Peabody Education Fund

PeabodyPeabody education fundsPeabody Educational Board
The Southern Education Foundation, a not-for-profit foundation, was created in 1937 from the Peabody Education Fund and three funds intended to support education for blacks: the John F. Slater Fund, the Negro Rural School Fund, and the Virginia Randolph Fund. L. P. Ayres, Seven Great Foundations (New York, 1911). Orr, D. (1950). A History of Education in Georgia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Russell Trust Association

The Russell Trust Association is the business name for the New Haven, Connecticut-based Skull and Bones society, incorporated in 1856. The Russell Trust was incorporated by William Huntington Russell as its president, and Daniel Coit Gilman as its first treasurer. Gilman later went on to become president of the University of California at Berkeley and Johns Hopkins University before leaving to become the first president of the Carnegie Foundation. Gilman also served as one of the first board members of the Russell Sage Foundation.

James H. Dillard

James Hardy Dillard
He left Tulane to become director of the Negro Rural School Fund (Jeanes Fund), following the death of founder Anna T. Jeanes in 1907, leading it until 1931. In 1910, he became director of the Slater Fund, leading it for seven years. These two philanthropic foundations supported vocational training for blacks and training institutes for black teachers. Dillard was named vice president of the Phelps Stokes Fund in 1925. Dillard University was formed in 1930 following the merger of New Orleans University and Straight College, two institutions where Dillard was a trustee, and the university was named in his honor.

Southern Education Foundation

Southern Education Fund
The Southern Education Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation created in 1937 from four different funds — the Peabody Education Fund, the John F. Slater Fund, the Negro Rural School Fund, and the Virginia Randolph Fund. Their main goal is to promote quality education for traditionally disadvantaged students, including the poor and African Americans. SEF provides research, policy analysis and programming in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. Kent McGuire is the current president.

Virginia Randolph

Virginia Estelle RandolphVirginia Randolph FundVirginia E. Randolph
The Southern Education Foundation, a not-for-profit foundation, was created in 1937 from four funds intended to support education for blacks: the Peabody Education Fund, the John F. Slater Fund, the Negro Rural School Fund, and the Virginia Randolph Fund. The Virginia Randolph Home Economics Cottage was made into a museum in memory of Randolph in 1970. The Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission designated the museum a State Historic Landmark. In 1976 the museum was named a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of Interior, National Park Service. Randolph reportedly had an office in the building. Her gravesite is on the grounds.

William Howard Taft

William H. TaftTaftWilliam Taft
Taft attended Yale and, like his father, was a member of Skull and Bones. After becoming a lawyer, Taft was appointed a judge while still in his twenties. He continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1901, President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War, and he became Roosevelt's hand-picked successor. Despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important.

Morrison Waite

Morrison R. WaiteChief Justice WaiteMorrison Remick Waite
List of Skull and Bones Members. Supreme Court Historical Society:. Morrison R. Waite, 1874-1888. The Waite Court, 1874–1888. Morrison R. Waite Biography, official Supreme Court media, Oyez.

Yale University

YaleYale CollegeUniversity of Yale
Robbins, Alexandra, Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power, Little Brown & Co., 2002; ISBN: 0-316-73561-2 (paper edition). Millegan, Kris (ed.), Fleshing Out Skull & Bones, TrineDay, 2003. ISBN: 0-9752906-0-6 (paper edition). Yale Athletics website. Yale Athletics website.

Andrew Dickson White

Andrew D. WhiteAndrew WhiteA. D. White
At Yale, White was a classmate of Daniel Coit Gilman, who would later serve as the first president of Johns Hopkins University. The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society and would remain close friends. They traveled together in Europe after graduation and served together on the Venezuela Boundary Commission (1895–1896). His roommate was Thomas Frederick Davies, Sr., who later became the third bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Michigan, 1889–1905. Other members of White's graduating year included Edmund Clarence Stedman, the poet and essayist; Wayne MacVeagh, Attorney General of the United States and U.S.

John Fox Slater

Among the original trustees of the Slater Fund were Rutherford B Hayes, Morrison R Waite, William E Dodge, Phillips Brooks, Daniel Coit Gilman, Morris Ketchum Jesup and the donor's son, William A. Slater; and among members chosen later were Melville W Fuller, William E Dodge, Jr, Henry Codman Potter, Cleveland H Dodge and Seth Low. In 1909 by careful investment the fund had increased, in spite of expenditures, to more than $1,500,000.

Linonian Society

LinoniaLinonia and Brothers LibraryLinonian literary society
Daniel Coit Gilman - Class of 1852 - Founder of the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, and who subsequently served as one of the earliest presidents of the University of California, the first president of Johns Hopkins University, and as founding president of the Carnegie Institution. He was also co-founder of the Russell Trust Association, which administers the business affairs of Yale's Skull and Bones society. Chauncey Mitchell Depew - Class of 1856 - The attorney for Cornelius Vanderbilt's railroad interests, president of the New York Central Railroad System, and a United States Senator from New York from 1899 to 1911.

African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-Americanblack
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The phrase generally refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.

