genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Many organisms have been genetically modified for applications in agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. For multicellular organisms, typically the embryo is engineered which grows into the adult genetically modified organism.


Many bacteria can naturally take up DNA from the environment, while others must be chemically altered in order to induce them to take up DNA. The development of competence in nature is usually associated with stressful environmental conditions, and seems to be an adaptation for facilitating repair of DNA damage in recipient cells. The second way bacteria transfer genetic material is by transduction, when the integration of a bacteriophage introduces foreign DNA into the chromosome. Many types of bacteriophage exist, some simply infect and lyse their host bacteria, while others insert into the bacterial chromosome.

Index of genetics articles

List of genetics-related topicsIndex of genetic engineering articlesGenetic engineering topics
Cat coat genetics. cDNA. cDNA library. Cell. Centimorgan. Central dogma of molecular biology. Centromere. Chemical base. Chimeraplasty. Chromomere. Chromosomal crossover. Chromosomal deletion. Chromosome. Chromosome aglet. Chromosome banding. Chromosome painting. Chromosome region p. Chromosome region q. Classical genetics. Cleft lip. Cleft palate. Clinical geneticist. Clone (genetics). Clone bank. Cloned DNA. Cloning. Cloning vector. Coccus. Code. Code dictionary. Coding strand. Codominance. Codon. Codon usage bias aka Codon preference. Cohesive end. Cointegrate. Col plasmid. Colicinogenic factor. Colonoscopy. Colony. Common ancestry. Comparative genomics. Compartment. Competence factor.


plasmidsepisomeplasmid vector
Artificially constructed plasmids may be used as vectors in genetic engineering. These plasmids serve as important tools in genetics and biotechnology labs, where they are commonly used to clone and amplify (make many copies of) or express particular genes. A wide variety of plasmids are commercially available for such uses. The gene to be replicated is normally inserted into a plasmid that typically contains a number of features for their use.

Polymerase chain reaction

PCRPCR amplificationpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Single Specific Primer-PCR (SSP-PCR): allows the amplification of double-stranded DNA even when the sequence information is available at one end only. This method permits amplification of genes for which only a partial sequence information is available, and allows unidirectional genome walking from known into unknown regions of the chromosome.

James Watson

James D. WatsonWatsonJames Dewey Watson
Watson has repeatedly supported genetic screening and genetic engineering in public lectures and interviews, arguing that stupidity is a disease and the "really stupid" bottom 10% of people should be cured. He has also suggested that beauty could be genetically engineered, saying in 2003, "People say it would be terrible if we made all girls pretty. I think it would be great." In 2007, James Watson became the second person to publish his fully sequenced genome online, after it was presented to him on May 31, 2007, by 454 Life Sciences Corporation in collaboration with scientists at the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine.

Outline of genetics

History of genetic engineering. History of genomics. History of paleontology. History of plant systematics. Neanderthal genome project. Timeline of paleontology. Molecules. amino acids. Nucleobase. Adenine. Cytosine. Guanine. Thymine. Uracil. Adenovirus. Antibody. Bacteria. Codon. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Messenger RNA. mRNA. Enzyme. Exon.

Gene expression

They are divided into two groups based on their degree of multiplexity. • AlloMap molecular expression testing • Bookmarking • Expressed sequence tag • Expression Atlas • Expression profiling • Gene structure • Genetic engineeringGenetically modified organism • List of biological databases • List of human genes • Oscillating gene • Paramutation • Protein production • Protein purification • Ribonomics • Ridge • Sequence profiling tool • Transcriptional bursting • Transcriptional noise • Transcript of unknown function * Plant Transcription Factor Database and Plant Transcriptional Regulation Data and Analysis Platform A constitutive gene is a gene that is transcribed continually as opposed to


genomicgenome biologygenomic analysis
Conservationists can use the information gathered by genomic sequencing in order to better evaluate genetic factors key to species conservation, such as the genetic diversity of a population or whether an individual is heterozygous for a recessive inherited genetic disorder.


biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
DNA is found as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. A chromosome is an organized structure consisting of DNA and histones. The set of chromosomes in a cell and any other hereditary information found in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, or other locations is collectively known as a cell's genome. In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is localized in the cell nucleus, or with small amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In prokaryotes, the DNA is held within an irregularly shaped body in the cytoplasm called the nucleoid. The genetic information in a genome is held within genes, and the complete assemblage of this information in an organism is called its genotype.


mutationsgenetic mutationmutated
Large scale changes to the structure of chromosomes called chromosomal rearrangement that can lead to a decrease of fitness but also to speciation in isolated, inbred populations. These include:. Chromosomal translocations: interchange of genetic parts from nonhomologous chromosomes. Chromosomal inversions: reversing the orientation of a chromosomal segment. Non-homologous chromosomal crossover. Interstitial deletions: an intra-chromosomal deletion that removes a segment of DNA from a single chromosome, thereby apposing previously distant genes.


The 20th century has seen a modernization of mycology that has come from advances in biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. The use of DNA sequencing technologies and phylogenetic analysis has provided new insights into fungal relationships and biodiversity, and has challenged traditional morphology-based groupings in fungal taxonomy. [[File:Penicillium labeled cropped.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|right|alt=Monochrome micrograph showing Penicillium hyphae as long, transparent, tube-like structures a few micrometres across.

