Hungarian People's Republic

HungaryCommunist HungaryCommunist regime
Geographically, it bordered Romania and the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian SSR) to the east; Yugoslavia to the southwest; Czechoslovakia to the north and Austria to the west. Following the occupation of Hungary by the Red Army, Soviet military occupation ensued. After seizing most material assets from German hands, the Soviets tried, and to a certain extent managed, to control Hungarian political affairs. Using coercion through force, the Red Army set up police organs to persecute the opposition, assuming this would enable the Soviet Union to seize the upcoming elections, in conjunction with intense communist propaganda to attempt to legitimize their rule.

Film distributor

distributiondistributorfilm distribution
A film distributor is responsible for the marketing of a film. The distribution company is usually different from the production company. Distribution deals are an important part of financing a film.


RomanticRomantic movementromanticist
Nevertheless, the huge popularity of German Romantic music led, "whether by imitation or by reaction", to an often nationalistically inspired vogue amongst Polish, Hungarian, Russian, Czech, and Scandinavian musicians, successful "perhaps more because of its extra-musical traits than for the actual value of musical works by its masters". Although the term "Romanticism" when applied to music has come to imply the period roughly from 1800 until 1850, or else until around 1900, the contemporary application of "romantic" to music did not coincide with this modern interpretation.

František Palacký

PalackýFrantiška Palackého
He sought the establishment of a Czech kingdom that should include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and in his zeal for Czech autonomy he even entered into an alliance with the Conservative nobility and with the extreme Catholics. He attended the Panslavist congress in Moscow in 1867. He died in Prague on 26 May 1876. Palacký is considered as one of the three Fathers of the nation – the first being the King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, the second is František Palacký and the third is President of Czechoslovakia Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. Various individuals like to emphasize one over the other.

Imperial Council (Austria)

Imperial CouncilReichsratHerrenhaus
It not only abolished the last remnants of serfdom in the Austrian lands, but also undertook to draw up a constitution that would reflect the Empire's character of a multinational state, especially in view of the Austroslavic movement led by the Czech politician František Palacký. On 4 March 1849, however, minister-president Felix zu Schwarzenberg took the initiative and imposed the March Constitution, which promised the equality of all Austrian people and also provided for a bicameral "Imperial Diet".

Pornographic film

adult filmadult videopornographic films
Pornographic films, or sex films, are films that present sexually explicit subject matter for the purpose of sexual arousal and erotic satisfaction of the viewer. Pornographic films present sexual fantasies and usually include erotically stimulating material such as nudity and depictions of sexual intercourse. A distinction is sometimes made between "erotic" films and "pornographic" films on the basis that the latter contain more explicit sexuality, and focus more on arousal than storytelling, but the distinction is highly subjective.

Czech Realist Party

Realist Party Realist PartyCzech People's Party
The Czech Realist Party was led by Thomas Masaryk who wanted not only a free, open democracy but also a unified democratic state for Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. He worked alongside Edvard Beneš to establish the goal of a unified state, and would eventually go on to be the first president of Czechoslovakia. The Realist Party wanted equality in the workplace for women, as well as universal suffrage. It sought for the legitimate establishment of democracy as a political power in Czechoslovakia. The Young Czech Party, which eventually merged with the Realist Party, was founded in 1848 and as such it was founded on nationalist ideologies, which continued through in the realist party.

Josef Kaizl

Josef Kaizl (10 June 1854, Volyně – 19 August 1901, Myslkovice) was a well known Czech professor, economist, and politician in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was a member of the Imperial Council, and also Cisleithanian finance minister (1898–1899). Kaizl was leading Czech liberal politician, known for his moderate attitudes and seeking of various means to strengthen autonomous position of Bohemian/Czech lands within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He served as the first Czech economics teacher at the Charles University. His close friends and collaborators were Jan Gebauer and Tomáš Masaryk (who later became the first president of the Czechoslovak Republic).