New Haven, Connecticut

New HavenNew Haven, CTFoote School
New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010.

American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil WarUnited States Civil War
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy). The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution.

Southern United States

SouthSouthernAmerican South
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the Western United States, with the Midwestern United States and Northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.

Phi Beta Kappa

Phi Beta Kappa SocietyPhi Beta Kappa Honor SocietyPhi Beta Kappa key
The Phi Beta Kappa Society is the oldest academic honor society in the United States, and is often described as its most prestigious honor society, due to its long history and academic selectivity. Phi Beta Kappa aims to promote and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences, and to induct the most outstanding students of arts and sciences at American colleges and universities. It was founded at the College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776 as the first collegiate Greek-letter fraternity and was among the earliest collegiate fraternal societies.

Hampton University

Hampton InstituteHamptonHampton Normal and Agricultural Institute
Hampton University is a private historically black university in Hampton, Virginia. It was founded in 1868 by black and white leaders of the American Missionary Association after the American Civil War to provide education to freedmen. It is home to the Hampton University Museum, which is the oldest museum of the African diaspora in the United States, and the oldest museum in the commonwealth of Virginia. In 1878, it established a program for teaching Native Americans that lasted until 1923.

Booker T. Washington

Booker T WashingtonList of books written by Booker T. WashingtonBooker Taliaferro Washington
The latter donated large sums of money to agencies such as the Jeanes and Slater Funds. As a result, countless small rural schools were established through Washington's efforts, under programs that continued many years after his death. Along with rich white men, the black communities helped their communities directly by donating time, money, and labor to schools to match the funds required. A representative case of an exceptional relationship was Washington's friendship with millionaire industrialist and financier Henry H. Rogers (1840–1909).

Education in Germany

Education in Germany is primarily the responsibility of individual German states (Länder), with the federal government playing a minor role. Optional Kindergarten (nursery school) education is provided for all children between one and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory. The system varies throughout Germany because each state (Land) decides its own educational policies. Most children, however, first attend Grundschule (literally meaning 'Ground School') for 4 years from the age of 6 to 9.

Andrew Carnegie

CarnegieCarnegiesCarnegie family
Andrew Carnegie (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist. Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and became one of the richest Americans in history. He became a leading philanthropist in the United States and in the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away $350 million (conservatively $65 billion in 2019 dollars, based on percentage of GDP) to charities, foundations, and universities – almost 90 percent of his fortune.

Alpha Delta Phi

ΑΔΦAlpha DeltaAlpha Delta Phi Fraternity
At Yale University, it was mostly brothers of Alpha Delta Phi who were invited to join the university's top-ranked senior society Skull and Bones. Students at Harvard formed a chapter of Alpha Delta Phi but disaffiliated to form the independent final club, the A.D. In 1877, the Cornell University chapter's alumni group built its first house for the undergraduates, which has been described as the "first house in America built solely for fraternity use." The chapter has since moved to a different location on campus - into a house designed by John Russell Pope - but the original chapter house, designed and built by William Henry Miller, still stands.

Yale College

YaleYale Universitycolleges
In 1832, a rift over Phi Beta Kappa inductions between the college's two debating societies, Linonia and Brothers in Unity, caused seniors established the first secret society at the university, Skull and Bones. Skull and Bones "tapped" select juniors for membership as seniors, a ritual later adopted by all undergraduate senior societies. Since then, senior societies have proliferated at Yale, with recent estimates of 41 existing societies and senior class membership ranging from ten to fifty percent of each class. Although once carefully guarded, the "secrecy" of these senior societies is dubious; their existence is widely known and membership rolls for most are published yearly.

W. E. B. Du Bois

W.E.B. Du BoisW.E.B. DuBoisW. E. B. DuBois
In 1892, Du Bois received a fellowship from the John F. Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen to attend the University of Berlin for graduate work. While a student in Berlin, he traveled extensively throughout Europe. He came of age intellectually in the German capital while studying with some of that nation's most prominent social scientists, including Gustav von Schmoller, Adolph Wagner, and Heinrich von Treitschke. He wrote about his time in Germany: "I found myself on the outside of the American world, looking in. With me were white folk – students, acquaintances, teachers – who viewed the scene with me.

List of Skull and Bones members

Fleshing Out Skull and Bones: Investigations into America's Most Powerful Secret Society. Walterville, OR: Trine Day, 2003. ISBN: 0-9720207-2-1. Sutton, Antony C. America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones. Walterville, OR: Trine Day, 2003. ISBN: 0-9720207-0-5.

Thomas Anthony Thacher

Thomas and Elizabeth Thacher
He was on the committee for building the Yale Art School, serving with President Noah Porter and Professor Daniel Coit Gilman. Thacher was identified with Yale College more closely than any of his contemporaries. President Timothy Dwight V said of him, "His influence with the Faculty and the Corporation equaled or even surpassed that of any other College officer." This extraordinary position was due not primarily to his scholarship, although he had the reputation of being a sound and thorough scholar, but to his keen interest and constant activity in the management of college affairs both faculty and undergraduate.