Count noun

countablecountcountable noun
In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc. A mass noun has none of these properties, because it cannot be modified by a numeral, cannot occur in plural, and cannot co-occur with quantificational determiners.

Propositional calculus

propositional logicpropositionalsentential logic
Informally such a truth assignment can be understood as the description of a possible state of affairs (or possible world) where certain statements are true and others are not. The semantics of formulas can then be formalized by defining for which "state of affairs" they are considered to be true, which is what is done by the following definition.

Decision problem

undecidabledecision problemsdecision procedure
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a problem that can be posed as a yes-no question of the input values. An example of a decision problem is deciding whether a given natural number is prime. Another is the problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?". The answer is either 'yes' or 'no' depending upon the values of x and y. A method for solving a decision problem, given in the form of an algorithm, is called a decision procedure for that problem. A decision procedure for the decision problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?" would give the steps for determining whether x evenly divides y.

Observation

observerobservationsobserved
passage of time, impressions stored in the consciousness about many, together with the resulting relationships and consequences, permit the individual to build a construct about the moral implications of behavior. 1) Ask a question about a natural phenomenon. 2) Make observations of the phenomenon. 3) Formulate a hypothesis that tentatively answers the question. 4) Predict logical, observable consequences of the hypothesis that have not yet been investigated. 5) Test the hypothesis' predictions by an experiment, observational study, field study, or simulation. 6) Draw a conclusion from data gathered in the experiment, or revise the hypothesis or form a new one and repeat the process. 7) Write a descriptive

Higher education

post-secondarypost-secondary educationhigher learning
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education.

Information

informativeinputinputs
Information is the resolution of uncertainty; it is that which answers the question of "what an entity is" and is thus that which specifies the nature of that entity, as well as the essentiality of its properties. Information is associated with data and knowledge, as data is meaningful information and represents the values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of an abstract or concrete concept.

Mass noun

uncountable nounmass nounsuncountable
In more formal terms (Krifka 1998): which may be read as: X is cumulative if there exists at least one pair x,y, where x and y are distinct, and both have the property X, and if for all possible pairs x and y fitting that description, X is a property of the sum of x and y. Consider, for example cutlery: If one collection of cutlery is combined with another, we still have "cutlery." Similarly, if water is added to water, we still have "water." But if a chair is added to another, we don't have "a chair," but rather two chairs. Thus the nouns "cutlery" and "water" have cumulative reference, while the expression "a chair" does not.

Health informatics

medical informaticsbiomedical informaticshealth information
Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information. It is a multidisciplinary field that uses health information technology (HIT) to improve health care via any combination of higher quality, higher efficiency (spurring lower cost and thus greater availability), and new opportunities. The disciplines involved include information science, computer science, social science, behavioral science, management science, and others.

Course (education)

coursecourseselectives
In higher education in Canada, Nigeria and the United States, a course is a unit of teaching that typically lasts one academic term, is led by one or more instructors (teachers or professors), and has a fixed roster of students. A course is usually an individual subject. Students may receive a grade and academic credit after completion of the course.

Sample (statistics)

samplesamplesstatistical sample
In statistics and quantitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of data collected and the world selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure. The elements of a sample are known as sample points, sampling units or observations.

Expressive power (computer science)

expressive powerexpressiveexpressiveness
It may mean a measure of the ideas expressible in that language: The first sense dominates in areas of mathematics and logic that deal with the formal description of languages and their meaning, such as formal language theory, mathematical logic and process algebra. In informal discussions, the term often refers to the second sense, or to both. This is often the case when discussing programming languages. Efforts have been made to formalize these informal uses of the term.

Statistical population

populationsubpopulationsubpopulations
Descriptive statistics may yield different results for different subpopulations. For instance, a particular medicine may have different effects on different subpopulations, and these effects may be obscured or dismissed if such special subpopulations are not identified and examined in isolation. Similarly, one can often estimate parameters more accurately if one separates out subpopulations: the distribution of heights among people is better modeled by considering men and women as separate subpopulations, for instance. Populations consisting of subpopulations can be modeled by mixture models, which combine the distributions within subpopulations into an overall population distribution.