Czechoslovak Legion

Czech LegionCzechoslovaksCzechoslovak Army
Mohr, Joan McGuire, The Czech and Slovak Legion in Siberia from 1917 to 1922. McFarland, NC 2012. Mueggenberg, Brent, The Czecho-Slovak Struggle for Independence 1914–1920, McFarland, Jefferson, 2014. Unterberger, Betty Miller, The United States, Revolutionary Russia, and the Rise of Czechoslovakia, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 2000. White, John Albert, The Siberian Intervention, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1950. Cestami odboje, memoirs of Czechoslovak Legion soldiers in Russia, France and Italy published in "Pokrok" (Prague) between 1926 and 1929. Czech & Slovak Legion in Siberia. Czechoslovak legions Memorial. Czechoslovak legions. Czechoslovak legions 1914–1920.

Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen

Kingdom of HungaryHungaryLands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Hungary)
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918). This union is sometimes denominated "Archiregnum Hungaricum" ("Arch-Kingdom of Hungary"), pursuant to Medieval Latin terminology. Pursuant to Article 1 of the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, this territory was officially defined as "a state union of Kingdom of Hungary and Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia". The Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen disintegrated after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary.


e-mailelectronic maile-mails
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices. Invented by Ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today is primarily the Internet. Some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages.

Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)

Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-LayeTreaty of Saint-GermainTreaty of St. Germain
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, i.e. the Bohemia and Moravia crownlands (including small adjacent Lower Austrian territories around Feldsberg and Gmünd) formed the core of the newly created state of Czechoslovakia. The Austrian Silesia province upon the Polish–Czechoslovak War of January 1919 was split between Czech Silesia and Polish Cieszyn Silesia incorporated into Silesian Voivodeship. These cessions concerned a large German-speaking population in German Bohemia and Sudetenland. The former Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, made up of the territory the Habsburg Monarchy had annexed in the 1772 First Partition of Poland, fell back to the re-established Polish Republic.


Czechoslovak unionismCzechoslovakCzechoslovak nation
Czechoslovakia 2018, website calling for pro-Czechoslovak referendum. We are all Czechoslovaks song at a popular feast.


According to a 2008 publication from the European Journal of Human Genetics, the Y-DNA haplogroup Haplogroup R1a1a-M17 was found amongst 57% of Hungarian male samples, genetically clustering them with that of their neighboring West Slavic neighbors, the Czechs, Poles, and Slovaks.


JewishJewJewish people
Jews ( ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.

Index card

card indexindex cards3x5 index cards
An index card (or system card in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data. A collection of such cards either serves as, or aids the creation of, an index for expedited lookup of information (such as a library catalog or a back-of-the-book index). This system was invented by Carl Linnaeus, around 1760.


PolishPoleethnic Poles
Polish Czechs. Polish nationality law. Polish New Zealanders. Polish Uruguayan. Polish Venezuelans. Polonization. Sons of Poland. West Slavs. 8 Typically Polish Traits. Polish Americans.


Romanianethnic Romanianethnic Romanians
Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria.


appeasement of Hitlerappeaseappeasement policy
France and Britain advised Czech acceptance of Sudeten autonomy. The Czech government refused and ordered a partial mobilization in expectation of German aggression. Lord Runciman was sent by Chamberlain to mediate in Prague and persuaded the Czech government to grant autonomy. Germany escalated the dispute, the German press carrying stories of alleged Czech atrocities against Sudeten Germans and Hitler ordering 750,000 troops to the German-Czech border. In August, Henlein broke off negotiations with the Czech authorities.

Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Slovak RepublicSlovakiaFirst Slovak Republic
History of Czechoslovakia. History of Czechoslovakia (1918–1938). Slovaks in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938). Slovak Soviet Republic (1919). German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945). Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939–1945). Military history of Carpathian Ruthenia during World War II. Slovenské vzdušné zbrane – World War II Slovak Air Force. History of Czechoslovakia (1945–1948). History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989). Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1989). Slovak Socialist Republic (1969–1990). History of Czechoslovakia (1989–1992). Czech Republic (1993–present). Slovakia (1993–present). Axis History Factbook — Slovakia.