the policies of the Soviet Union. Jágr was the first Czechoslovak player to be drafted by the NHL without first having to defect to the West; his selection in the NHL draft came as the Iron Curtain was falling.

Dominik Hašek

Dominik HasekHasekDominic Hasek
Hašek announced his retirement on June 9, 2008, but on April 21, 2009, he announced a comeback to professional hockey and signed a contract with HC Pardubice of the Czech Extraliga. On June 7, 2010, he signed with Spartak Moscow of the KHL and played the last season of his career with this team. Hašek announced his retirement on October 9, 2012. Hašek was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame on November 17, 2014. He is also a member of the Czech Ice Hockey Hall of Fame and the IIHF Hall of Fame. His number was retired by the Sabres and HC Pardubice. Hašek started playing hockey at the age of six in his native Czechoslovakia.

Petr Klíma

Petr KlimaKlima, Petr
It was later revealed that plans to get Klíma out of Czechoslovakia reached back as far as the 1984 World Junior Championships, held in Sweden, when Detroit scout Alex Davidson secretly met with Klíma in December 1983. Klíma told Davidson he would not consider defecting until he had completed his military duty (so as not to be labeled a deserter) in 1985. Less than a year later, at the 1984 Canada Cup, Klíma began talking to the Wings about the possibility of coming to the NHL after the 1984–85 season. During that time, while in Vancouver with the Czechoslovak team, he even signed a secret multiyear contract with the Red Wings.

Marián Gáborík

Marian GaborikGaborik, MarianGáborík, Marián
Marián Gáborík (born 14 February 1982) is a Slovak professional ice hockey right winger currently under contract with the Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League (NHL). He began his playing career in the Slovak Extraliga with Dukla Trenčín for two seasons before being drafted third overall in the 2000 NHL Entry Draft by the Minnesota Wild, becoming the highest drafted Slovak player in NHL history. Spending eight seasons with the Wild before signing with the New York Rangers in 2009, Gáborík is the Wild's all-time leading scorer in goals. He has also played for the Columbus Blue Jackets and Los Angeles Kings.

Pavol Demitra

Demitra, Pavol
Demitra began playing at the senior level with ZŤS Dubnica in Czechoslovakia's second-tier league; he recorded 23 points (13 goals and 10 assists) over 28 games. The following season, Demitra joined HC Dukla Trenčín of the premier Czechoslovak Extraliga in 1992–93, where he scored 11 goals and 28 points in 46 games. After the season, Demitra was drafted by the Ottawa Senators in the ninth round, 227th overall in the 1993 NHL Entry Draft. He came to be considered one of the best draft steals in NHL history. Demitra began the 1993–94 season with the Ottawa Senators, and in his first NHL game on 9 October 1993, Demitra scored on St.

Miroslav Šatan

Miroslav SatanSatan, MiroslavM. Šatan
Prior to his entry into the NHL, he played in the Czechoslovak and Slovak leagues and he had scored nine goals in eight games representing Slovakia at the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. In 1994–95, Šatan played a season in the minor leagues, split between four teams including the Oilers' minor league affiliate, the Cape Breton Oilers, and the International Hockey League's Detroit Vipers. While with the Vipers, he scored the winning goal in an exhibition game against Wayne Gretzky's Ninety-Niners, an all-star team put together by Gretzky during the 1994–95 NHL lockout. After two seasons with the Oilers, Šatan was traded to the Buffalo Sabres in exchange for Craig Millar and Barrie Moore.


Internet Movie DatabaseThe Internet Movie
Internet Adult Film Database. Internet Movie Cars Database (IMCDb). Internet Movie Firearms Database (IMFDb). Internet Broadway Database (IBDb). Internet Off-Broadway Database (IOBDb). Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDb). Internet Theatre Database (ITDb). Letterboxd. List of films considered the best. List of films considered the worst. List of websites founded before 1995. Metacritic. Rotten Tomatoes. The Numbers (website). TheTVDB.

