United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK or U.K.) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the northwestern coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the northeastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland.

Operation Barbarossa

German invasion of the Soviet Unioninvasion of the Soviet UnionGerman invasion
The political vacuum left in the eastern half of the continent was filled by the USSR when Stalin secured his territorial prizes of 1944–1945 and firmly placed his Red Army in Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the eastern half of Germany. Stalin's fear of resurgent German power and his distrust of his earstwhile allies contributed to Soviet pan-Slavic initiatives and a subsequent alliance of Slavic states.

Declaration by United Nations

United NationsDeclaration of the United Nationsembryonic United Nations
The twenty-two other original signatories in the next day (2 January 1942) were: the four Dominions of the British Commonwealth (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa); eight European governments-in-exile (Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia); nine countries in The Americas (Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama); and one non-independent government, the British-appointed Government of India. Declaration by United Nations became the basis of the United Nations (UN), which was formalized in the United Nations Charter signed by 50 countries on 26 June 1945.

United Nations

UNU.N.the United Nations
During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia. When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. Although the United States never joined the League, the country did support its economic and social missions through the work of private philanthropies and by sending representatives to committees. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U.S. State Department in 1939. The text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on 29 December 1941, by President Franklin D.

Film director

A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film.

Soviet Empire

Soviet sphere of influenceSoviet imperialismSoviet
Czechoslovakia. East Germany. 🇪🇹 People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. 🇭🇺 Hungary. 🇲🇳 Mongolia. 🇳🇮 Nicaragua (due to the Nicaraguan Revolution). 🇰🇵 North Korea (1945–1972 ; after Chinese intervention in the Korean War in 1950, North Korea remained a Soviet ally, but rather used the Juche ideology to balance Chinese and Soviet influence, pursuing a highly isolationist foreign policy and not joining the Comecon or any other international organization of communist states following the withdrawal of Chinese troops in 1958). 🇵🇱 Poland. 🇷🇴 Romania (former Soviet ally after refusal to invade Czechoslovakia in 1968). South Yemen.

Satellite state

satellitesatellite statessatellites
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1948–1960 and again 1968–1989). The German Democratic Republic (1949–1990). The Hungarian People's Republic (1949–1989). Buffer state. Client state. Vassal state. Puppet state. Neo-colony. Banana republic.

Federal republic

federalunionconstitutional republicanism
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen".


GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Germany also reacquired control of the Saar in 1935, remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939. Kristallnacht, or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30,000 Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany. Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany.

Hungarian People's Republic

HungaryPeople's Republic of HungaryCommunist Hungary
Geographically, it bordered Romania and the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian SSR) to the east; Yugoslavia to the southwest; Czechoslovakia to the north and Austria to the west. Having emasculated most of the other parties, the Communists spent the next year and a half consolidating their hold on power. This culminated in October 1947, when the Communists told their non-Communist coalition partners that they had to cooperate with a reconfigured coalition government if they wanted to stay in the country. In June 1948 the Communists forced the Social Democrats to merge with them to form the Hungarian Working People's Party (MDP).

Film distributor

distributiondistributorfilm distribution
A film distributor is responsible for the marketing of a film. The distribution company is usually different from the production company. Distribution deals are an important part of financing a film.

Polish People's Republic

People's Republic of PolandPolandCommunist Poland
Geographically, the Polish People's Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the North; the Soviet Union (via the Russian (Kaliningrad Oblast), Lithuanian, Byelorussian and Ukrainian SSRs) to the east; Czechoslovakia to the south and East Germany to the west. After World War II, Poland's borders were redrawn, following the decision taken at the Teheran Conference of 1943 at the insistence of the Soviet Union. Poland lost 77,000 km 2 of territory in its eastern regions (Kresy), gaining instead the smaller but much more industrialized (however ruined) so-called "Regained Territories" east of the Oder-Neisse line.

Second Czechoslovak Republic

Czechoslovakiathe remnants of the Czech stateSecond Republic
Most of the non-socialist parties in the Czech Lands. merged into the Party of National Unity, with Beran as leader. The greatly weakened Czechoslovak Republic was forced to grant major concessions to the non-Czechs. Following the Munich Agreement, the Czechoslovak army transferred parts of its units, originally in the Czech lands, to Slovakia, meant to counter the obvious Hungarian attempts to revise the Slovak borders. The Czechoslovak government accepted the Žilina Agreement stipulating the formation of an autonomous Slovak government with all Slovak parties except the Social Democrats on 6 October 1938. Jozef Tiso was nominated as its head.

Pornographic film

adult filmpornographic filmsadult video
Pornographic films (pornos), erotic films, or sex films, are films that present sexually explicit subject matter in order to arouse and satisfy the viewer. Pornographic films present sexual fantasies and usually include erotically stimulating material such as nudity (softcore) and sexual intercourse (hardcore). A distinction is sometimes made between "erotic" and "pornographic" films on the basis that the latter category contains more explicit sexuality, and focuses more on arousal than storytelling, but the distinction is highly subjective.