Uniqueness quantification

uniqueuniquenessone and only one
In mathematics and logic, the phrase "there is one and only one" is used to indicate that exactly one object with a certain property exists. In mathematical logic, this sort of quantification is known as uniqueness quantification or unique existential quantification.

Counting quantification

counting quantifiercounting quantifiers
A counting quantifier is a mathematical term for a quantifier of the form "there exists at least k elements that satisfy property X".In first-order logic with equality, counting quantifiers can be defined in terms of ordinary quantifiers, so in this context they are a notational shorthand. However, they are interesting in the context of logics such as two-variable logic with counting that restrict the number of variables in formulas. Also, generalized counting quantifiers that say "there exists infinitely many" are not expressible using a finite number of formulas in first-order logic.

Probability theory

theory of probabilityprobabilityprobability theorist
Methods of probability theory also apply to descriptions of complex systems given only partial knowledge of their state, as in statistical mechanics. A great discovery of twentieth-century physics was the probabilistic nature of physical phenomena at atomic scales, described in quantum mechanics. The mathematical theory of probability has its roots in attempts to analyze games of chance by Gerolamo Cardano in the sixteenth century, and by Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal in the seventeenth century (for example the "problem of points").

Semantic network

semantic networkssemantic netnetwork
It was used for creating a general summarization method. The self-organised Semantic Link Network was integrated with a multi-dimensional category space to form a semantic space to support advanced applications with multi-dimensional abstractions and self-organised semantic links It has been verified that Semantic Link Network play an important role in understanding and representation through text summarisation applications. More specialized forms of semantic networks has been created for specific use.

College

collegescollegiatePublic
Thus no less than six of South Africa's Elite Seven high schools call themselves "college" and fit this description. A typical example of this category would be St John's College. Private schools that specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on examination needs are informally called "cram-colleges". In Sri Lanka the word "college" (known as Vidyalaya in Sinhala) normally refers to a secondary school, which usually signifies above the 5th standard. During the British colonial period a limited number of exclusive secondary schools were established based on English public school model (Royal College Colombo, S.

KL-ONE

In KL-ONE descriptions are separated into two basic classes of concepts: primitive and defined. Primitives are domain concepts that are not fully defined. This means that given all the properties of a concept, this is not sufficient to classify it. They may also be viewed as incomplete definitions. Using the same view, defined concepts are complete definitions. Given the properties of a concept, these are necessary and sufficient conditions to classify the concept. The slot-concept is called roles and the values of the roles are role-fillers. There are several different types of roles to be used in different situations.

Analysis of variance

ANOVAanalysis of variance (ANOVA)corrected the means
Many statisticians base ANOVA on the design of the experiment, especially on the protocol that specifies the random assignment of treatments to subjects; the protocol's description of the assignment mechanism should include a specification of the structure of the treatments and of any blocking. It is also common to apply ANOVA to observational data using an appropriate statistical model. Some popular designs use the following types of ANOVA: Balanced experiments (those with an equal sample size for each treatment) are relatively easy to interpret; Unbalanced experiments offer more complexity.

Sample size determination

meadsample sizeSampling sizes
Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample. The sample size is an important feature of any empirical study in which the goal is to make inferences about a population from a sample. In practice, the sample size used in a study is determined based on the expense of data collection, and the need to have sufficient statistical power. In complicated studies there may be several different sample sizes involved in the study: for example, in a stratified survey there would be different sample sizes for each stratum.

Abstract machine

abstract computerabstract computer modelcomputational models
An abstract machine, also called an abstract computer, is a theoretical model of a computer hardware or software system used in automata theory. Abstraction of computing processes is used in both the computer science and computer engineering disciplines and usually assumes a discrete time paradigm.

LOOM (ontology)

LOOMLOOM languagepowerloom
Loom is a knowledge representation language developed by researchers in the artificial intelligence research group at the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute. The leader of the Loom project and primary architect for Loom was Robert MacGregor. The research was primarily sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).