Czech language

Czech influence on Slovak was protested by Slovak scholars, and when Slovakia broke off from Czechoslovakia in 1938 as the Slovak State (which then aligned with Nazi Germany in World War II), literary Slovak was deliberately distanced from Czech. When the Axis powers lost the war and Czechoslovakia reformed, Slovak developed somewhat on its own (with Czech influence); during the Prague Spring of 1968, Slovak gained independence from (and equality with) Czech, due to the transformation of Czechoslovakia from a unitary state to a federation.

Online and offline

In computer technology and telecommunications, online indicates a state of connectivity, and offline indicates a disconnected state. In modern terminology this usually refers to an Internet connection, but (especially when expressed "on line" or "on the line") could refer to any piece of equipment or functional unit that is connected to a larger system. Being online means that the equipment or subsystem is connected, or that it is ready for use.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
The Republic of Czechoslovakia was home to a substantial minority of Germans, who lived mostly in the Sudetenland. Under pressure from separatist groups within the Sudeten German Party, the Czechoslovak government offered economic concessions to the region. Hitler decided not just to incorporate the Sudetenland into the Reich, but to destroy the country of Czechoslovakia entirely. The Nazis undertook a propaganda campaign to try to generate support for an invasion. Top German military leaders opposed the plan, as Germany was not yet ready for war. The crisis led to war preparations by Britain, Czechoslovakia, and France (Czechoslovakia's ally).

Planned economy

command economycentrally planned economyplanned economies
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment, production and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic plans and production plans.


database management systemdatabasesDBMS
A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques.


Council for Mutual Economic AssistanceCMEACouncil for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon)
The Comecon plan, though more profitable for the Soviets, if less resourceful for the Czechs and Slovaks, forced the Czechoslovak government to buy trains "Ečs (81-709)" and "81-71", both of which were designed in early 1950s and were heavy, unreliable and expensive. (Materials available only in Czech Republic and Slovakia, video included) On the other hand, Czechoslovak trams (Tatra T3) and jet trainers (L-29) were the standard for all Comecon countries, including the USSR, and other countries could develop their own designs but only for their own needs, like Poland (respectively, Konstal trams and TS-11 jets).


In Eastern Europe there were widespread protests that escalated particularly in the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia. In response, Soviet Union occupied Czechoslovakia, but the occupation was denounced by the Italian and French communist parties and the Communist Party of Finland. Few western European political leaders defended the occupation, among them the Portuguese communist secretary-general Álvaro Cunhal. along with the Luxembourg party and conservative factions of the Communist Party of Greece.

Carpathian Mountains

CarpathiansCarpathianSłonne Mountain
In modern times, the range is called Karpaty in Czech, Polish and Slovak and Карпати (Karpaty) in Ukrainian, Карпати / Karpati in Serbian, Carpați in Romanian, Karpaten in German, and Kárpátok in Hungarian. Although the toponym was recorded already by Ptolemy in the second century of the Christian era, the modern form of the name is a neologism in most languages. For instance, Havasok ("Snowy Mountains") was its medieval Hungarian name; Russian chronicles referred to it as "Hungarian Mountains".


Danube RiverRiver DanubeDanubian
The International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) is an organization consisting of 14 member states (Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Montenegro and Ukraine) and the European Union. The commission, established in 1998, deals with the whole Danube river basin, which includes tributaries and the groundwater resources.

Democratic republic

republican democracydemocratic republicanrepublic
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy. Rather than being a cross between two entirely separate systems, democratic republics may function on principles shared by both republics and democracies.

Sex industry

adult entertainmentadult industrysex trade
The sex industry (also called the sex trade) consists of businesses that either directly or indirectly provide sex-related products and services or adult entertainment. The industry includes activities involving direct provision of sex-related services, such as prostitution, strip clubs, host and hostess clubs and sex-related pastimes, such as pornography, sex-oriented men's magazines, sex movies, sex toys and fetish and BDSM paraphernalia. Sex channels for television and pre-paid sex movies for video on demand, are part of the sex industry, as are adult movie theaters, sex shops, peep shows, and strip clubs.

Czechoslovak government-in-exile

The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition. The name came to be used by other World War II Allies as they subsequently recognised it. The Committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President, Edvard Beneš in Paris, France, in October 1939. Unsuccessful negotiations with France for diplomatic status, as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France, forced the Committee to withdraw to London in 1940.