Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
There has also been concern that the DSM, as well as the field of descriptive psychiatry that employs it, tends to reify abstract phenomena such as depression, which may in fact be social constructs. American archetypal psychologist James Hillman writes that depression can be healthy for the soul, insofar as "it brings refuge, limitation, focus, gravity, weight, and humble powerlessness." Hillman argues that therapeutic attempts to eliminate depression echo the Christian theme of resurrection, but have the unfortunate effect of demonizing a soulful state of being.


cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
The branch of psychology that studies brain injury to infer normal cognitive function is called cognitive neuropsychology. The links of cognition to evolutionary demands are studied through the investigation of animal cognition. For years, sociologists and psychologists have conducted studies on cognitive development or the construction of human thought or mental processes. Jean Piaget was one of the most important and influential people in the field of Developmental Psychology. He believed that humans are unique in comparison to animals because we have the capacity to do "abstract symbolic reasoning".


emotionsemotionalemotional state
George Mandler (born 1924) – American psychologist who wrote influential books on cognition and emotion. Konstantinos V. Petrides – Greek-British psychologist who specializes in emotion, personality, psychometrics, and philosophy of mind. Professor of Psychology and Psychometrics at University College London. Jesse Prinz – American philosopher who specializes in emotion, moral psychology, aesthetics and consciousness. James A.

LGBT rights in Canada

CanadaGay rights in CanadaLGBT rights
Furthermore, underlining that aversive therapies (or "conversion therapies") are inappropriate, unethical, and inhumane, the Order has advised the members of the profession in Quebec that psychotherapy, due to legal considerations, is all-indicated for the purpose of treating depression or anxiety, to relieve distress, to support self-esteem, and to help people to cope with the difficulties they may encounter and thus, to ensure their well-being, regardless of sexual orientation.


Urdu languageUrdu:Hindi
Aab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation]. Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259). Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN: 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course). Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN: 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN: 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN: 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course). Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960.


Narcissistic supply is a concept introduced into psychoanalytic theory by Otto Fenichel in 1938, to describe a type of admiration, interpersonal support or sustenance drawn by an individual from his or her environment and essential to their self-esteem. The term is typically used in a negative sense, describing a pathological or excessive need for attention or admiration in codependents and the orally fixated, that does not take into account the feelings, opinions or preferences of other people. Narcissistic rage is a reaction to narcissistic injury, which is a perceived threat to a narcissist's self-esteem or self-worth.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Controversy has often surrounded psychiatry, and the term anti-psychiatry was coined by psychiatrist David Cooper in 1967. The anti-psychiatry message is that psychiatric treatments are ultimately more damaging than helpful to patients, and psychiatry's history involves what may now be seen as dangerous treatments. Electroconvulsive therapy was one of these, which was used widely between the 1930s and 1960s. Lobotomy was another practice that was ultimately seen as too invasive and brutal. Diazepam and other sedatives were sometimes over-prescribed, which led to an epidemic of dependence. There was also concern about the large increase in prescribing psychiatric drugs for children.


abusiveabuse of officemaltreatment
Political abuse of psychiatry Psychiatry, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 22–25. Bonnie, Richard J. Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union and in China: Complexities and Controversies J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 30:136–44, 2002. Zwi, AB. The political abuse of medicine and the challenge of opposing it. Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):649-57. Physical abuse: hitting, beating, or other unauthorised corporal punishment. Psychological abuse: taunting, sleep deprivation, or other forms of psychological abuse, occasionally white noise. Sexual abuse: forced intercourse, genital mutilation, or other forms of sexual abuse. Other abuse: refusal of essential medication, humiliation, etc.


neuroticneuroticallyadult neurotic
These buffers consist of 1) Cultural worldviews that impart life with a sense of enduring meaning, such as social continuity beyond one's death, future legacy and afterlife beliefs, and 2) A sense of personal value, or the self-esteem in the cultural worldview context, an enduring sense of meaning.


Canadian psychologist Robert D. Hare later repopularized the construct of psychopathy in criminology with his Psychopathy Checklist. Although no psychiatric or psychological organization has sanctioned a diagnosis titled "psychopathy", assessments of psychopathic characteristics are widely used in criminal justice settings in some nations and may have important consequences for individuals. The study of psychopathy is an active field of research, and the term is also used by the general public, popular press, and in fictional portrayals.

List of Urdu-language poets

List of Urdu language poetsList of Urdu poetsUrdu poets
List of Urdu language writers.

Hate crime

hate crimesracially motivatedhate-crime
Impact on the individual victim: psychological and affective disturbances; repercussions on the victim's identity and self-esteem; both reinforced by a specific hate crime's degree of violence, which is usually stronger than that of a common crime. Effect on the targeted group: generalized terror in the group to which the victim belongs, inspiring feelings of vulnerability among its other members, who could be the next hate crime victims.