Cell (biology)

Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Cells use DNA for their long-term information storage. The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence. RNA is used for information transport (e.g., mRNA) and enzymatic functions (e.g., ribosomal RNA). Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are used to add amino acids during protein translation. Prokaryotic genetic material is organized in a simple circular bacterial chromosome in the nucleoid region of the cytoplasm.

Index of biochemistry articles

carrier - genetic code - genetic drift - Genetic engineering - genetic fingerprint - genetic recombination - Genetics - Genome - genomics - genotype - glial fibrillary acidic protein - globin - glucagon - glucagon receptor - glucocorticoid receptor - glucose - glutamate - glutamate receptor - Glutamic acid - Glutamine - Glycerine - Glycine - glycine receptor - glycolipid - Glycolysis - glycoprotein - gonadorelin - gradient - granulocyte colony-stimulating factor - granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor - granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor - granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor - granzyme - growth factor receptor - GTP-binding protein - GTPase - hair

Horizontal gene transfer

lateral gene transferhorizontal transfergene transfer
GMO Safety: Results of research into horizontal gene transfer Can transgenes from genetically modified plants be absorbed by micro-organisms and spread in this way?. GMO Safety: Results of research into horizontal gene transfer Can transgenes from genetically modified plants be absorbed by micro-organisms and spread in this way?. GMO Safety: Results of research into horizontal gene transfer Can transgenes from genetically modified plants be absorbed by micro-organisms and spread in this way?.

Recombinant DNA

recombinantrecombinant proteingene splicing
One is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA within a living cell, while PCR replicates DNA in the test tube, free of living cells. The other difference is that cloning involves cutting and pasting DNA sequences, while PCR amplifies by copying an existing sequence. Formation of recombinant DNA requires a cloning vector, a DNA molecule that replicates within a living cell.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
Diagnosis and treatment of genetic disorders are usually performed by a geneticist-physician trained in clinical/medical genetics. The results of the Human Genome Project are likely to provide increased availability of genetic testing for gene-related disorders, and eventually improved treatment. Parents can be screened for hereditary conditions and counselled on the consequences, the probability it will be inherited, and how to avoid or ameliorate it in their offspring. As noted above, there are many different kinds of DNA sequence variation, ranging from complete extra or missing chromosomes down to single nucleotide changes.


organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Nucleic acids (specifically deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA) store genetic data as a sequence of nucleotides. The particular sequence of the four different types of nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) dictate many characteristics that constitute the organism. The sequence is divided up into codons, each of which is a particular sequence of three nucleotides and corresponds to a particular amino acid. Thus a sequence of DNA codes for a particular protein that, due to the chemical properties of the amino acids it is made from, folds in a particular manner and so performs a particular function.


genomesgenetic materialgenomic
The protagonist of the film is an In-Valid who works to defy the supposed genetic odds and achieve his dream of working as a space navigator. The film warns against a future where genomic information fuels prejudice and extreme class differences between those who can and can't afford genetically engineered children. * Bacterial genome size. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Genome Browser. Genome Compiler. Genome topology. Genome-wide association study. List of sequenced animal genomes. List of sequenced archaeal genomes. List of sequenced bacterial genomes. List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. List of sequenced fungi genomes. List of sequenced plant genomes.

Francis Crick

CrickFrancis Harry Compton CrickFrancis H.C. Crick
However, some people (such as fellow researcher and colleague Esther Lederberg) thought that Crick was unduly optimistic It was clear that some macromolecule such as a protein was likely to be the genetic molecule. However, it was well known that proteins are structural and functional macromolecules, some of which carry out enzymatic reactions of cells. In the 1940s, some evidence had been found pointing to another macromolecule, DNA, the other major component of chromosomes, as a candidate genetic molecule.


Genetic changes can occur at different levels and by different mechanisms. The gain or loss of an entire chromosome can occur through errors in mitosis. More common are mutations, which are changes in the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA. Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location.

Molecular genetics

molecular geneticmolecularmolecular geneticist
The size of the DNA fragments that can be transferred is very limited, and often the transferred gene is not a conventional gene. Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic material from one cell to another that is not its offspring. Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. * NCBI: Bacteriophage. Complementation (genetics). Differential Susceptibility. DNA damage (naturally occurring). DNA damage theory of aging. DNA repair. DNA repair-deficiency disorder. DNA replication. Epigenetics. Gene mapping. Genetic code. Genetic recombination. Genomic imprinting. History of genetics.

Restriction enzyme

restriction enzymesrestriction endonucleaserestriction endonucleases
The mirror-like palindrome is similar to those found in ordinary text, in which a sequence reads the same forward and backward on a single strand of DNA, as in GTAATG. The inverted repeat palindrome is also a sequence that reads the same forward and backward, but the forward and backward sequences are found in complementary DNA strands (i.e., of double-stranded DNA), as in GTATAC (GTATAC being complementary to CATATG). Inverted repeat palindromes are more common and have greater biological importance than mirror-like palindromes.


proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein. The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid, for example AUG (adenine-uracil-guanine) is the code for methionine. Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons is 64; hence, there is some redundancy in the genetic code, with some amino acids specified by more than one codon. Genes encoded in DNA are first transcribed into pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase.


An example of random variation in Drosophila flies is the number of ommatidia, which may vary (randomly) between left and right eyes in a single individual as much as they do between different genotypes overall, or between clones raised in different environments. The concept of phenotype can be extended to variations below the level of the gene that affect an organism's fitness. For example, silent mutations that do not change the corresponding amino acid sequence of a gene may change the frequency of guanine-cytosine base pairs (GC content).