However, centuries of cultural dominance by the Germans left a German mark on those societies; for instance, the first modern grammar of the Czech language by Josef Dobrovský (1753–1829) – Ausführliches Lehrgebäude der böhmischen Sprach (1809) – was published in German because the Czech language was not used in academic scholarship. From the high Middle Ages until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 German had a strong impact on the Slovene language and many Germanisms are preserved in contemporary colloquial Slovene.


Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy (UUCP) dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, and it was established in 1980. Users read and post messages (called articles or posts, and collectively termed news) to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system (BBS) in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are widely used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially. The name comes from the term "users network".


SiberianEastern SiberiaWestern Siberia
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of modern Russia since the 16th and 17th centuries.

Usenet newsgroup

newsgroupnewsgroupsnews group
A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users in different locations using Internet. (Despite the name, newsgroups are discussion groups. They are not devoted to publishing news, although they had been so intended when the internet was young.) Newsgroups are technically distinct from, but functionally similar to, discussion forums on the World Wide Web. Newsreader software is used to read the content of newsgroups.

Resistance movement

freedom fighterresistanceresistance fighter
Czech Resistance movement. Chinese resistance movements. Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army. Anti-Japanese Army for the Salvation of the Country. Chinese People's National Salvation Army. Heilungkiang National Salvation Army. Jilin Self-Defence Army. Northeast Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army. Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army. Northeast People's Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army. Northeastern Loyal and Brave Army. Northeastern People's Revolutionary Army. Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters. Hong Kong resistance movements. Gangjiu dadui (Hong Kong-Kowloon big army). Dongjiang Guerrillas (East River Guerrillas, Southern China and Hong Kong organisation).

World Wide Web

Webthe webweb-based
The World Wide Web, also known as the WWW and the Web, is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and to the general public on the Internet in August 1991.


Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

Ethnic origin

ethnic originsethnicityorigin
The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to commonalities in their social background. For example, somebody living in a monocultural environment, speaking English and clearly a member of an English-speaking cultural milieu, may be descended from immigrants speaking some other language and still participate in some other aspects of their culture.


nom de guerrealiaspseudonyms
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).

Standard Generalized Markup Language

The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents. ISO 8879 Annex A.1 defines generalized markup:-

Democratic Party (Slovakia)

Democratic PartyDSSlovak Democratic Party
Hnutie česko-slovenského porozumenia (Movement of Czech-Slovak comprehension). Zelená liga (The Green League).

Link rot

dead linkdeadbroken links
Link rot (or linkrot) is the process by which hyperlinks on individual websites or the Internet in general point to web pages, servers or other resources that have become permanently unavailable. There is no reliable data on the half-life of a random webpage: the estimates vary dramatically between different studies, as well as between different sets of links on which these studies are based (see the #Prevalence section).


MarxistMarxistsMarxist theory
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.


Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism. Developed by and named for the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, Leninism comprises socialist political and economic theories, developed from Marxism and Lenin's interpretations of Marxist theories, for practical application to the socio-political conditions of the Russian Empire of the early 20th century.

Civil resistance

nonviolent civil resistanceResist !!resistance
For example, in 1991 Václav Havel who had been a leading figure in civil resistance in communist Czechoslovakia from the founding of Charter 77 to the Velvet Revolution of 1989, in his new capacity as President of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic paid tribute to the NATO alliance.

Václav Havel

Vaclav HavelHavelPresident Havel
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003. As a writer of Czech literature, he is known for his plays, essays, and memoirs. His educational opportunities having been limited by his bourgeois background, Havel first rose to prominence as a playwright. In works such as The Garden Party and The Memorandum, Havel used an absurdist style to criticize communism.

Trade fair

trade showtrade showsbook fair
A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or expo) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, meet with industry partners and customers, study activities of rivals, and examine recent market trends and opportunities. In contrast to consumer fairs, only some trade fairs are open to the public, while others can only be attended by company representatives (members of the trade, e.g. professionals) and members of the press, therefore trade shows are classified as either "public" or "trade only".


Structured Query LanguageSQL DatabasesWikibook SQL
SQL ( S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). It is particularly useful in handling structured data where there are relations between different entities/variables of the data. SQL offers two main advantages over older read/write APIs like ISAM or VSAM: first, it introduced the concept of accessing many records with one single command; and second, it eliminates the need to specify how to reach a record, e.g. with or without an index.


A lament or lamentation is a passionate expression of grief, often in music, poetry, or song form. The grief is most often born of regret, or mourning. Laments can also be expressed in a verbal manner, where the participant would lament about something they regret or someone they've lost, usually accompanied by wailing, moaning and/or crying. Laments constitute some of the oldest forms of writing and examples are present across human cultures.