RomanticRomantic movementRomantic era
Nevertheless, the huge popularity of German Romantic music led, "whether by imitation or by reaction", to an often nationalistically inspired vogue amongst Polish, Hungarian, Russian, Czech, and Scandinavian musicians, successful "perhaps more because of its extra-musical traits than for the actual value of musical works by its masters". Although the term "Romanticism" when applied to music has come to imply the period roughly from 1800 until 1850, or else until around 1900, the contemporary application of "romantic" to music did not coincide with this modern interpretation.


e-mailelectronic maile-mails
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices. Invented by Ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today is primarily the Internet. Some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages.

František Palacký

PalackýFrantiška Palackého
He sought the establishment of a Czech kingdom that should include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and in his zeal for Czech autonomy he even entered into an alliance with the Conservative nobility and with the extreme Catholics. He attended the Panslavist congress in Moscow in 1867. He died in Prague on 26 May 1876. Palacký is considered as one of the three Fathers of the nation – the first being the King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, the second is František Palacký and the third is President of Czechoslovakia Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. Various individuals like to emphasize one over the other.


AustroslavismAustroslavistAustrian Slavism
It was most influential among Czech liberals around the middle of the 19th century. First proposed by Karel Havlíček Borovský in 1846, as an opposition to the concept of pan-Slavism, it was further developed into a complete political program by Czech politician František Palacký. Austroslavism also found some support in other Slavic nations in the Austrian Empire, especially the Poles, Slovenes, Croats and Slovaks. Austro-Slavism envisioned peaceful cooperation between the smaller Slavic nations of Central Europe within the Habsburg Monarchy not dominated by German-speaking elites. Palacký proposed a federation of eight national regions, with significant self-governance.

Imperial Council (Austria)

Imperial CouncilReichsratHerrenhaus
It not only abolished the last remnants of serfdom in the Austrian lands, but also undertook to draw up a constitution that would reflect the Empire's character of a multinational state, especially in view of the Austroslavic movement led by the Czech politician František Palacký. On 4 March 1849, however, minister-president Felix zu Schwarzenberg took the initiative and imposed the March Constitution, which promised the equality of all Austrian people and also provided for a bicameral "Imperial Diet".

Czech Realist Party

Czech Progressive PartyRealist PartyCzech People's Party
The Czech Realist Party was led by Thomas Masaryk who wanted not only a free, open democracy but also a unified democratic state for Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. He worked alongside Edvard Beneš to establish the goal of a unified state, and would eventually go on to be the first president of Czechoslovakia. The Realist Party wanted equality in the workplace for women, as well as universal suffrage. It sought for the legitimate establishment of democracy as a political power in Czechoslovakia. The Young Czech Party, which eventually merged with the Realist Party, was founded in 1848 and as such it was founded on nationalist ideologies, which continued through in the realist party.

File Transfer Protocol

FTPFTP serverFTP client
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

Josef Kaizl

Josef Kaizl (10 June 1854, Volyně – 19 August 1901, Myslkovice) was a well known Czech professor, economist, and politician in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was a member of the Imperial Council, and also Cisleithanian finance minister (1898–1899). Kaizl was leading Czech liberal politician, known for his moderate attitudes and seeking of various means to strengthen autonomous position of Bohemian/Czech lands within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He served as the first Czech economics teacher at the Charles University. His close friends and collaborators were Jan Gebauer and Tomáš Masaryk (who later became the first president of the Czechoslovak Republic).

Allies of World War I

AlliesAlliedAllied Powers
Austria viewed Serbia with hostility partly due to its links with Russia, whose claim to be the protector of South Slavs extended to those within the Austro-Hungarian empire, such as the Czechs and Slovaks. Serbia also potentially gave Russia the ability to achieve their long-held objective of capturing Constantinople and the Dardanelles. Austria backed the Albanian revolt of 1910 and the idea of a Greater Albania, since this would prevent Serbian access to the Austrian-controlled Adriatic Sea.

Index card

card indexindex cards3x5 index cards
An index card (or record card in British English and system card in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data. A collection of such cards either serves as, or aids the creation of, an index for expedited lookup of information (such as a library catalog or a back-of-the-book index). This system was invented by Carl Linnaeus, around 1760.

Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)

Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-LayeTreaty of Saint-GermainTreaty of Saint Germain
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, i.e. the Bohemia and Moravia crownlands (including small adjacent Lower Austrian territories around Feldsberg and Gmünd) formed the core of the newly created state of Czechoslovakia. The Austrian Silesia province upon the Polish–Czechoslovak War of January 1919 was split between Czech Silesia and Polish Cieszyn Silesia incorporated into Silesian Voivodeship. These cessions concerned a large German-speaking population in German Bohemia and Sudetenland. The former Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, made up of the territory the Habsburg Monarchy had annexed in the 1772 First Partition of Poland, fell back to the re-established Polish Republic.