Bullying in medicine

The farewell interview from Sir Ian Kennedy (Chair of the Healthcare Commission) caused significant media interest following his statement that bullying is a 'corrosive' problem that the NHS must address. Psychiatric trainees experience rates of bullying at least as high as other medical students. In a survey of psychiatric trainees in the West Midlands, 47% had experienced bullying within the last year with even higher percentages amongst ethnic minorities and females. Qualified psychiatrists are not themselves required to be psychiatrically assessed. There have been quite a few proven cases of doctors bullying and/or sexually harassing patients and nurses.

Outline of domestic violence

Domestic Violence Documentaries
Mental illness – psychological or behavioral pattern generally associated with subjective distress or disability that occurs in an individual, and which is not a part of normal development or culture. Such a disorder may consist of a combination of affective, behavioral, cognitive and perceptual components. Battered person syndrome – physical and psychological condition victims of domestic abuse, which may be manifested as a type of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), from an ongoing Cycle of abuse. Self-harm – intentional, direct injuring of body tissue most often done without suicidal intentions. Suicide, – act of intentionally causing one's own death.


Pinocchio Syndrome
They have low self-esteem due to feeling incompetent in social situations. When people are talking and laughing, they feel their body getting tense, which then makes their movements appear wooden and stiff rather than being relaxed and natural. They think they are not a lively person, are not spontaneous, and do not experience many joyful moments in their daily life. They worry that they look ridiculous to others. Führ, M., Proyer, R. T., & Ruch, W. (2009). Assessing the fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia): First evaluation of the Danish GELOPH. Nordic Psychology, 61(2), 62-73. Forabosco, G., Dore, M., Ruch, W., & Proyer, R. T. (2009). Psicopatologia della paura di essere deriso.

Suicidal ideation

suicidal thoughtssuicide ideationsuicidal tendencies
Some symptoms or co-morbid conditions may include unintentional weight loss, feeling helpless, feeling alone, excessive fatigue, low self-esteem, presence of consistent mania, excessively talkative, intent on previously dormant goals, feel like one's mind is racing. The onset of symptoms like these with an inability to get rid of or cope with their effects, a possible form of psychological inflexibility, is one possible trait associated with suicidal ideation. They may also cause psychological distress, which is another symptom associated with suicidal ideation.

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
Paul Stepansky, while noting that psychoanalysis remains influential in the humanities, records the "vanishingly small number of psychiatric residents who choose to pursue psychoanalytic training" and the "nonanalytic backgrounds of psychiatric chairpersons at major universities" among the evidence he cites for his conclusion that "Such historical trends attest to the marginalisation of psychoanalysis within American psychiatry." Nonetheless Freud was ranked as the third most cited psychologist of the 20th century, according to a Review of General Psychology survey of American psychologists and psychology texts, published in 2002.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

hierarchy of needsbasic needsself-actualization
Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy. People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can distract the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem. Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others.

Humanistic psychology

humanistichumanistic psychologisthumanistic social work
The humanistic psychology perspective is summarized by five core principles or postulates of humanistic psychology first articulated in an article written by James Bugental in 1964 and adapted by Tom Greening, psychologist and long-time editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology. The five basic principles of humanistic psychology are: While humanistic psychology is a specific division within the American Psychological Association (Division 32), humanistic psychology is not so much a discipline within psychology as a perspective on the human condition that informs psychological research and practice.

Roy Baumeister

Roy F. BaumeisterBaumeisterBaumeister, Roy F.
Baumeister (born May 16, 1953) is a social psychologist who is known for his work on the self, social rejection, belongingness, sexuality and sex differences, self-control, self-esteem, self-defeating behaviors, motivation, aggression, consciousness, and free will. Baumeister earned his A.B. from Princeton University and his M.A. from Duke University. He returned to Princeton University with his mentor Edward E. Jones and earned his Ph.D. from the university's Department of Psychology in 1978. Baumeister then taught at Case Western Reserve University from 1979 to 2003, serving as a professor of psychology and later liberal arts.

William James

JamesJames, WilliamWilliam
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 27, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James is considered to be a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential philosophers of the United States, and the "Father of American psychology". Along with Charles Sanders Peirce, James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology analysis, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century.


Psychoanalysis continues to be practiced by psychiatrists, social workers, and other mental health professionals; however, its practice has declined. In 2015 Bradley Peterson, a psychoanalyst, child psychiatrist and the director of the Institute for the Developing Mind at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, said, "I think most people would agree that psychoanalysis as a form of treatment is on its last legs". However psychoanalytic approaches continue to be listed by the UK NHS as possibly helpful for depression.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
Personality Disorders information leaflet from The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends CBT in the treatment plans for a number of mental health difficulties, including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, and clinical depression. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown as an effective treatment for clinical depression. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines (April 2000) indicated that, among psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy had the best-documented efficacy for treatment of major depressive disorder. One etiological theory of depression is Aaron T.


self imageself-representationself
Self-esteem. Self (psychology). Self-schema. Style of life.